COLEGIO DE DAGUPAN Arellano St., Dagupan City
UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH MANUAL
Table of Contents Front Page ... Table of Contents I STYLE REQUIREMENTS General Document Guidelines . Title Page . Approval Form . Abstract Acknowledgment/Dedication .. Table of Contents/ List of Tables/List of Figures/Plates . Body .. Definition of Terms Bibliography .. Appendices . Tables ... Figures and Plates .. II CONTENT REQUIREMENTS .. Abstract .. Introduction Review of Literature Methodology Discussion of Findings. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations .. Bibliography Text Citations . Quotations III RESEARCH POLICIES AND GUIDELINES .. Specific Functions Oral Examination Fee . Remuneration of the Members of the Oral Examination Committee Implementation of Research Ethical Standards . Research Evaluation Citation IV UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FLOWCHARTS V SAMPLE FORMATS AND FORMS Page 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 8 8 10 10 11 12 12 14 16 17 17 20 20 20 22 24 24 26 28
I. STYLE REQUIREMENTS General Document Guidelines Margins Font Size and Style Spacing One (1) inch on the bottom and right sides, and 1.5 on the upper and left sides. Font style is Times New Roman with a font size of twelve (12) points Double-space throughout the paper except for title page, approval sheet, abstract, table of contents, list of tables, list of figures, list of plates, bibliography, appendices, and curriculum vitae. Flush Left (creating an uneven right margin). .5 inch from the margin or 1 tab. The page number appears on the bottom of the page, centered, .8 inch from the bottom of the paper. Page numbers should not appear on prefatory pages (every first page of every chapter). Small Roman numerals should be used for paging the preliminaries, which contain title page to list of figures and/or plates, while Arabic numerals for the rest of the paper. CDD letterhead should be used for the Approval Form and transmittal letters, while the header of the college/ department shall be used on the other parts of the document, if available. Active voice, third person must be used. For example, use "The researchers predicted that ..." Title Page, Approval Form, Abstract, Acknowledgement, Dedication, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures, List of Plates, Body, Bibliography (for more than ten entries), Appendices, and Curriculum Vitae (with picture). All capital letters and bold. This contains the title, researchers, degree program, and the month and year.
Alignment Paragraph Indentation Pagination
Active/Passive voice Order of Pages
4 Arrange alphabetically the name of researchers based on the surnames. The name of the leader should appear first. The color of the hardbound should be: green for CON; blue for CASED; orange for COE; grey for CICS; and yellow for CBA. Side Label Title Case, bold letters. This contains the name of the leader (for group) with et al., title of research, and the month and year of submission. Title Page Description Key Elements First part of the preliminaries. Paper title, researcher(s), name of the institution, degree program, date. Equal spacing in between must be observed. Title case, bold letters, centered, arranged as inverted pyramid. Title case, bold letters, centered on the line following the paper title, alphabetically arranged according to family names, however, name of the leader should be written first. Title case, bold letters, centered. Title case, bold letters, centered.
Paper Title Researcher(s)
Name of the Institution and College Degree Program Date
Includes month and year, written in title case, bold letters, centered. Approval Form (see sample format) Abstract
Description Heading Format
Third part of the preliminaries after the approval form. Abstract (centered on the first line below the margin). The heading Abstract is written in title case and bold letters. It should not exceed 200 words. All numbers (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than words. Acknowledgment/Dedication
5 Description Heading Format This begins on a new page following the Abstract. Acknowledgment/Dedication (centered on the first line below the margin). The heading Acknowledgment/Dedication is written in title case and bold letters. Table of Contents/ List of Tables/List of Figures/Plates (see sample format) Body Description The body of the paper begins on a new page (after the preliminaries). Subsections of the body of the paper do not begin on new pages.
Chapter number is written in Arabic format (Chapter 1, Chapter 2). The title is written in title case and bold letters. The chapter heading, for example INTRODUCTION for Chapter 1, is written in uppercase and bold letters centered on the first line below the manuscript header. Headings are used to organize the document and reflect the relative importance of sections. Some sections may have subsections/subheadings. The following formats shall be used: A. Main headings (e.g., Research Design, Tools for Data Analysis under Chapter 3 should be written in title case and bold letters aligned left) B. Subheadings (when the paper has two levels of subheadings) are written in title case and bold letters indented from the left margin (1 tab).
Definition of Terms
This is last part of the INTRODUCTION. The terms must be written in title case and bold. A period follows after the term. The definitions (with hanging indent) begin on the line following its heading. Entries are organized alphabetically. This section is aligned left. Bibliography
6 Description Title / Heading Format The bibliography begins on a new page. Bibliography (centered on the first line below the manuscript header/margin) The heading Bibliography is written in title case and bold letters. The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the bibliography heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. This section is aligned left. Appendices Description Heading Each Appendix begins on a separate page. If there is only one appendix, Appendix is centered on the first line below the manuscript header. If there is more than one appendix, use Appendix A (or B or C, etc.) and type the appendix title (centered written in title case letters).
Tables A common use of tables is to present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses. This is presented before the discussion of data. Heading Table 1 (or 2 or 3, etc.) is aligned left just above the table referred followed by the table title written in title case and italics.
The font size may be reduced to 8 points when necessary. Single Space Continuous The table may be continued to next page but should carry the table number, the word continued, and an ellipsis in its heading (Table 1 continued)
Spacing Numbering Continuation
7 A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations (other than tables). This is presented before the discussion of data. Heading Figure/Plate 1 (or 2 or 3, etc.) is aligned left just below the figure/plate referred followed by the figure/plate title written in title case, bold letters. Single Space Continuous
8 Abstract This part is a summary of the most important elements of the paper. This should summarize the problem, methodology, results/findings and conclusions. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study This part gives the readers an overview of what the research is all about, describing the problem situation in light of global, national and local forces. It justifies the existence of the problem situation by citing statistical data and authoritative sources. This part should likewise include the reasons on why the researcher/s had selected the research topic and explains its importance. At least, five (5) references should be used. Further, a clinching statement that will relate the background of the research problem should be included. Theoretical Framework This part discusses the theories and/or concepts which are useful in conceptualizing the research. This part may be omitted if theories are not available. Conceptual Framework This part identifies and discusses the variables related to the problem. A schematic diagram of the research is presented including the discussion of the relationships of the different elements/variables involved in the study. Statement of the Problem This part presents the statement of the main problem usually in declarative form. The main problem generally reflects the title of the research and its objectives. It should be stated in a way that it is not answerable by yes or no and not indicative of when and where. Rather, it should reflect relationships/differences between and among variables. This part also includes the sub-problems or the research questions that are to be answered specifically. These are stated as questions. The essential characteristic of a research question is that there should be some information that can be collected in an attempt to answer it. Moreover, the sub-problems should be arranged in a logical order from actual to analytical following the flow in the research paradigm. The characteristics of a good research question should be noted: it should be feasible, clear, and significant (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2003).
9 Hypotheses (optional) The part states tentative answers to research questions. The hypothesis should be measurable and desirable, expressing expected relationship between/among two or more variables. It should be based on the theory and/or empirical evidence. It is a prediction of some sort regarding the possible outcomes of a study. A hypothesis in statistical form has the following cha