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urban planners

Text of Urban Planners

Hippodamus of Miletus(or Hippodamos, Greek: ) (498 BC 408 BC) was anancient Greekarchitect, urban planner, physician, mathematician,meteorologistand philosopher and is considered to be the father ofurban planning, the namesake ofHippodamian planof city layouts (grid plan). He was born inMiletusand lived during the 5th century BC, on the spring of the Ancient Greece classical epoch. His father was Euryphon.His plans of Greek cities were characterised by order and regularity in contrast to the more intricacy and confusion common to cities of that period, evenAthens. He is seen as the originator of the idea that a town plan might formally embody and clarify a rational social order.The grid plans attributed to him consisted of series of broad, straight streets, cutting one another at right angles. In Miletus we can find the prototype plan of Hippodamos. What is most impressive in his plan is wide central area, which was kept unsettled according to his macro-scale urban prediction/estimation and in time evolved to the agora, the center of both the city and the society.[citation needed]The "Urban Planning Study for Piraeus" (451 BC), which is considered to be a work of Hippodamus, formed the planning standards of that era and was used in many cities of the classical epoch.

Daniel Hudson Burnham,FAIA(September 4, 1846 June 1, 1912) was an Americanarchitectandurban designer. He was the Director of Works for theWorld's Columbian ExpositioninChicago. He took a leading role in the creation of master plans for the development of a number of cities, including Chicago and downtownWashington, D.C.He also designed several famous buildings, including theFlatiron Buildingin New York City andUnion Stationin Washington D.C.

burnhams plan for manila

Pierre "Peter" Charles L'Enfant(French:[pj l lf]; August 9, 1754 June 14, 1825) was aFrench-born Americanarchitectandcivil engineerbest known for designing the layout of the streets ofWashington, D.C., theL'Enfant Plan.After leaving the national capital area, L'Enfant prepared the initial plans for the city ofPaterson, New Jersey, but was discharged from this project after a year had passed.[42]During the same period (17921793) he designedRobert Morris'mansion in Philadelphia, which was never finished because of his delays and Morris' bankruptcy.[43]In 1812, he was offered a position as a Professor of Engineering atUnited States Military Academy, but he declined that post. He did serve as a Professor of Engineering at West Point from 1813 to 1817. In 1814, L'Enfant worked briefly on the construction ofFort Washingtonon the Potomac River southeast of Washington, D.C., but others soon replaced him.[44]L'Enfant surveyed and platted Perrysburg, Ohio on April 26, 1816.[citation needed]Washington, D.C., Indianapolis, Indiana, and Perrysburg, Ohio are the cities that he designed

Plan of the City of Washington,March 1792, Engraving on paper

Augustus Brevoort Woodward(born Elias Brevoort Woodward in November 1774, died July 12, 1827) was the firstChief Justiceof theMichigan Territory. In that position, he played a prominent role in the planning and reconstruction ofDetroitfollowing a devastating fire.Considered a hero upon his return to Washington, DC, Woodward soon focused himself on science (a lifelong interest) and the establishment of theUniversity of Michiganalong similar themes to theUniversity of Virginiawhich was founded by Woodward's friend, Thomas Jefferson.

Detroitcity layout plan circa 1807following the 1805 fire that destroyed most of the city. The map showesGrand Circus Park(top), and some of the present-dayGrand Circus Park Historic District.

Georges-Eugne Haussmann, commonly known asBaron Haussmann(French pronunciation:[ n (ba. ) os.man], 27 March 1809 11 January 1891), was the Prefect of the Seine Department in France, who was chosen by the EmperorNapoleon IIIto carry out a massive program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris, commonly calledHaussmann's renovation of Paris.[1]Critics forced his resignation for extravagance, but his vision of the city still dominates Central Paris.

Avenue de la Grande Arme, seen from theArc de Triomphe, withLa Dfenseon the horizon.Ildefons Cerd i Sunyer(Catalan pronunciation:[idfons sra]) (Centelles, December 23, 1815 -Caldas de Besaya, August 21, 1876) was the progressiveCatalanSpanishurban plannerwho designed the 19th-century "extension" ofBarcelonacalled theEixample.He was a multi-faceted man who, in pursuit of his vision, gave up a steady job in the civil engineering service; stood for election and became a member of theCortes(parliament); drafted useful ground-breaking legislation; drew up an incredibly detailed topographical survey map of Barcelona's surrounding area; and wrote a theoretical treatise to support each of his major planning projects. He actually coined a number of important words in Spanish, including 'urbanizacin'.

