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CMBYkTI22 e e l l a a h h ³ ³ q q ø ø g g n n i i g g s s m m a a s s F F a a t t u u k k U U G G D D I I N N a a s s ü ü ú ú g g Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds esrIénFatuenAkñúgtaragxYbEdlmaneGLicRtugbMeBjtamlMdab;lMeday enAkñúgG½rb‘Í tal; d nig f ehAfaFatuqøg. manFatuqøgRbEhlCa50 nigmanlkçN³ERbRbYlxøaMg nigKYr[ cab;Garmμ N_. edIm,IbgðajlMGitGMBIlkçN³rbs;FatuqøgnImYy² eyIgRtUvkarBiBN’naeRcInNas; EtenAkñúgemeronenHeyIgnwgelIkykEtFatuqøgNaEdlbMeBjeGLicRtugenAG½rb‘Ítal; dminTan; eBj nigmanTMenarbegáItCaGIuy:ugkMupøicmksikSa. 1 lkçN³rbs;elah³qøg elah³qøgCaelah³Edlmin)anbMeBjeGLicRtugEq¥tenARsTab;rg d b¤Caelah³Edl GackøayCaGIuy:ugTaMgRsTab;rg d minTan;Eq¥t ¬rUbTI1¦. ¬elah³Rkum 2B - Zn, Cd nigHg minmanr)ayeGLicRtugEbbenHeT dUecñHeTaHbICaCYnkaleKehAvafaCaelah³qøgk¾edayk¾vamin sßitenAkñúgEpñkenHEdr¦. karkMNt;enHedayeyageTAelIlkçN³EdlKYr[kt;sMKal;CaeRcIndUc Cavapþl;BN’xus²Kña karbegIátCasmasFatu):ar:am:aej:Tic skmμ PaBCakatalIkr nigCaBiess karbegáItCaGIuy:ugkMpøic. enAkñúgemeronenH eyIgsikSalMGiteTAelIFatuEdlenAkñúgCYredkTImYy edayrab;cab;BIság;düÚ mrhUtdl;Tg;EdgEdlCaelah³qøgsamBaØbMput. taragTI1 bgðajBI lkçN³xøH²rbs;BYkva. rUbTI1 Rkumelah³qøg. KYrkt;sMKal;fa eTaHbICaFatukñúgRkum 2B (Zn, Cd, Hg) RtUv)an BN’nafaCaelah³qøgedayKImIviTUxøHk¾edayk¾Kμ anelah³NamYy GIuy:ugrbs;vaman eGLicRtugbMeBjkñúgRsTab;rg d minTan;eBjEdr. 22-1

Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds · CMBYkTI22 elah³qøg nigsmasFatuk UG DIN asüúg Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds esrIénFatuenAkñúgtaragxYbEdlmaneGLicRtugbMeBjtamlMdab;lMeday

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Text of Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds · CMBYkTI22 elah³qøg nigsmasFatuk UG DIN asüúg...

  • CMBYkTI22

    eellaahh³³qqøøgg nniiggssmmaassFFaattuukkUUGGDDIINNaassüü úúgg TT rr aa nn ss ii tt ii oo nn MM ee tt aa ll ss aa nn dd CC oo oo rr dd ii nn aa tt ii oo nn CC oo mm pp oo uu nn dd ss

    esrIénFatuenAkñúgtaragxYbEdlmaneGLicRtugbMeBjtamlMdab;lMeday enAkñúgG½rb‘Í tal; d nig f ehAfaFatuqøg. manFatuqøgRbEhlCa50 nigmanlkçN³ERbRbYlxøaMg nigKYr[ cab;GarmμN_. edIm,IbgðajlMGitGMBIlkçN³rbs;FatuqøgnImYy² eyIgRtUvkarBiBN’naeRcInNas; EtenAkñúgemeronenHeyIgnwgelIkykEtFatuqøgNaEdlbMeBjeGLicRtugenAG½rb‘Ítal; dminTan; eBj nigmanTMenarbegáItCaGIuy:ugkMupøicmksikSa. 1 lkçN³rbs;elah³qøg elah³qøgCaelah³Edlmin)anbMeBjeGLicRtugEq¥tenARsTab;rg d b¤Caelah³Edl GackøayCaGIuy:ugTaMgRsTab;rg d minTan;Eq¥t ¬rUbTI1¦. ¬elah³Rkum 2B - Zn, Cd nigHg minmanr)ayeGLicRtugEbbenHeT dUecñHeTaHbICaCYnkaleKehAvafaCaelah³qøgk¾edayk¾vamin sßitenAkñúgEpñkenHEdr¦. karkMNt;enHedayeyageTAelIlkçN³EdlKYr[kt;sMKal;CaeRcIndUc Cavapþl;BN’xus²Kña karbegIátCasmasFatu):ar:am:aej:Tic skmμPaBCakatalIkr nigCaBiess karbegáItCaGIuy:ugkMMpøic. enAkñúgemeronenH eyIgsikSalMGiteTAelIFatuEdlenAkñúgCYredkTImYy edayrab;cab;BIság;düÚmrhUtdl;Tg;EdgEdlCaelah³qøgsamBaØbMput. taragTI1 bgðajBI lkçN³xøH²rbs;BYkva.

    rUbTI1 Rkumelah³qøg. KYrkt;sMKal;fa eTaHbICaFatukñúgRkum 2B (Zn, Cd, Hg) RtUv)an BN’nafaCaelah³qøgedayKImIviTUxøHk¾edayk¾K μanelah³NamYy b¤ GIuy:ugrbs;vaman eGLicRtugbMeBjkñúgRsTab;rg d minTan;eBjEdr.

    22-1

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg cab;BIeqVgeTAsþaMéntaragxYbm:asGatUmekIneLIg eGLicRtugRtUv)anbMeBjCabnþbnÞab; enARsTab;eRkAehIybnÞúkéNVy:Uk¾ekIneLIgeTAtamkMeNInénRbUtug.FatuenAkñúgxYbTIbI-BIsUdüÚm eTAGakugeGLicRtugRsTab;eRkARtUv)anRsUbTajedaybnÞúkéNVy:UxøaMgeTA² eTAtamkMMeNInRbU tugEdlCaehtueFVI[RbEvgkaMGatUmecHEtfycuHCalMdab;BIsUdüÚmeTAGakug ehIykRmiteGLic RtUGviC¢man nigfamBlGIuy:ugkmμekIneLIgFMeTA². sRmab;elah³qøgvamanTMenarxus²Kña. tamry³taragTI1 eyIgeXIjfabnÞúkéNVyU: ekIneLIgBIság;cUmeTATg;Edg EteGLicRtugRtUv)anbMeBjcUleTAkññúgRsTab;rg 3d . eGLicRtug kñúgRsTab;rg 3d TaMgenH)anCYykarBareGLicRtugenAkñúgRsTab;rg 4s BIbnÞúkéNVy:UEdlekIn eLIgy:agmanRbsiT§PaBCageGLicRtugRsTab;eRkAkarBarKña. dUecñH RbEvgkaMGatUmk¾minsUv fycuHxøaMgEdr. ehtupldUcKñaenHEdrkRmiteGLicRtUGviC¢man nigfamBlGIy:ugkmμekIneLIg EtbnþicbnþÜcb:ueNÑaHBIsþg;cUmrhUteTAdl;Tg;EdgebIeRbobeFobkarekIneLIgBIsUUdüÚmeTAGakug. taragTI1 r)ayeGLicRtug niglkçN³epSg²eTotrbs;elah³qøgCYrTImYYy

    Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu r)ayeGLicRtug

    M 4s23d1 4s23d2 4s23d3 4s13d5 4s23d5 4s23d6 4s23d7 4s23d8 4s13d10M2+ - 3d2 3d3 3d4 3d5 3d6 3d7 3d8 3d9M3+ [Ar] 3d1 3d2 3d3 3d4 3d5 3d6 3d7 3d8

    kRmiteGLicRtU GviC¢¢man

    1,3 1,5 1,6 1,6 1,5 1,8 1,9 1,9 1,9

    famBlGIuy:ugkm μ (kJ/mol)

    TI1 631 658 650 652 717 759 760 736 745 TI2 1235 1309 1413 1591 1509 1561 1645 1751 1958 TI3 2389 2650 2828 2986 3250 2956 3231 3393 3578

    kaMGatUm (pm) M 162 147 134 130 135 126 125 124 128

    M2+ - 90 88 85 80 77 75 69 72 M3+ 81 77 74 64 66 60 64 - -

    b:Utg;Esül erduksþg;da(V)*

    -2,08 -1,63 -1,2 -0,74 -1,18 -0,44 -0,28 -0,25 0,34

    * Bak;kNþalsmIkarKW M2+(aq) + 2e- � M(s) elIkElgEt Sc nigCr EdlGIuy:grbs;vaKW Sr3+ nigCr3+ erogKña.

