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Topics about reaction kineticsRate of reactionOrder of reactionHalf-lifeReaction progressActivation energyReaction mechanism

Example 13.1 Expressing Reaction RatesSOLUTION(a) Use Equation 13.5 to calculate the average rate of the reaction.

(b) Use Equation 13.5 again to determine the relationship between the rate of the reaction and [H+]/t. After solving for [H+]/t, substitute the calculated rate from part (a) and calculate [H+]/t.

Example 13.1 Expressing Reaction RatesContinuedFor Practice 13.1

Thermodynamics of kinetics

SORT You are given the rate constant of a first-order reaction and the initial concentration of the reactant. You are asked to find the concentration at 865 seconds.

STRATEGIZE Use the first-order integrated rate law to determine the information you are asked to find from the given information.

SOLVE Substitute the rate constant, the initial concentration, and the time into the integrated rate law. Solve the integrated rate law for the concentration of [SOCl2]t.In Example 13.3, we learned that the decomposition of SO2Cl2 (under the given reaction conditions) is first order and has a rate constant of +2.90 104 s1. If the reaction is carried out at the same temperature, and the initial concentration of SO2Cl2 is 0.0225 M, what is the SO2Cl2 concentration after 865 s?Example 13.4 The First-Order Integrated Rate Law: Determining the Concentration of a Reactant at a Given TimeSOLUTIONGIVEN k = +2.90 104 s1 [SO2Cl2]0 = 0.0225 MFIND [SO2Cl2] at t = 865 s

EQUATION ln [A]t = kt + ln [A]0

SOLUTION

CHECKThe concentration is smaller than the original concentration as expected. If the concentration were larger than the initial concentration, this would indicate a mistake in the signs of one of the quantities on the right-hand side of the equation.

For Practice 13.4Cyclopropane rearranges to form propene in the gas phase according to the reaction:

The reaction is first order in cyclopropane and has a measured rate constant of 3.36 105 s1 at 720 K. If the initial cyclopropane concentration is 0.0445 M, what is the cyclopropane concentration after 235.0 minutes?Example 13.4 The First-Order Integrated Rate Law: Determining the Concentration of a Reactant at a Given TimeContinuedSOLUTION

Consider the equation for the decomposition of NO2.

NO2(g) NO(g) + O(g)

The concentration of NO2 is monitored at a fixed temperature as a function of time during the decomposition reaction and the data tabulated in the margin at the top right of the next page. Show by graphical analysis that the reaction is not first order and that it is second order. Determine the rate constant for the reaction.In order to show that the reaction is not first order, prepare a graph of ln [NO2] versus time.Example 13.5 The Second-Order Integrated Rate Law: Using Graphical Analysis of Reaction DataSOLUTION

The plot is not linear (the straight line does not fit the data points), confirming that thereaction is not first order. In order to show that the reaction is second order, prepare agraph of 1/ [NO2] versus time.

This graph is linear (the data points fit well to a straight line), confirming that the reaction is indeed second order. To obtain the rate constant, determine the slope ofthe best fitting line. The slope is 0.255 M1 s1; therefore, the rate constant is0.255 M1 s1.Example 13.5 The Second-Order Integrated Rate Law: Using Graphical Analysis of Reaction DataContinuedSOLUTION

Since the reaction is first order, the half-life is given byEquation 13.19 . Substitute the value of k into theexpression and calculate t1/2.Example 13.6 Half-LifeMolecular iodine dissociates at 625 K with a first-order rate constant of 0.271 s1. What is the half-life of this reaction?SOLUTIONFor Practice 13.6A first-order reaction has a half-life of 26.4 seconds. How long will it take for the concentration of the reactant in the reaction to fall to one-eighth of its initial value?

The decomposition of ozone is important to many atmospheric reactions:

O3(g) O2(g) + O(g)

A study of the kinetics of the reaction resulted in the following data:

Determine the value of the frequency factor and activation energy for the reaction.Example 13.7 Using an Arrhenius Plot to Determine Kinetic ParametersSOLUTIONTo find the frequency factor and activation energy, prepare a graph of the natural log of the rate constant (ln k ) versus the inverse of the temperature (1/T).