Original plan of the extension of Barcelona (1859)

Walter Burley Griffin(November 24, 1876 February 11, 1937) was an American architect andlandscape architect, who is best known for his role in designingCanberra, Australia's capital city. He has also been credited with the development of the L-shaped floor plan, thecarportand an innovative use ofreinforced concrete.Influenced by the Chicago-basedPrairie School, Griffin went on to develop a uniquemodern style. For much of his career Griffin worked in partnership with his wifeMarion Mahony Griffin. In the 28 years of their architectural partnership, the Griffins designed over 350 buildings, landscape and urban-design projects as well as designing construction materials, interiors, furniture and other household items.

"Canberra, Federal Capital of Australia, Preliminary Plan" - "Walter Burley Griffin's Plan of Canberra as Finally Revised and Accepted"Clarence Samuel Stein(June 19, 1882 February 7, 1975) was an Americanurban planner, architect, and writer, a major proponent of theGarden City movementin the United States.Beginning in 1923 Stein and Henry Wright collaborated on the plan forSunnyside Gardens, a neighborhood of theNew York Cityborough ofQueens. The 77-acre (310,000m2) low-rise pedestrian-oriented development was constructed between 1924 to 1929. It was funded by fellow RPAA officerAlexander Bingand took the garden city ideas of SirEbenezer Howardas a model. This neighborhood has retained its special character and has been listed on theNational Register of Historical Places.

Diagram of the Radburn street pattern showing the cellular structure of the network and the nested road hierarchBruno Julius Florian Taut(4 May 1880 24 December 1938) was a prolific German architect,urban plannerand author active during theWeimarperiod.Taut is known for his theoretical work, speculative writings and the buildings he designed. Taut's best-known single building is probably the prismatic dome of theGlass Pavilionfor theCologneWerkbund Exhibition (1914). His sketches for the publication "Alpine Architecture" (1917) are the work of an unabashedUtopianvisionary, and he is classified as aModernistand in particular as anExpressionist. Much of Taut's literary work in German remains untranslated into English.

Bruno Taut - Hufeisen-Siedlung Britz, Berlin (1925-1930). Neues Bauen

Robert Moses(December 18, 1888 July 29, 1981) was the "master builder" of mid-20th centuryNew York City,Long Island,Rockland County, andWestchester County, New York. As the shaper of a modern city, he is sometimes compared toBaron HaussmannofSecond EmpireParis, and was arguably one of the mostpolarizingfigures in the history ofurban planningin the United States. His decisions favoring highways overpublic transithelped create the modern suburbs ofLong Islandand influenced a generation ofengineers,architects, andurban plannerswho spread his philosophies across the nation. One of his major contributions to urban planning was New York's largeparkwaynetwork.

Ludwig Karl Hilberseimer(18851967) was a German architect andurban plannerbest known for his ties to theBauhausand toMies van der Rohe, as well as for his work in urban planning at Armour Institute of Technology (nowIllinois Institute of Technology), inChicago, Illinois.Street hierarchywas first elaborated by Ludwig Hilberseimer in his bookCity Plan, 1927. Hilberseimer emphasized safety for school-age children to walk to school while increasing the speed of the vehicular circulation system.

Buisness city at the Gendarmenmarket 1928

Edmund Norwood Bacon(May 2, 1910 October 14, 2005) was a notedAmericanurban planner,architect,educatorandauthor. During his tenure as the Executive Director of thePhiladelphiaCity Planning Commission from 1949 to 1970, his visions shaped today's Philadelphia, the city in which he was born, to the extent that he is sometimes described as "The Father of Modern Philadelphia." Bacon won numerous honors including theFrank P. Brown Medalin 1962, theAmerican Institute of PlannersDistinguished Service Award, thePhiladelphia Award, and an honorary doctorate from Penn. From 2004 until his death at the age of 95, Bacon helped found and served as an Honorary Director of the foundation that bears his name,The Ed Bacon Foundation.

Peter Calthorpe(born 1949) is aSan Francisco-based architect, urban designer and urban planner. He is a founding member of theCongress for New Urbanism, a Chicago-based advocacy group formed in 1992 that promotes sustainable building practices. In 1989 he proposed the concept of "Pedestrian Pocket" an up to 110 acres (45ha) pedestrian friendly, transit linked, mixed-use urban area with a park at its centre. The Pedestrian Pocket mixes low-rise high-density housing, commercial and retail uses. The concept had a number of similarities withEbenezer Howard'sGarden City, and aimed to be an alternative to the than usual low-density residential suburban developments.[2] Edward J. "Ed" Logue(February 7, 1921 January 27, 2000) was anurban planner,public administrator,lawyer,politician, andacademicwho worked inNew Haven,Boston, andNew York State.[1]Commentators often compare Logue withRobert Moses- both were advocates of large-scaleurban renewalin theUnited Statesfrom the 1950s through the 1970s.[2]Logue is best known for overseeing majorpublic worksprojects, such asFaneuil Hall-Quincy MarketandGovernment CenterinBoston, and the re-development ofRoosevelt IslandinNew York City.[3]Government Center, Boston, USA