    22-2

  • CMBYkTI22

    eTaHbICaelah³qøgTaMgenHmankRmiteGLicRtUGviC¢mantUc rW FMCagelah³Gal;kaLaMg nigGal;kalINUETrWk¾edayk¾b:Utg;Esülsþg;darbs;vabgðajfa RKb;elah³qøgTaMgenaHelIkElg EtTg;EdgecjGacmanRbtikmμ μCamYyGasIutxøaMgdUcCaGasIutkørIRDic[plCa]sμ ½n. eTaHCay:ag Nak¾elah³qøgPaKeRcInBMumanRbtikmμ b¤Rbtikm μyWtCamYyGasIuteRBaHEtvamanRsTab;GuksIut karBarBIeRkAdUcCakñúgkrNIRkUmeRkABImanb:Utg;Esülerduksþg;daGviC¢man vaCaFatuKImIGnicl edaysarEtvamanRsTab;RkUm (III) GuksIut, Cr2O3 eRsabBIxageRkA. dUecññHHehIy)anCaRkUm RtUv)aneKeRbIsRmab;eRsabelah³epSg²eTot edIm,IkarBarkMNUt dUcCaERcHCaedIm. 1>1 lkçN³rUbTUeTA elah³qøgPaKeRcInmanTRmg;hab; EdlGatUmrbs;vanImYy²mancMnYnkUGrDINasüúg mYykñúgcMeNam 12elIsBIenHeTotelah³TaMgenHmankaMGatUmtUceTotpg. edaysarlT§pl énkarP¢ab;BIGatUmmYyeTAGatUmmYYyy:agENn nigvamanTMhMGatUmtUceTotpgenaH CamUlehtu eFVI[vabegáIt)anCasm

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg tamerog. PaBmineTogTat;enH KWbNþalmkBIvamanesßrPaBenABak;kNþalEq¥t nigEq¥trbs; RsTab;rg d. enAeBlelah³qøgkñúgCYrTI 1 køayCakacug eGLicRtugRtUvpþac;ecjBIG½rb‘Ítal; 4s mun bnÞab;mkeTIbpþac;ecjBIG½rb‘Ítal; 3d CaeRkay. ]TahrN_ r)ayeGLicRtugRsTab;eRkArbs; GIuy:ug Fe2+ KW 3d6 minEmn 2s2d4 eT. 1>3 cMnYnGuksIutkmμ elah³qøgmancMnYnGuksIutkmμERbRbYleTAtamsmasFaturbs;va ¬rUbTI2 bgðajBIcMnYn GuksIutkmμBIság;cUmeTATg;Edg¦ . eyIgGackt;sMKal;eXIjfacMnYnGuksIutkm μrbs;Fatuqøg nImYYy² rYmman +II nig +III b¤TaMgBIr. cMnYnGuksIutkm μ +III manesßrPaBenAcMNucepþIménes‘rI EtenAxagcuges‘rIvijcMnYnGuksIutkm μ +II manesßrPaBCag.enHKWedaysarEtkarpþac;eGLicRtug TIbIecjBIG½rb‘Ítal; 3d rbs;FatuqøgenACitcugCYredkRtUvkarfamBleRcInCagFatuqøgenACitxag edImCYredk. dUecñH FatuqøgEdlenACitcugCYredkmanTMenarbegáItCaGIuy:ug M+2 CaCag M+3. sM rab;ehtuplénRTwsþIenHGacEsVgyl;)antamRkabénfamBlGIuy:ug ¬rUbTI3¦. CaTUeTAfamBl GIuy:ugekIneLIgBIeqVgeTAsþaM. eTaHbICay:agNa famBlGuIy:ugTI3¬eBleGLicRtugpøas;TIBIG½rb‘Í tal; 3d ¦ekIneLIgCagfamBlGIuy:ugkm μTI1 nig TI2eRBaHvaRtUvkarfamBleRcInkñúgkarpøas;TI rbs;eGLicRtugTI3BIelah³enAcugxYbCagelah³enAedImxYb elah³enAcugxYbmanTMenarCaGIu y:ug M+2 Cag M+3 GIuy:ug.

    Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu +7 +6 +6 +6 +5 +5 +5 +5 +5 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4

    +3 +3 +3 +3 +3 +3 +3 +3 +3 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +1

    rUbTI2 cMnYnGuksIutkm μrbs;elah³qøgCYredkTI1. cMnYnGuksIutkm μEdleRTt KWmanesßrPaB. cMnYnGuksIutkm μesμ IsUnüRtUv)anrkeXIjcMeBaHsarFatuxøHdUcCa Ni(CO)4 nig Fe(CO)5 cMnYnGuksIutkmμx

  • CMBYkTI22 CaTUeTAmancMnYnGuksIutkmμx1 Edk bnÞab;BIGaluymIj:ÚmEdkCaelah³EdlsMbUrCageKbMputenAkñúgRsTab;EpndI ¬6.2% Ca ma:s¦. vaRtUv)aneKrkeXIjenAkñúgEr:EdlEr:EdkmYycMnYnkñúgcMeNamEr:EdksMxan;²CaeRcInKW eGm:aTic (Fe2O3), sIuedric (FeCO3), nig m:aej:Tic (Fe3O4). EdksuT§KWCaelah³BN’RbepH nigBMusUvrwgeT. vaCaFatusMxan;enAkñúgRbB½n§CIvit. EdkRbtikmμCamYyGasIutkørIRDic[Ca]s μ ½nGIuRdUEsn

    Fe(s) + 2H2+(aq) � Fe2+(aq) + H2(g)

    GasIuts‘ulPYricxab;eFVIGuksIutkmμEdk[eTACa Fe3+ b:uEnþCamYyGasIutnIRTicxab;vijva bgáCaRsTab; Fe2O3 BasenABIelIelah³Edk. Rbtikm μmYykñúgcMeNamRbtikm μEdleKsÁal;Ca eRcInrbs;EdkKWkareLIgERcH. cMnYnGuksIutkmμBIrrbs;EdkKW +II nig+III. smasFatuEdk (II) rYmman FeO (BN’ex μA), FeSO4 . 7H2O (BN’ébtg), FeCl2 (BN’elOg), nigFeS (BN’ex μA). kñúgvtþmanGuksIuEsnGIuy:ug Fe2+ nwgrgGuksIutkm μeTACaGIuy:ug Fe3+. Edk (III) GuksIutmanBN’ Rkhmetñat nigEdk (III) kørYmanBN’etñatRkem:A.

    22-5

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg

    rUbTI5 Er:Edkma:ejTic Fe3O4

    2>2 Tg;Edg Tg;EdgCaFatukRmEdlmanRbmaNRbEhl 6,8×10-3 % b:ueNÑaHCam:asenAkñúgRsTab; EpndI. vaRtUv)aneKrkeXIjenACaPaBsuTæ nigenAkñúgEr:rbs;vadUcCa kal;kUBIric (CuFeS2) Ca edIm.elah³EdlmanBN’RkhmetñatKWGacTTYl)anBIkardutEr:Tg;Edg[eTACa Cu2SbnÞab;mk RtUv)anbMElg[eTACaelah³Tg;Edg.

    2CuFeS2(s) + 4O2(g) � Cu2S(s) + 2FeO(s) + 3SO2(g) Cu2S(s) + O2(g) � 2Cu(l) + SO2(g)

    rUbTI4 FatuqøgenACYredkTI1

    Tg;EdgEdlminsuTæRtUv)aneKbnSúTæedayviFIGKÁisnIviPaK. bnÞab;BIR)ak;EdlCaelah³ eBjniymsRmab;kareRbIR)as; nigmantémøéføenaHTg;Edg KWCaelah³cmøgcrnþGKÁisnI nigkemþA )anl¥. Tg;EdgRtUv)aneKeRbIenAkñúgsMelah³ ExScmøg m:asIunbUmTwk bMBg;TueyaTwk nigkak;.

    22-6

  • CMBYkTI22 Tg;EdgRbtikm μEtCamYyGasIuts‘ulPYric nigGasIutnIRTicxab;ekþAb:ueNÑaH. cMnYnGuksIut km μBIrsMxan;²rbs; vaKW +I nig +II. cMnYnGuksIutkm μ +I BMusUvmanesßrPaBeTvanwgbMElgeTACa +II enAkñúgsUluysüúg.

    2Cu+(aq) � Cu(s) + Cu2+(aq)

    RKb;smasFatu Cu(I) TaMgGs;CaDIma:ejTic nigKμanBN’eTelIkElgEt Cu2O man BN’Rkhm. cMENkÉsmasFatu Cu(II) vijKWCa)a:ra:ma:ejTic nigmanBN’ dUcCaGIuy:ug Cu2+ GIuRdaetmanBN’exov. smasFatu Cu(II) sMxan;²xøHmandUcCa CuO (BN’ex μA), CuSO4 . 5H2O (BN’exov) nig CuS (BN’ex μA).

    rUbTI6 kal;tUBIric CuFeS2

    3 smasFatukUGrDINasüúg elah³qøgmanTMenarbegáItCaGIuy:ugkMupøicEdlGacP¢ab;CamYyGIuy:ug b¤GIuy:ugkMupøicdéT eTotedIm,IbgáCasmasFatukUGrDINasüúg. smasFatukUGrDINasüúg KWCasmasFatuNWtEdl pSMeLIgBIGIuy:ugkMupøicmYy b¤eRcIn. enAqñaM 1893 elak Alfred Werner Gayu)an 26 qñaMKat; )anesñIrnUvRTwsþImYymaneQ μaHfa RTwsþIkUGrDINasüúg evIn½r EdleyIgkMBugeRbIR)as;sBVéf¶enH. kñúgstvtSTI19 KImIviTU)anmancm¶l;eTAelIRbePTRbtiikmμxøHEdlhak;dUcCa RbqaMgeTA nwgRTwsþIv:aLg;. ]TahrN_ v:aLg;énFatuenAkñúgkU)al; (III) kørY nigenAkñúgGam:Ujak;hak;dUcCa )anbMeBjlkçxNÐRKb;RKan;Gs;ehIy b:uEnþsmasFatuTaMgBIrenHenAEtGacmanRbtikmμCamYy KñabegáIt)anCasmasFatumanesßrPaBmYyepSgeTotEdlmanrUbmnþCoCl3.6NH3. edIm,IBnül; lkçN³enHelak Werner )andak;ecjnUvsm μtikmμrbs;Kat;faFatuPaKeRcInmanv:aLg;BIrRbePT KWv:aLg;TI1 nigv:aLg;TI2.enAkñúgBakübec©keTsTMenIbv:aLg;TI1KWCacMnYnGuksIutkm μehIyv:aLg; TI2CacMnYnkUGrDINasüúgénFatuenaH. ebItamelak Werner enAkñúg CoCl3 . 6NH3 kU)al;man v:aLg;TI1rbs;va 3 nigv:aLg;TI2rbs;va 6. sBVéf¶enHeyIgeRbIrUbmnþ [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 edIm,Ibgðajfam:UelKulGam:Ujak; nigGatUm kU)al;pSMKñabegáIt)anCaGIuy:ugkMupøic cMENkÉGIuy:ugkørminEmnCaEpñkénkMupøiceT EtvaP¢ab;CamYy

    22-7

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg GIuy:ugkMupøicedaysarkmøaMgGIuy:ug. PaKeRcInénelah³EdlsßitenAkñúgsmasFatukUGrDINasüúg KWCaelah³qøg. taragTI3 lIkg;sMxan;²mYycMnYn eQ μaH TRmg; lIkg;m:UNUdg;tat Gam:Ujak;

    kabUnm:UNUGuksIut GIuy:ugkørY GIuy:ugsüanY GIuy:ugtüÚsüaNat lIkg;b‘Ídg;tat eGTIELnDIGamIn GIuy:ugGuksaLat

    lIkg;b:UlIdg;tat GIy:ugeGTIELnDIGamIn etRtaGaestat (EDTA)

    H N H

    H

    ..