Example 13.7 Using an Arrhenius Plot to Determine Kinetic ParametersContinued

The plot is linear, as expected for Arrhenius behavior. The best fitting line has a slope of 1.12 104 K and ay-intercept of 26.8. Calculate the activation energy from the slope by setting the slope equal to Ea/R and solving for Ea:SOLUTION

Example 13.7 Using an Arrhenius Plot to Determine Kinetic ParametersContinuedCalculate the frequency factor ( A ) by setting the intercept equal to ln A.

26.8 = ln A A = e26.8 = 4.36 1011

Since the rate constants were measured in units of M1 s1, the frequency factor is in the same units. Consequently, we can conclude that the reaction has an activation energy of 93.1 kJ/mol and a frequency factor of 4.36 1011 M1 s1.

For Practice 13.7For the decomposition of ozone reaction in Example 13.7, use the results of the Arrhenius analysis to predict the rate constant at 298 K.SOLUTION

To determine whether the mechanism is valid, you must first determine whether the steps sum to the overall reaction. Since the steps do indeed sum to the overall reaction, the first condition is met.

The second condition is that the rate law predicted by the mechanism must be consistent with the experimentally observed rate law. Since the second step is rate limiting, write the rate law based on the second step.SOLUTIONOzone naturally decomposes to oxygen by the reaction:

2 O3(g) 3 O2(g)

The experimentally observed rate law for this reaction is:

Rate = k[O3]2[O2]1

Show that the following proposed mechanism is consistent with the experimentally observed rate law.Example 13.9 Reaction Mechanisms

Rate = k2[O3][O]

Example 13.9 Reaction MechanismsContinuedBecause the rate law contains an intermediate (O), you must express the concentration of the intermediate in terms of the concentrations of the reactants of the overall reaction. To do this, set the rates of the forward reaction and the reverse reaction of the first step equal to each other. Solve the expression from the previous step for [O], the concentration of the intermediate.

Finally, substitute [O] into the rate law predicted by the slow step.SOLUTIONCHECK Since the two steps in the proposed mechanism sum to the overall reaction, and since the rate law obtained from the proposed mechanism is consistent with the experimentally observed rate law, the proposed mechanism is valid. The 1 reaction order with respect to [O2] indicates that the rate slows down as the concentration of oxygen increasesoxygen inhibits, or slows down, the reaction.

Example 13.9 Reaction MechanismsContinuedPredict the overall reaction and rate law that would result from the following two-step mechanism.

2 A A2 Slow A2 + B A2B FastFor Practice 13.9

*Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure, Page 498 *Figure 13.1 Reactant and Product Concentrations as a Function of Time ***Figure 13.1 Reactant and Product Concentrations as a Function of Time *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Table, Page 499

*Figure 13.9 The Activation Energy Barrier *Figure 13.2 Reactant Concentration as a Function of Time for Different Reaction Orders *Figure 13.3 Reaction Rate as a Function of Reactant Concentration for Different Reaction Orders *Figure 13.4 Sublimation *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Table 1, Page 504 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Table 2, Page 504 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure, Page 505 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure A, Page 505 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure B, Page 505 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure C, Page 505 *Figure 13.5 First-Order Integrated Rate Law *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure 1, Page 507 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure 2, Page 507 *Figure 13.6 Second-Order Integrated Rate Law *Figure 13.7 Zero-Order Integrated Rate Law *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure, Page 509 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure, Page 510 *****Figure 13.8 Half-Life: Concentration versus Time for a First-Order Reaction ***Figure 13.10 The Activated Complex *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure, Page 512 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure, Page 513 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure 1, Page 514 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure 2, Page 514 ****Figure 13.11 Thermal Energy Distribution *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure, Page 516 *Figure 13.12 The Collision Model *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure 1, Page 517 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure 2, Page 517 *Chapter 13, Unnumbered Figure 3, Page 517 **Figure 13.13 Energy Diagram for a Two-Step Mechanism *Figure 13.14 Catalyzed and Uncatalyzed Decomposition of Ozone ****Figure 13.15 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis *Chap