    .

    . . - .: Cl :

    : C O :

    [: C N :]-

    [: S C N :]- . .. .

    [H2N CH2 CH2 NH2

    . . . .

    O O C C O O

    . . . .

    . . . .

    . . . . . . . . . .

    . . 2-

    4

    22-8

  • CMBYkTI22 m:UelKul b¤GIuy:ugEdlenACMuvijelah³enAkñúgGIuy:ugkMupøic[eQμaHfa lIkg;. Gnþrkmμ rvagGatUmelah³ niglIkg;GacRtUv)aneKKittamry³RbtikmμGasIut-)asLWvIs. dUcEdl eyIg)andwgrYcmkehIyfa)asLWvIsKWCasmasFatuTaMgLayNaEdlGacpþl; b¤[eTVtaeGLic RtugmYy b¤eRcIn. RKb;lIkg;TaMgGs;y:agehacNas;k¾maneTVtaeGLicRtugv:aLg;mincgsm

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg edayEp¥keTAelIcMnYnGatUmGñk[lIkg;RtUv)aneKcat;fñak;Ca m:UNUdg;tat b‘Ídg;tat b¤ b:UlIdg;tat. H2O nig NH3 CalIkg;m:UNUdg;tateRBaHm:UelKulnImYy²manGatUmGñk[EtmYy. cMENkÉemTIELnDIGamInCalIkg;b‘Ídg;tateRBaHGatUmTaMgBIrGacP¢ab;CamYy nwgGatUmelah³ mYy.

    lIkg;b‘Ídg;tat nigb:UlIdg;tateKGacehAmü:ageTotfa Pñak;garP¢ab;(Chelating agent) eRBaHsmtßPaBrbs;vaGaccab;GatUmelah³dUcCaRkjúaM (Chele CaBaküRkicmann½yfa :RkjúaM :). ]TahrN_ dUcCaeGTIELnDIGamInetRtaGaestat (EDTA) CalIkg;b:UlIdg;tatEdl RtUv)aneKeRbIedIm,IEjkykelah³Bul. GatUmGñk[cMnYn6 EdlGac[ EDTA begáItCaGIuy:ug kMupøicmYyy:agmanesßrPaBbMputCamYynwgsMN. enAkñúgTRmg;enHvaRtUv)andkecjBIQam nigCalikaehIyk¾beBa©jecalBIragkay. EDTA k¾RtUv)aneKeRbIedIm,Ilagelah³viTüúskm μ EdlkMBb;pgEdr. rUbTI8 TRmg;rbs;kMupøic EDTA CamYysMN. kMupøicmanbnÞúksrub-2edayGatUm O KWCaGatUm Gñk[manbnÞúk(-) nigGIuy:ugsMNmanbnÞúk+2. TMrg;FrNImaRtrbs;GIuy:ug sMNKWqmuxniy½t.

    3>1 cMnYnGuksIutkmμrbs;elah³enAkñúgsmasFatukUGrDINasüúg lkçN³sMxan;mYyeTotrbs;smasFatukUGrDINasüúg KWcMnYnGuksIutkmμrbs;GatUm elah³kNþal. bnÞúksrubrbs;GIuy:ugkMpøícKWCaplbUkénbnÞúkenAelIGatUmelah³kNþal nig enAelIlIkg;EdlenACMuvijva. ]TahrN_ enAkñúgGIuy:ug [PtCl6]2- GIuy:ugkørYnImYy²mancMnYnGuk sIutkmμ -I dUecñH cMnYnGuksIutkmμrbs; Pt RtUvEt +IV. RbsinebIlIkg;KμanbnÞúkeTenaHcMnYn GuksIutkmμrbs;elah³RtUves μ IeTAnwgbnÞúkrbs;GIuy:ugkMupøic. ]TahrN_ enAkñúg [Cu(NH3)4]2+, NH3 nImYy²CamUelKulNWt dUecñHcMnYnGuksIutkm μrbs; Cu KW +II.

    22-10

  • CMBYkTI22 ]TahrN¾ 1³ kMnt;cMnYnGuksuItrbs;GatUmelah³enAkñúgsmasFatudUcxageRkam³ a) [Ru(NH3)5(H2O)]Cl2 , b) [Cr(NH3)6](NO3)3

    c) [Fe(CO)5] , d) K4[Fe(CN)6]

    cMelIy a) TaMg NH3 nig H2O KWCam:UelKulNWt. edayGuIy:ugkørnImYy²manbnÞúk-1ehIyman GIuy:ugkørcMnYn2 enaHcMnYnGuksIutkm μrbs; Ru Kw +2. b) GuIy:ugnIRtatnImYy²manbnÞúk -1 dUecñaH kacugRtUvEtCa [Cr(NH3)6]3+. NH3Cam:Uel KulNWt dUcenH cMnYnGuksuItkmμrbs; Cr KW -3. c) eday Co KWCamU:elKulNWt enaHcMnYnGuksIutkmμrbs; Fe KW 0. d) GIuy:ugb:UtasüÚmnImYy²manbnÞúk +1 dUecñaHGajú:gKW [Fe(CN)6]4-. bnÞab;mkeyIgdwg faRkumsüanItmanbnÞúksrub -1 enaH Fe mancMnYnGuksIutkmμ +2. lMhat;Gnuvtþn¾ ³ sresrcMnYnGuksIutkmμrbs;elah³kñúgsmasFatukMupøic K[Au(OH)4] 3>2 karehAeQμaHsmasFatukMupøic eyIg)ansikSaGMBIRbePTepSg²rbs;lIkg; nigcMnYnGuksIutkm μrbs;elah³rYcehIydUecñH CMhanbnÞab;eyIgnwgsikSaGMBIrebobehAeQ μaHsmasFatuTaMgenH. viFIehAeQμaHsmasFatuTaMg enHmandUcxageRkam ÷

    o dUcCaenAkñúgsmasFatuGIuy:ugEdreKehAeQμaHkacugmunGaj:úg. karehAeQμaHenHeK minRbkan;faetIGIuy:ugkMupøicenaHmanbnÞúkviC¢man b¤GviC¢maneT. ]TahrN_ enAkñúgsmasFatu K3[Fe(CN)6] nig [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl eyIgehAeQ μaH kacug K+ nig [Co(NH3)4Cl2]+ mun.

    o enAkñúgGIuy:ugkMupøiceKehAeQ μaHlIkg;mun ¬tamlMdab;lMedayGkSrRkm¦ nigGIuy:ug elah³CaeRkay.

    o lIkg;CaGaj:úgeQ μaHxagcugRtUvbBa©b;eday :GU : CamYyKñaenHEdrlIkg;EdlmanbnÞúk NWtCaFm μtaRtUvehAeQμaHm:UelKulrbs;vaEtmþg. elIkElgEt H2O ¬GakU¦ CO ¬kabUnIl¦ nigNH3 ¬GamIn¦.

    o enAeBlEdlmancMnYnlIkg;eRcIneyIgRtUveRbIbuBVbTRkic :DI-RTI-etRta-b:g;ta nig GicsaCamYynwglIkg;enaH. dUecñHlIkg;enAkñúgkacug [Co(NH3)4Cl2]+ KW :etRta GamInDIkørU :¬cMnaMfabuBVbTenHminRtUv)anrab;bBa©ÚlkñúgkartMerobGkçrRkmlIkg;eT¦.

    22-11

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg

    RbsinebIlIkg;enaHmanbuBVbTRkicrYceTAehIyeyIgRtUveRbIbuBVbT b‘ͬ2¦ RTIs¬3¦ nigetRta¬4¦ edIm,IbBa¢ak;BIcMnYnvtþmanrbs;lIkg;enaH. ]TahrN_ lIkg;eGTIELnDIGamInmanBakü :DI :rYceTAehIydUecñHebImanvtþmanlIkg; enHBIreKehAfa :b‘ͬeGTIELnDIGamIn¦ :.

    o cMnYnGuksIutkmμrbs;elah³ RtUvsresrCaelxr:UmuaMgenACab;BIeRkayeQ μaHelah³ enaH. ]TahrN_ elxr:UmuaMg III tMNag[cMnYnGuksIutkmμ +3 rbs;elah³RkUmenAkñúg [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]+ EdlmaneQ μaHfa :GIuy:ugetRtaGamInDIkørURkUm (III) : .

    o RbsinebIkMupøicCaGaj:úgvijeQ μaHrbs;vaRtUvbBa©b;eday :Gat :. ]TarhrN_ enAkñúgsmasFatu K4[Fe(CN)6] Gaj:úg [Fe(CN)6]4- eK[eQ μaHfa GIuy:ugGicsatüaNUEhVr:at (II). elxr:UmaMug II bBa¢ak;BIcMnYnGuksuItkmμrbs; Fe.

    taragTI4 eQ μaHlIkg;smBaØenAkñúgsmasFatukUGrDINasüúgmYycMnYn lIkg; eQμaHlIkg;enAkñúgsmasFatukUGrDINasüúg RbUmY Br- RbUmU kørY Cl- kørU süanY CN- süaNU GIuRduksIut OH- GIuRduksU GuksIut O2- GuksU kabUNat CO32- kabUNatU nIRTIt NO2- nIRtU GuksaLat C2O42- GuksaLatU Gam:Uj:ak; NH3 GamIn kabUnm:UNUGuksIUt CO kabUnIl Twk H2O GakU eGTIELnDIGamIn eGTIELnDIGamIn eGTIELnDIGamInetRtaGaestat eGTIELnDIGamInetRtaGaestU

    22-12

  • CMBYkTI22

    taragTI5 eQμaHGaj:úgEdlmanGatUmelah³ elah³ eQμaHelah³enAkñúgGaj:úgkMupøic

    GaluymIj:Úm GaluymINat RkUm RkUm:at

    kU)al; kU)al;tat Tg;Edg Kb;R)at mas Guyr:at Edk EhVr:at sMN bøúm)at

    m:g;kaENs m:g;kaNat m:UlIEdn m:UlIdat nIEkl nIEkLat R)ak; GahSg;tat

    sMN):ahaMg sþaNat tg;Esþn tg;sþat s½gásI s½gáat

    ]TahrN¾TI2 ³ sresreQμaHsmasFatutamRbBn§½GnþrCati a) Ni(CO)4 , b) [Co(NH3)Cl2]Cl c) K[Fe(CN)6] , d) [Cr(en)3]Cl3cMelIy ³ a) lIkg; Co KWCamU:elKulNWtehIyGatUmnIEklK μanbnÞúk dUcenHeyIgGacehAeQ μaH smasFatuenHfa etRtakabUnIlnIEkl (0) rW GacehAmüa:geTotfa nIEkletRtakabUnIl. b)cab;epþImCamYykacug/lIkg;kørcMnYnBIrmanbnÞúkGviC¢manehIymU:elKulGamU:jak;man bnÞúkNWt. enaHGatUmkU)al;RtUvmancMnYnGuksIutkm μ +3 ¬edIm,ImanlMnwgCamYyGuIy:ug Cl- ¦. smasFatuenHKW etRtaGamInDIkørUkU)al; (III) kørIt. c) kMupøicGIuy:ugKWCaGaj:úgehIyvamanbnÞúkGviC¢man -3. dUecñaHGatUmEdkRtUvmancMnYn GuksIutkmμ +3. eQμaHrbs;smasFatuKWb:UtasüÚmhicsasüaNUEhVra:t (III). smasFatuenHk¾ RtUv)aneKehACaTUeTAfa b:UtasüÚmEhVricsüanIt.

    22-13

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg d) dUcEdreyIg)andWgehIyfa en CaGkSrkat;rbs;lIkg;eGTIELnDIGamIn. eday manRkum en cMnYnbIehIyeQ μaHlIkg;manbuBVbTDIrYcehIyenaHeQ μaHrbs;smasFatu KWRTI¬eGTI ELnDIGamIn¦ RkUm (III) kørIt. lMhat;Gnuvtþn¾ ³ eGayeQ μaHGnþrCatirbs; [Cr(H2O)4Cl2]Cl ? ]TahrN¾TI3 ³ sresrrUbmnþénsmasFatuxageRkam a) b:g;taGamInkørUkU)al; (III)kørIt b) DIkørUb‘ͬeGTIELnDIGamIn¦)aøTINUm(IV) nIRtat c) sUdüÚmhicsanIRtUkU)al;tat(III) cMelIy ³ a) kMupøickacugmanpÞúkRkum NH3cMnYn 5GIuy:ugkør nigGIuy:ugkU)al;EdlmancMnYnGuksIut km μ +3 bnÞúksrubelIkacugKW 2+. dUcenH rUbmnþrbs;smasFatuKW [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 b) manGIuy:ugkørcMnYnBIr RkumeGTIELnDIGamInBIr GIuy:ug)aøTINUmEdlmancMnYnGuksIut km μ +4 kñúgkMupøickacugenaHsmasFatumanrUbmnþ [Pt(en)2Cl2](NO3)2 c) kMupøicGaj:úgmanRkumnIRtU 6 ehIyGIuy:ugkU)al;EdlmancMnYnGuksIutkmμ+3. enaH smasFatumanrUbmnþ Na3[Co(NO2)6] lMhat;Gnuvtþn¾ ³ sresrrUbmnþmU:elKulrbs;smasFatuRTI¬eGTIELnDIGamIn¦kU)al; (III)s‘ul pat.

    4 TRmg;eRKagrbs;smasFatukUGrDINasüúg kñúgkarsikSaBITRmg;FrNImaRtrbs;smasFatukUGrDINasüúg Cajwkjab;eyIgeXIjfa manviFICaeRcInedIm,IteRmoblIkg;enACMuvijGatUmkNþal. smasFatuEdlRtUv)anteRmobkñúg TRmg;epSgKñamanlkçN³rUb nigKImIxusKña. kñúgrUbTI9 bgðajBIkarteRmobFrNImaRtxusKñaTaMg bYnrbs;GatUmelah³CamYynwglIkg;m:UNUdg;tat. enAkñúgdüaRkamTaMgenHeyIgeXIjfa TRmg; nigcMnYnkUGrDINasüúgénGatUmelah³manTMnak;TMngKñaeTAvijeTAmkdUcxageRkam ÷

    cMnYnkUGrDINasüúg TRmg;eRKag Structure 2 ExSRtg; b¤lIenEG‘ Linear 4 ctumuxniy½t b¤bøg;rabkaer Tetrahedral or Square planar

    Gdæmuxniy½t 6 Octahedral

    22-14

  • CMBYkTI22 esþerGUGIusUEmKWCasmasFatuEdlmanRbePTGatUm nigcMnYnGatUmdUcKñacgsm1 GIusUEmFrNImaRt GIusUEmFrNImaRt KWCaesþrIGUGIusUEmEdlminGacRtLb;cuHeLIg)anedayKμankarEbk )ak;sm

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg

    KYrkt;sMKal;fa eTaHbIGIusUEmTaMgBIrmanRbePTsm

  • CMBYkTI22 TMnak;TMngénTMrg;eRKagrbs;GIusUEmrGubTicBIr KWmanlkçN³RsedogKñaeTAnwgTMnak;TMng rvagédsþaM nigédeqVg. ebIGñkdak;édeqVgenAmuxkBa©ak;enaHrUbPaBEdlGñk)aneXIjKWédxagsþaM ¬rUbTI12¦eyIgGacniyay)anfaédeqVg nigédsþaMKWCarUbPaBqøúHKñaeTAvijeTAmkkñúgkBa©ak;. eTaHbICaya:gNak¾edayédeqVg nigédsþaMminRtYtsIuKñaeTeRBaHeBleyIgdak;édeqVgelIédsþaM ¬)atédTaMgBIrp¶ab;cuHeRkam¦vaminRtUvKñaeT. rUbTI13 bgðajBIGIusUEmr Cis nig trans rbs; GIuy:ugDIkørUb‘Í ¬eGTIELnDIGamIn¦kU)al; (III) nigrUbPaBkñúgkBa©ak;rbs;va. cUrRbugRby½tñcMeBaH karRblgeRBaHfaGIusUEmr Cis nigrUbPaBkñúgkBa©ak;KWRtYtsIuKña b:uEnþGIusUEmr trans nigrUbPaBkñúg kBa©k;rbs;va KWminRtYtsuIKñaeT. dUecñHGuIsUEm Cis nigrUbPaBkñúgkBa©k; KWCaGuIsUEmGubTik. GuIsUEmrGubTic KWmanlkçN³dUc KIra:l; ¬PasaRkicfa :éd :¦ eRBaHédsþaM nigédeqVgKWCam:U elKulKIra:l;EdlminRtYtsIuKña. GuIsUEmrEdlRtYtsuIKñanwgrUbPaBkñúgkBa©ak;rbs;vaKWCam:UelKul GKIra:l;. m:UelKulKIra:l;edIrtYsMxan;sMrab;RTRTg;CIvitkñúgRbtikm μRtUvkarGg;suImkñúgRbB½n§CIvi³. fñaMejónCaeRcInCam:UelKulKIra:l;. vaCaerOgmYyKYreGaycab;GarmμN¾ nigkt;sMKal;famanEtKUr énGIusUEmrKIra:l;eTEdlman\Ti§BlelIRbB½n§CIvi³.

    rUbTI13 (a) GIusUEmr Cis nig trans rbs;GIuy:ugDIkørUb‘ͬeGTIELnDIGamIn¦kU)al; (III) nigrUbPaBrbs;vakñúgkBa©ak;. (b) RbsinebIeyIgGacbgVilrUbPaBkñúgkBa©ak; 900 Rsb RTnicnaLikaRtg;TItaMgQr ehIydak;vaelIGIusUEmr trans enaHeyIgeXIjfasmasFatu TaMgBIrRtYtsIuKña. cMeBaHGIusUEmr cis nigrUbPaBvakñúgkBa©ak;eTaHbICaeyIgbgVilvaya:g Na rWrebobNak_eyIgminGaceFVIeGayGIusUEmr cis nigrUbPaBrbs;vakñúgkB©ak;RtYtelI Kña)anEdr. m:UelKulKIra:l;manskm μPaBGubTic eRBaHBYkvamansmtßPaBbgVilbøg;énb:UlIEmrenA eBlEdlBnøWb:Ulkmμqøgkat;va. xusEbøkBIBnøWFm μtaEdlmanrMj½rRKb;TisBnøWb:Ul-bøg;manlMj½r cMeBaHbøg;EtmYyb:ueNÑaH. kñúgrUbTI14 eyIgeRbIb:ULarIEmRtedIm,Ivas;rgVilrbs;GIusUEmrGubTic eBlBnøWb:Ulkmμqøgkat;.karbBa©aMgBnøWminb:UlkmμelIkdMbUgb:HépÞb:UlLarUGIut ( Polaroid) ehA

    22-17

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg fab:ULarIEs‘r ( polarizer) bnÞab;mkqøgkat;bMBg;sakmanpÞúksUluysüúgskmμGubTic ¬smas FatuKIra:l;¦. BnøWb:Ulkm μqøgkat;bMBg;sakGaceFVIeGaybøg;b:Ulkm μrgiVlTaMgxagsþaM rWxageqVg.

    rUbTI14 karsegáténb:ULarIEmRt. dMbUgbMBg;sakRtUvbMeBjedaysmasFatuGKIra:l;. GñkviPaK)anbgVilbøg;bU:lkmμeGaykat;Ekgnwgb:ULarIEs‘rkñúglkçxNÐenH K μanBnøWqøgkat; ]bkrN_eT. bnÞab;mkeKyksmasFatuKIra:l;dak;cUlkñúgbMBg;sakdUcmun ehIybøg;én bU:lkm μrbs;BnøWb:Ulkm μcab;epþImrgVilqøgkat;bMBg;sak dUcenHmanBnøWxøHb:H]bkrN_ Binitü. GñkviPaKcab;epþImbgVil¬TaMgsþaM nigeqVg¦rhUtdl;K μanBnøWqøgkat;]bkrN_mþgeTot EdleFVI eGayeKGacvas;mMuénrgVilGubTic)an.

    rUbTI15 karbgVilenHGacvas;)anedaykarRtLb;GñkviPaKkñúgTisedAmYysmRsbrhUt

    dl;karbBa¢ÚnBnøWkan;EtticeTA². RbsinebIbøg;b:Ulkm μrgVileTAxagsþaMGIusUEmrenaH KWdicRtUrUtaTUrI (dextrorotatory) [d] ebIvargVileTAxageqVgKW eLvUrUtaTUrI ( levorotatory) [l] . GuIsUEmr (d) nig (l) rbs;smasFatuKIra:l;ehAfa eGNg;tüÚEmrEdlCanic©CakalRtUvkarBnWøesμ IKñakñúgkarrgVil b:uEnþkñúgTisedApÞúyKña. dUecñaH l,ayéneGKVImU:La ( equimolar mixture ) rbs;eGNg;tüÚEmr TaMgBIrehAfal,ayra:esmic EdlmankMritrgVilesμ IsUnü.

    22-18

  • CMBYkTI22

    rUbTI15 ebIpÞaMgbU:LarUGuItzitenAelIrUbPaBmYyBnøWGacqøgkat;)an. CamYypÞaMgb:ULarUGIutTI2 Edldak;elIpÞaMgb:ULarUGIutTI1munenaH tMbn;bU:lkmμénRkdaskat;Ekgnwg GkS½nwgmanBnøWtic rWKμanBnøWqøgkat;. ebIGkS½éntMbn;bU:lkm μrbs;RkdasTaMgBIrRsb KñaenaHBnøWGacqøgkat;)an.

    5 karcgsm

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg bnÞúkGviC¢manrbs;lIkg;b:UElmYy.kmøaMgenH)aneFVI[lIkg;cgP¢ab;eTAnwgGatUmelah³.RbePT TIBIr CakmøaMgcRmaneGLicRtUsþaTicrvageTVtaeGLicRtugminsm

  • CMBYkTI22 edaysarkmøaMgGnþrkm μrvagelah³ niglIkg;G½rb‘Ítal; d TaMg5enAkñúgkMupøicGdæmuxRtUv bMEbkCakRmitfamBlBIrKWkRmitfamBlx1>1 BN’ eyIg)andwgehIyfa BnøWBN’sdUcCaRBHGaTitüKWCabnSMrbs;BN’TaMgGs;. sarFatu mYy[CaBN’ex μAluHRtaEtvaRsUbnUvBnøWemIleXIjTaMgGs;EdlCHeTAelIva EtebIvaminRsUbBnøW enHesaHvanwg[CaBN’s b¤K μanBN’. vtßúmYymanBN’ébtgRbsinebIvaRsUbBnøWenHTaMgGs; ehIypøatecjnUvPaKbgáBN’ébtg.vtßúmYyk¾GacemIleXIjBN’ébtgEdrRbsinebIpøatecjnUv BN’TaMgGs;elIkElgEtBN’RkhmEdlCaBN’bEnßmrbs;BN’ébtg.

    rUbTI18 rgVg;énBN’)anbgðajBICMhanrlk EdlsmRsbeTAnwgBN’nImYy². cMeBaHBN’ bEnßmKñadUcCaRkhm nigébtgKWsßitenATItaMg pÞyKñaénrgVg;.

    Rkhm sVay TwkRkYc exov elOg ébtg

    GVIEdl)anBiBN’naGMBIBnøWpøatRtUv)aneKGnuvtþpgEdrenAkñúgkarepÞrBnøW ¬BnøWEdlqøgkat; smasFatuGVImYy ]TahrN_ sUluysüúgmYy¦. cUrBicarNaeTAelIGuIy:ugTg;EdgGIuRdat [Cu(H2O)6]2+ EdlGacRsUbBnøWBN’TwkRkUcehtuenHsUluysüúg CuSO4 eyIgeXIjdUcCaBN’

    22-21

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg exov. eFIVkarrMlwkBICMBUkTI7GMBIRTwsþIkg;TicEdlR)ab;faenAeBlEdlfamBlénpUtugKwes μ Inwg karxusKñarvagPaBRKwHnwgPaBePJackarRsUb ekItmaneLIgBIeRBaHeGLicRtugmYyRtUv)aneLIgeTA elIkMritmYyx

  • CMBYkTI22

    rUbTI20 sUluysüúgBN’énelah³qøgenACYrTI1 mYycMnYn. BIeqVgeTAsþaM Ti3+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+. Sc3+ nig V5+ KWK μanBN’.

    sVay sVay føa elOg Rkhm ébtg exov

    tamBt’manxagelIenHeFVIeGayeyIgGacKNnakarbMEbkEdnRkam ³

    υh=Δ (1) dUcenH

    λυ c=

    Edl KWCael,ÓnBnøW / λ KWCaCMhanrlk

    enaH J

    nmmnmsmsJ

    hc

    1919

    834

    1099,31/101)(498(

    /1000,3)(.1063,6( −−

    ×=×

    ××=

    =Δλ

    famBlenHKWCafamBlsMrab;ePJacmYyeGLicRtugrbs;GuIy:ug [Ti(H2O)6]2+ . edIm,I sresrkMritfamBlenHeGaykan;EtRsYleyIgGaceRbIxñatKILÚs‘UlkñúgmYym:Ul ( kJ/mol) ³

    Δ = ( 3,99 10-19J/ion )( 6,02 1023ions/mol) = 240000J/mol = 240kJ/mol

    GñkKImIGacKNnakarbMEbkEdnRkamsMrab;lIkg;nImYy² eRkamCMnYyrbs;Tinñn½yEdl )anBIs,iúcRtUsáúbBIrbs;cMnYnkMupøicmYyEdlmanGIuy:ugelah³dUcKña b:uEnþlIkg;xusKña nigbegáItes‘rI s,iúcRtUKImIEdlCataragtMerobénlIkg;karekIneLIgénlT§PaBkñúgkarbMEbkfamBlenAkMritG½rb‘Í tal; d ³ I- < Br- < Cl- < OH- < F- < H2O < NH2 < en < CN- < CO

    lIkg;xagelIRtUv)antMerobtamlMdab;ekIneLIgéntMél Δ. GIuy:ug CO nig CN- RtUv)an eKehAfa lIkg;EdnxøaMg eRBaHvamankMritfamBlbMEbkénG½rb‘Ítal; d x

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg 5>1>2 lkçN³ma:ejTic Ednma:ejTicrbs;karbMEbkEdnRkamk_RtUv)aneRbIedIm,IkMnt;lkçN³ma:ejTicrbs;GIuy:ug kMupøic. GIuy:ug [Ti(H2O)6]2+ maneGLicRtugenARsTab; d EtmYyehIyCanic©CakalvaCa)a:ra: ma:ejTic. eTaHbICaya:gNacMeBaHGuIy:ugEdlmaneGLicRtugeRcInkñúgRsTab; d minRtUv)aneK ykcitþTukdak;eT. ]TahrN_ kMupøicGdæekan [FeF6]3- nig [Fe(CN)6]3- ¬rUbTI21¦.

    rUbTI21 KMnUstagénkMritfamBlrbs;GIuy:ug Fe3+ , [FeF6]3- nig [Fe(CN)6]3-

    TMrg;eGLicRtugrbs; Fe3+ KW [Ar]3d5 ehIymanviFI 2 ya:gedIm,IEckeGLicRtugTaMg5 enARsTab; d eTAkñúgG½rb‘Ítal; d . eyageTAtamc,ab;han; ( Hund’s rule) ³ esßrPaBGtibrima ekIteLIgenAeBleGLicRtugTaMg5)andak;cUlkñúgG½rb‘Ítal;epSg²KñaCamYynwgs

  • CMBYkTI22 G½rb‘Ítal; d EdlTabCagCalT§plkMupøics

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg ]TahrN_TI4 ³ cUrTsSTayBIcMnYns

  • CMBYkTI22

    rUbTI24 KMnUstagkMritfamBlsMrab;kMupøicbøg;kaer. edaysarEtvamankMritfamBl eRcInCag2 enaHeyIgminGacrkkarbMEbkEdnRkamdUcEdreyIgGackMnt;)ankñúgkrNI kMupøicGdæmux nigctumuxniy½t)aneT .

    6 Rbtikmμrbs;smasFatukUGrDINasüúg GIuy:ugkMupøiccUlrYmkñúgRbtikmμbNþÚrlIkg;kñúgsUluysüúg. el,ÓnénRbtikmμenHFMTUlay Nas;eRBaHvaGaRs½yelIFm μCatiénGIuy:ugelah³ niglIkg;. kñúgkarsikSaRbtikmμbNþÚrlIkg;CaerOy² manRbeyaCn_kñúgkarkMnt;PaBxusKñarvagesßr PaBénGuIy:ug nigTMenarrbs;vakñúgRbtikm μEdleyIgehAfa sIuenTicminesßrPaB (Kinetic lability) . esßrPaBkñúgGtßbTenHKWCalkçN³ETmU:DINamicEdlvas;BIRbePTefrkMN Kf. ]TahrN_ eyIgGacniyayfaGuIy:ugkMupøicetRtasüaNUnIEkLat (II) manesßrPaBeRBaH vamanefrkMNFM ( K = 1 1030 ) Ni2+ + 4CN- � [Ni(CN)4]2- edayeRbIGIuy:ugsüanItEdlbiTsøakviTüúskm μkabUn 14 GñkKImI)anbgðajfaGuIy:ug[Ni(CN)4]2- cUlrYmRbtikm μbNþÚrlIkg;ya:gelOnkñúgsUluysüúg. Rbtikm μQandl;TIlMnwgya:gqab;rh½s enAeBlEdldak;RbePTTaMgBIrcUlKñaPøam ³ [Ni(CN)4]2- + 4*CN- � [Ni(*CN)4]2- + 4CN- sBaØa * KWCasBaØasMKal;GatUm 14C . kMupøicdUcCaGuIy:ugetRtasüaNUnIEkLat (II) KWCa kMupøicgaycl½teRBaHvacUlrYmya:gelOnkñúgRbtikm μbNþÚrlIkg;. dUecñaH RbePTEdlmanesßrPaB ETm:UDINamic¬manefrkMNFM¦KWminmansar³sMxan;kñúgkarminmanRbtikmμeT.

    22-27

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg kMupøicEdlminmanesßrPaBETm:UDINamickñúgsUluysüúgGasIutKW [Co(NH3)6]3+ . efr lMnwgsMrab;RbtikmμenHKW 1 1020 : [Co(NH3)6]3+ + 6H+ + 6H2O � [Co(H2O)6]3+ + 6NH4+ enAeBlRbtikm μQandl;TIlMnwgkMhab;énGIuy:ug [Co(NH3)6]3+ KWexSay. eTaHbICaya:gNa RbtikmμenHRtUvkarry³eBl 3 b£ 4éf¶edIm,IsMercdl;TIlMnwg eRBaHEtPaBniclbs;GIuy:ug [Co(NH3)6]3+. enHKWCa]TahrN_mYyénkMupøicniclEdlCakMupøicGuIy:ugcUlrYmkñúgRbtikmμbNþÚr lIkg;ya:gyWt¬eRcInema:g rWéf¶¦. va)anbgðajfa RbePTK μanesßrPaBETm:UDINamicKWminman sar³sMxan;kúñgRbtikmμKImIeT. el,Ónrbs;RbtikmμKWkMnt;edayskm μPaBEdlx

  • CMBYkTI22 (demethyglyoxime ) begáItCaGgÁFaturwgminrlayBN’Rkhm\dæCamYy Ni2+ ehIyGgÁFaturwg minrlayBN’elOgcas;CamYy Pb2+ . H3C

    C == N – OH

    C == N – OH H3C Dimethyglyoxime

    lkçN³énBN’TaMgenHKWRtUv)aneRbIkñúgkarviPaKKuNPaBedIm,IkMnt;GtþsBaØaNnIEkl nigsMN. müa:geTotbrimaNénGuIy:ugEdlmanvtþmankñúgsUluysüúgGackMnt;)antamkarviPaKRkavimaRt ¬EpñkmYyénKImIviPaKbrimaNEdlGaRs½yelIkarføwgedIm,IkMnt;smasPaBKImI¦dUcxageRkam ³ sUluysüúgmYymanpÞúkGIuy:ug Ni2+ RtUv)andak;bEnßmedaybrimaNelIsénPñak;garDIemTIl KøIGUsIum bnÞab;mkeKeXIjmankkrBN’\dæekIteLIg. kkrenHRtUvykeTAeRcaH sMgYt nigføwg. edaydwgBIrUbmnþrbs;kMupøic ¬rUbTI25¦ eyIgGacKNna)anya:gelOnBIbrimaNrbs;nIEklEdl manvtþmankñúgsUluysüúgedIm.

    rUbTI25 TMrg;rbs;nIEklDIemTIlKøIGUsIum. cMnaMmU:elKulenHmanesßrPaBedaysarsMB½n§GuIRdUEsn

    4 sarFatuCMrHEk¥l skmμPaBsMGatrbs;sab‘UenAkñúgTwkrwgRtUv)anraraMgedayRbtikmμénGuIy:ug Ca2+ enAkñúg TwkCamYymU:elKulsab‘UbegáIt)anCaGMbilb£ kkr. munqñaM 1940 ]sSahkm μplitsarFatuCMrH Ek¥l)aneRbIsUdüÚmRTIb:UlIpUsVatedIm,IedaHRsaybBaðaxagelI. GIuy:ugRTIb:UlIpUsVatKWCaPñak;gar ekLatd_manRbsiT§PaBEdlGacbegáItCakMupøicmanTMrg;esßrPaB nigrlaykñúgTwkCamYy Ca2+. sUdüÚmRTIb:UlIpUsVateFVIeGaymankarpøas;bþÚrya:gxøaMgkñúg]sSahkmμplitsarFatuCMrHEk¥l.eTaHbICaya:gNapUsVatKWCaGaharcwBa©wmrbs;rukçCati enAeBlEdrTwkkgVk;manpÞúkpUsVatRtUv)ancak; cUlkñúgTenø nigbwgvaeFIVeGayvarICatiduHlUtlas;eRcInCaehtueFVIeGayGuksIuEsnkñúgTwkfycuH.

    22-29

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg eRkamlkçxNÐenHeFVIeGaystVrs;enAkñúgTwkPaKeRcIn rWTaMgGs;RtUvsøab;. lMnaMenHehAfa eutrophication CalT§plrdæCaeRcInQb;eRbIR)as;sarFatuCMrHEk¥lpUsVattaMgBIqñaM 1970 ehIy GñkplitCaeRcIn)anerobcMEkERbrUbmnþsabU‘rbs;BYkeKsarCafμ IedaydkpUsVatecj.

    KImIkñúgkarGnuvtþn_ smasFatukUGrDINasüúgkúñgRbB½n§Civit

    smasFatukUGrDINasüúg)antYnaTIya:gsMxan;kñúgCIvitstV nigrukçCati. BYkvamansar³ sMxan;kñúgkarsþúkTuk nigdwkCBa¢ÚnGuksIuEsn Pñak;garepÞreGLicRtug kataliIkrkñúgdMenIrrsμ I sMeyaK. kñúgemeronenHeyIgepþatGarmμN_eTAelIsmasFatukMupøicEdlmanpÞúkEdk nig ma:ejsüÚm.

    eGmU:køÚb‘ÍnKWCakrNIsikSamYyd_eBjniymCageKkñúgcMenamRbUetGuInTaMgGs; eRBaHvaCa GñkdwkCB¢ÚanGuksIuEsnsMrab;lMnaMemtabUlIs. kñúgm:UelKuleGmU:køÚb‘ÍnmanpÞúkRcva:k;bt;4ExSEdl ehAfaÉktarg. eGmU:køÚb‘ÍndwknaMGuksIuEsnkñúgQamBIsYteTAkan;CalikaEdlCaTIkEnøgRtUvEck caym:UelKulGuksIiEsneTAeGaymIy:UkøÚb‘Ín. mIy:UkøÚb‘Ín (Myoglobin) begáIteLIgedayÉktarg EtmYyKt; ehIyvasþúkTukGuksIuEsnsMrab;lMnaMemtabUlIskñúgsac;duM.

    m:UelKulpUrBIn ( prophine) KWCaEpñkmYyd_sMxan;kñúgkarbegáItTMrg;eGmU:køÚb‘Ín. BIkUGr DINasüúgeTAelah³ GIuy:ugGIuRdUEsn)ancgsm

  • CMBYkTI22 lT§PaBbIya:gsMrab;mU:elKulGuksIuEsnkñúgkarcgsMB½n§CamYyRkumEG‘mkñúgeGmU:køÚb‘Ín. (a) TMrg;mancMnYnkUGrDINasüúg 7 EdlCaTMrg;mincUlcitþsMrab; Fe (II) . eTaHbICaTMrg; (b) emIleTAhak;dUcCamanesßrPaB TMrg; (c) KWCaTMrg;RtwmRtUv .

    EdkenAkñúgRkumEG‘mmancMnYnGuksuItkm μ 2. va)ancgsm

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg

    kør:UPIl KWCam:UelKuld_sMxan;sMrab;kareFVIrsμ IsMeyaKrbs;rukçCatik_manpÞúkvg;pUrBIrInEdr b:uEnþkñúgkrNIenHGIuy:ugelah³ Fe2+ RtUv)anCMnYseday Mg2+.

    RkumEG‘mkñúgsIutURkUmc. lIkg;xagelI nigxageRkam pUrBIrInKWCaRkumemtüÚnIn nig hIuesþDInrbs;RbUetGIun erogKña.

    TMrg;pUrBIrInkñúgkørUPIl

    sUluysüúgmanBN’ébtgrbs;kørU:PIlenAxag

    eRkambMBg;sak. )ac;BnøWcaMgcUlBIxag elIehIyRtUv )anRsUbedaymU:elKulkørU:PIl. famBlénkarRsUb BnøWxøH)anbeB©ajBnøWeTAeGayeKdUcCa PøúyGrersg; (fluorescence) kñúgtMbn;Rkhmrbs; Visible spectrum. PøúyGrersg; b¤ cMNaMgBnøW KW)anbnSay rlkeGLicRtUma:ejTicBIGatUm b¤mU:elKul CaBiess enAtMbn;EdlGacemIleXIj bnÞab;BIsMrUbbUtugdMbUg.

    22-32

  • CMBYkTI22 smIkarsegçb υh=Δ ( 1) karKNnakarbMEbkEdnRkam segçbPaBBit nigbBaØatiþ 1. elah³qøgPaKeRcInmanG½rb‘Ítal; d EdlminTan;bMeBjTaMgRsugnigmanTMenarbegáItCaTMrg;

    kMupøic. smasFatuEdlmanpÞúkGIuy:ugkuMpøicehAfa smasFatukUGrDINasüúg. 2. CYrTImYyénelah³qøg ¬BIság;cüÚmeTAdl;Tg;Edg¦ KWCaelah³EdlRtUv)aneKsÁal;eRcInbMput

    kñúgcMenamelah³qøgTaMgGs;. KImIrbs;va manlkçN³dUcKñaeRcIny:agkñúgRkumTaMgmUl. 3. GIuy:ugkMupøicmanGIuy:ugelah³EdlB½T§edaylIkg;. RKb;GatUmEdlCaGñkpþl;eGLicRtugenA

    kñúglIkg; CaGñkpþl;KUGLicRtugeTAeGayGIuy:ugelah³kNþalkñúgkuMpøic. 4. smasFatukUGrDINasüúg GacbgðajnUvTMrg;GIusUEmrFrNImaRt b¤GuIsUEmGubTic. 5. RTwsþIEdnRkam)anBnül;fa karcgsm

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg karbMEbkEdnRkam Crystal field splitting (Δ) 22-21lIkg; Ligand 22-9 GatUmGñkeGay Donor atom 22-9 kMupøicgaycl½t Labile complex 22-27eGNg;tüÚEmr Enantiomer 22-18GIusUEmFrNImaRt Geometric isomer 22-15GIusUEmrGubTic Optical isomer 22-16l,ayra:esmic Racemic mixture 22-18b:ULarIEmRt Polarimeter 22-17esþrIGUGIusUEmr Stereoisomer 22-15es‘rIs,úicRtUKImI Spectrochemical series 22-23

    sMnYr niglMhat; lkçN³rbs;elah³qøg 1. etIGIVEdlCaPaBxusKñarvagelah³qøg nigelah³epSg²eTot? 2. ehtuGVI)anCaeKmincat; Zn Caelah³qøg? 3. cUrBnül;fa ehtuGVI)anCakaMGatUmfycuHbnþicmþg²BIsþg;cUmeTAdl;Tg;Edg? 4. edayBMueyageTAelIGtßbT cUrsresrrUbsNæanénPaBRKwH ( ground-state) eGLic Rtugrbs;elah³énCYredkTI1énelah³qøgRBmTaMgBnül;BIGIVEdlxusBIFm μtapg? 5. cUrsesrrUbsN§anéneGLicRtugrbs;GIuy:ugxageRkam³ V5+ , Cr3+ , Mn2+ , Fe3+ , Cu2+ , Se3+ , Ti4+6. ehtu)anCaelah³qøgmanPaBGuksIutkm μeRcInCagFatuepSg²eTot? 7. cUreGaycMnYnGuksIutkmμEdlx

  • CMBYkTI22 10. BiBN’naGMBIGnþrkmμrvagGatUmGñkeGay nigGatUmelah³kñúgRbtikm μGasIut)asLWvis 11. cUrbMeBjcenøaHsMrab;GuIy:ugkMupøic [Co(en)2(H2O)CN]2+

    a) en KICaBakükat;én………………………. b) cMnYnGuksuItkmμrbs; Co KW ………………. c) cMnYnkUGrDINasüúgrbs; Co KW …………… d) ……………..KWCalIkg;eFJjBIr. 12. cUrbMeBjcenøaHsMrab;GuIy:ugkMupøic [Cr(C2O4)2(H2O)2]- a) cMnYnGuksuItkmμrbs; Cr KW ……………….

    b) cMnYnkUGrDINasüúgrbs; Cr KW …………… c) ……………..KWCalIkg;eFJjBIr.

    13. eGaycMnYnGuksIutkm μénelah³kñúgsmasFatuxageRkam ³ a) K3[Fe(CN)6] , b) K3[Cr(C2O4)3] , c) [Ni(CN)4]2- 14. eGaycMnYnGuksIutkm μénelah³kñúgsmasFatuxageRkam ³

    a) Na2MoO4 , b) MgWO4 , c) Fe(Co)5 15. etIsmasFatuxageRkammaneQ μaHkñúgRbBnæ½fadUcemþc ³ a) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]2+ b) Cr(NH3)3Cl3 c) [Co(en)2Br2]+ d) [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 16. cUreGayeQ μaHkñúgRbB½n§rbs;smasFatu nigGIuy:ugxageRkam ³ a) [cis- Co(en)2Cl2]+ b) [Pt(NH3)5Cl]Cl3 c) [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 17. cUrsresrrUbmnþGIuy:ug nigsmasFatuxageRkam ³ a) etRtaGIuRduksUsaMgkat b) b:gtaGakUkørURkUm ( III) kør c) etRtaRbUmU:kUR)at ( III) d) eGTIELnDIGamInetRtaGaestatUhVara:t (II) 18. cUrsresrrUbmnþGIuy:ug nigsmasFatuxageRkam ³ a) b‘ͬeGTIELnDIGamIn¦DIkørURkUm (III) b) b:gtakabUnIlEdk ( 0) c) b:UtasüÚmetRtasüaNUkUR)at ( II) d) etRtaGamInGakUkørUkU)al; (III) kør

    22-35

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg TMrg;rbs;smasFatukUGrDINasüúg 19. cUreGayniy½mn½yénBakü - esþrIGUGIusUEmr GuIsUEmrFrNImaRt

    - GIusUEmrGubTic BnøWbøg;-b:UEl 20. cUrbBa¢ak;faetITMrg;mYyNaGactaMgenACaGuIsUEmrFrNImaRt)an ³ a) lIenEG‘r b) bøg;kaer c) Gdæekanniy½t d) ctumux 21. etIGVIEdlGackMnt;fasmasFatumYyKWCasmasFatuKIra:l;? etIb:ULarIEm:Rtvas;BIPaB KIra:l;rbs;mU:elKulmYyya:gdUcemþc? 22. cUrBnül;Bakü a) eGNg;tüÚEmr b) l,ayra:esmic 23. kMupøicGIuy:ugmanTMrg;FrNImaRtCabøg;kaer. cUrKUrTMrg;GIusUEmrFrNImaRténkMupøicenH. 24. etImanGIusUEmrFrNImaRtb:un μankñúgRbePTxageRkam ³ a) [Co(NH3)2Cl4]- b) [Co(NH3)3Cl3] 25. cUrKUrTMrg;GIusUEmrFrNImaRt nigGIusUEmrGukTicrbs;kMupøickU)al; ³ a) [Co(NH3)6]3+ b) [Co(NH3)5Cl]2+ c) [Co(C O ) ]2 4 3 3-

    26. cUrKUrTMrg;GIusUEmrFrNImaRt nigGIusUEmrGukTicrbs;kMupøickU)al; ³ a) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]+ b) [Co(en)3]3+

    karcgsMB½n§kñúgsmasFatukMupøic 27. cUrBiB’NnaedaysegçbBIRTwsþIEdnRkam. 28. cUreGayniymn½yBakü ³ - karbMEbkEdnRkam kMupøics

  • CMBYkTI22 32. cUrBnül;fa ehtuGIV)anCalIkg;RbePTdUcKña karbMEbkEdnRkamrbs;kMupøicGdæmuxniy½tKW FMCagkMupøicctumuxniy½t? 33. GuIy:ug [Ni(CN)4]2- manTMrg;FrNImaRtCabøg;kaerehIyCaDIma:ejTiccMEnkÉ GIuy:ug [NiCl4]2-manTMrg;FrNImaRtCactumuxniy½tehIyCa)a:ra:ma:ejTic. cUrbgðajBIKMnUrtagénkar bMEbkEdnRkamrbs;kMupøicTaMgBIr. 34. elah³qøgEdlmanpÞúklIkg; CN- CaerOy²manBN’elOg cMEnkÉkMupøicmanpÞúklIkg; H2O CaerOymanBN’ébtg rWexov / cUrBnül;. 35. cUrTsSTayBIcMnYneGLicRtugmincgsm

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg 42. kMupøic [Fe(CN)6]3- KWgaycl½tCag [Fe(CN)6]4- . cUrR)ab;BIkarBiesaFn_mYyEdl GHGagfa [Fe(CN)6]3- CakMupøicgaycl½t. 43. sUluysüúgTg;Edg (III) su‘lpatKWmanBN’exov eBlEdleK)andak;bEnßmsUluysüúg b:UtasüÚmPøúyGrYeKsegáteXIjmankkrBN’ébtgekIteLIg b:uEnþenAeBleKbEnßmsUluysüúg b:UtasüÚmkørYvijnwgmansUluysüúgébtgcas;mYyekIteLIg. cUrBnül;nUvGIVEdl)anekIteLIg kñúgkrNITaMgBIrxagelI. 44. enAeBlEdlsUluysüúgb:UtasüÚmsüanItRtUv)anbEnßmcUleTAkñúgsUluysüúgTg;Edg (III) s‘ulpateKeXIjmankkrBN’sekIteLIgkñúgbrimaNénb:UtasüÚmsüanItrlayelIs. enA eBlEdlGIuRdUEsns‘ulpatRtUv)andak;eGayqøgkat;sUluysüúgenAcMnucxagelIenaH KWK μankkr ekIteLIgeT/ cUrBnül;. 45. sUluysüúgTwkénTg;Edg (III) su‘lpatenAkMhab;mYymanBN’ébtgcas;. enAeBl EdlyksUluysüúgenHeTABRgavCamYyTwksUluysüúg)anERbBN’eTACaexovRsal/cUrBnül;. 46. kñúgsUluysüúgGasIutnIRTicravFe3+manRbtikmμCamYyGIuy:ugtüÚsüanItbegIát)anCakMupøic BN’Rkhmex μA ³ [Fe(H2O)6]3+ + SCN- � H2O + [Fe(H2O)5NCS]2+ kMhab;enAeBllMnwgén [Fe(H2O)5NCS]2+ RtUv)ankMnt;edaykMriténBN’exμArbs;sUluysüúg ¬vas;edays,úicRtUEmRt¦. kñúgkarBiesaFn_mYy 1ml énsUluysüúg Fe(NO3)3kMhab; 0,20M RtUv)anlayCamYy 1ml énsUluysüúg KSCN kMhab; 1×10-3 nig 8ml én HNO3 rav. KuNPaBénsUluysüúgBN’)anbgðajfa [Fe(H2O)5NCS]2+ kMhab;sUluysüúgKW7,3×10-5M. KNnaefrkMnrbs;sUluysüúg. lMhat;bEnßm 47. enAeBleyIgGanCYrTI1énelah³qøgBIeqVgeTAsþaMPaBGuksIutkmμ +2 KWmanesßrPaBCag PaBGuksIutkm μ +3. ehtuGIV)anCadUecñaH cUrBnül;. 48. kñúgcMenam Mn3+ nig Cr3+ etImYyNaCaPñak;garGuksIutkrxøaMg? cUrBnül;. 49. etI [Fe(en)3][Fe(CO)4]maneQ μaHkñúgRbB½n§CaGVI? ¬cMnYnGuksIutkmμrbs;Edkkñúgkacug kMupøicKW +2 ¦. 50. etI Fe nig Ti manPaBCaGuksIutkmμb:un μankñúgEr: FeTiO3 ¬emIlfamBlGIuy:ugkmμrbs; Fe nigTi kñúgtarag 1 ehIyfamBlGIuy:ugkm μTI4rbs; Ti KW 4180KJ/mol ¦.

    22-38

  • CMBYkTI22 51. nisSitmYy)anerobcMkMupøickU)al;mYyEdlmanTMrg;mYykñúgcMenamTMrg;3xageRkam³ [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 , [Co(NH3)5Cl ]Cl2 , [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl

    edayeRbIkarBiesaFBIPaBcMlgcrnþGKÁIsnIcUrBnül;fa etInisSitenaHnwgrkPaBxusKñarvag lT§PaBTaMg3ya:gdUcemþc? nisSitenaH)andkecjnUvsUluysüúgeGLicRtUlItxøaMgcMnYn 3 Edl GaceRbIkñúgkareRbobeFob)anKW NaCl , MgCl2 , FeCl3. 52. GñkviPaKKImI)anbgðajfa mU:elKuleGmU:køÚb‘ÍnmanpÞúk 0,34%énEdkCama:s.etIma:smU:l Gb,brimarbs;m:UelKuleGmU:køÚb‘Ínmanb:unμan? tMélma:sm:UlBitR)akdrbs;eGmU:køÚb‘ÍnKW 65000g. etIGñkKitdUcemþccMeBaHPaBminRsbKñarvagtMélGb,brima nigtMélBitR)akd? 53. cUrBnül;BIPaBBitxageRkam ³ a) Cu nig Fe manPaBCaGuksIutkmμBI 3 eTA 4 cMEnkÉ Zn KWmanEt 1 . b) Cu nig Fe CaGIuy:ugmanBN’ cMEnkÉ Zn KWKμanBN’. 54. kñúgqñaM 1895 mannisSitmñak;)anerobcMsmasFatukUGrDINasüúgcMnYn3EdlmanpÞúkRkUm manlkçN³dUcxageRkam ³

    rUbmnþ BN’ cMnYn Cl-enAkñúgrUbmnþ a) CrCl3-6H2O sVay 3 b) CrCl3-6H2O ébtgRsal 2

    ébtgcas; c) CrCl3-6H2O 1 sresrBIrUbmnþsm½yTMenIbénsmasFatuxagelI ehIyesñIBIviFIsaRsþEdlGacbBa¢ak;BI cMnYnCl-EdlmanvtþmankñúgsUluysüúgkñúgkrNInImYy². ¬smasFatuxøHGacekItmanedaysar GIuRdatkmμ¦. 55. efrkMNsMrab;Rbtikmμ 2NH3 � [Ag(NH3)2]+ KW 1,5 107 nigRbtikmμ Ag+ + 2CN- � [Ag(CN)2]-

    KW 1,0 1021 enAsItuNðPaB 250C cUrKNnaefrlMnwg nig ΔG0 enAsItuNðPaB 250C sMrab; Rbtikmμ ³ [Ag(NH3)2]+ + 2CN- � [Ag(CN)2]- + 2NH3 56. tamtarag 19.1)anbgðajBItMélbU:tg;Esülsþg;daerdukrbs; Zn/Zn2+ nig Cu+/Cu2+ cUrKNna ΔG0nigefrlMnwgénRbtikmμ Zn(s) + 2Cu2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + 2Cu+(aq)

    22-39

  • elah³qøg nigsmasFatukUGDINasüúg 57. edayeRbIR)as;tarag19.1b:Utg;Esülsþg;daerduknigesovePATinñn½ySI )anbgðajfa RbtikmμxageRkamGacRbRBwtþeTA)aneRkamlkçxNÐsþg;da ³ 2Ag(s) + Pt2+(aq) 2Ag+(aq) + Pt(s)

    etIRbtikmμenHmanefrlMnwgb:unμanenAsItuNðPaB 250C? 58. kMupøic Co2+ b:UBIrIn (porphyrin) KWmanesßrPaBCag Fe2+b:UBIrIn cuHehtuGIV)anCa Fe2+ KWCaGIuy:ugmanvtþmankñúgeGmU:køÚb‘Ín¬RbUetGIunEdlmanpÞúkEG‘m (Heme) ¦minEmn Co2+ ? 59. etIGIVCaPaBxusKñarvagGuIsUEmrFrNImaRt nigGIusUEmrGukTic? 60. GuksuIeGmU:køÚb‘ÍnKWmanBN’RkhmRss; cMEnkÉedGuksuIeGmU:køÚb‘ÍnKWmanBN’sVay. cUr bgðajfa PaBxusKñaénBN’GacbgðajBIKuNPaB rWlkçN³elImUldæanRKwHrbs;kMupøicmans

  • CMBYkTI22 3. [Co(en)3]2(SO4)3 4. 5, kør cMelIysMnYr niglMhat; 12. a) +3 , b) 6 c) GuksaLat 14. a) Na: +1 , Mo: +6 , b) Mg:+2 , W: +6 , c) Fe: 0 16. a) Cis-DIkørUb‘ͬeGTIELnDIGamIn¦kU)al; (III) , b)b:gtaGamInkørUpøaTIn (IV)kør c) b:gtaGamInkørUkU)al; (III)kør. 18. a) [Cr(en)2Cl2]+ b) Fe(CO)5 c) K2[Cu(CN)4] d) [Co(NH3)4(H2O)Cl]Cl2 24. a) 2 b) 2 26. a) GIusUEmrFrNImaRtBIr b) GIusUEmrGubTic 34. GIuy:ug CN- KWCalIkg;EdnxøaMg. edaysMrUbenACit UV ¬exov¦ dUecñaHeyIgeXIjBN’ elOgelceLIg. 36. 255 KJ/mol 38. [Co(NH ) Cl ]Cl 3 4 242. eRbI 14CN- EdlbiTsøak¬kñúg NaCN¦ 44. dMbUgkkrBN’s Cu(CN)2 )anekIteLIg varlaymþgeTotkøayCa Cu(CN) 2-4 46. 1,4 102 48. Mn3+ 50. Ti: +3 , Fe: +3 52. manEdk4 GatUm kñúgmYymU:elKuleGm:UkøÚb‘Ín 54. a) [Cr(H O) ]Cl , b) [Cr(H O)2 6 3 2 5Cl]Cl .H O , c) [Cr(H O) Cl2 2 2 4 2]Cl .2H O 256. -1,8 102Kj , 4 1031 58. EdkmaneRcInCageK 60. GuksIueGm:UkøÚb‘ÍnRsUbBnøWenA famBlx