Paolo Soleri(21 June 1919 9 April 2013)[1]was an Italian-Americanarchitect. He establishedArcosantiand the educationalCosantiFoundation. Soleri was a lecturer in the College of Architecture atArizona State Universityand aNational Design Awardrecipient in 2006. He died at home of natural causes on 9 April 2013 at the age of 93.The Cosanti Foundation's major project isArcosanti, a community planned for 5,000 people, designed by Soleri; Arcosanti has been in construction since 1970. Located near Cordes Junction, about 70 miles (110km) north ofPhoenixand visible from Interstate I-17 in centralArizona, the project intends to provide a model demonstrating Soleri's concept of "Arcology",architecturecoherent withecology:Arcosanti-Panorama

Sir Ebenezer HowardOBE(29 January 1850[1] 1 May 1928[2]) is known for his publicationGarden Cities of To-morrow(1898), the description of a utopiancity in which people live harmoniously together with nature. The publication resulted in the founding of thegarden city movement, that realised several Garden Cities in Great Britain at the beginning of the 20th century. This movement influenced the development of several model suburbs such as Forest Hills Gardens designed byF. L. Olmsted Jr.in 1909,[3]Radburn NJ (1923) and the Suburban Resettlement Program towns of the 1930s (Greenbelt, Maryland,Greenhills, Ohio,Greenbrooke, New JerseyandGreendale, Wisconsin).[4]By 1876 he was back in England, where he found a job withHansardcompany, which produces the officialverbatimrecord ofParliament, and he spent the rest of his life in this occupation.

The Garden City Concept byen:Ebenezer Howard

Kevin Andrew Lynch(1918Chicago,Illinois- 1984Martha's Vineyard,Massachusetts) was an Americanurban plannerand author. His most influential books includeThe Image of the City(1960) andWhat Time is This Place?(1972). Lynch's most famous work,The Image of the Citypublished in 1960, is the result of a five-year study on how observers take in information of the city. Using three disparate cities as examples (Boston, Jersey City, and Los Angeles), Lynch reported that users understood their surroundings in consistent and predictable ways, formingmental mapswith five elements: paths, the streets, sidewalks, trails, and other channels in which people travel; edges, perceived boundaries such as walls, buildings, and shorelines; districts, relatively large sections of the city distinguished by some identity or character; nodes, focal points, intersections or loci; landmarks, readily identifiable objects which serve as external reference points Felinio A. Palafox, Jr.is a prominent Filipino architect, urban planner and environmentalist. He is the Principal Architect-Urban Planner, Founder, and Managing Partner of Palafox Associates,[1]the only Filipino and the only Southeast Asian architectural firm to first make it into the list of the worlds top 200 architectural firms compiled by the London-based World Architecture magazine.[2]He was instrumental in many real estate developments in the Philippines such as the establishment ofRockwell Center,Robinsons MallsandSM Supermalls,Gateway MallinAraneta Center, Waltermart malls, Regency Boracay Hotel,La Mesa Watershed and Ecological Centerin Quezon City and Subic Special Economic Zone.Mr. Palafox is in the field of planning and architecture for four decades serving both the government and private sector. As Principal Architect-Urban Planner and Managing Partner of Palafox Associates for 22 years, his major projects include architectural design of more than eight million square meters in land area in 34 countries.

ROCKWELL CENTER

Charles-douard Jeanneret-Gris, better known asLe Corbusier(French:[l kbyzje]; October 6, 1887 August 27, 1965), was anarchitect,designer,painter,urban planner,writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now calledmodern architecture. He was born inSwitzerlandand became aFrench citizenin 1930. His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout Europe, India, and America.Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier was influential inurban planning, and was a founding member of theCongrs International d'Architecture Moderne(CIAM).

Dinocrates of Rhodes(alsoDeinocrates,Dimocrates,CheirocratesandStasicrates;[1]Greek: , fl. last quarter of the 4th century BC) was aGreekarchitectand technical adviser forAlexander the Great. He is known for his plan for the city ofAlexandria, the monumental funeral pyre forHephaestionand the reconstruction of theTemple of ArtemisatEphesus, as well as other works.In 332 BC, Alexander appointed him director of the surveying andurban planningwork for the city of Alexandria, which was laid out on a grid plan that was influential inHellenisticcity planning. He was aided byCleomenes of Naucratisand byCrates of Olynthus, an esteemedhydraulic engineerwho built thewaterworksfor the city and the sewer system demanded by the low-lying site.

Christopher Charles Benningeris an American-Indian architect and planner born in the United States in 1942. He studied urban planning at theMassachusetts Institute of Technologyand architecture at Harvard'sGraduate School of Design, where he later taught (196972).Benninger studied underJosep Lluis Sertand worked in his studio. He was a protg of the noted economistBarbara Wardand a member of theDelos Symposiumgroup, contributing articles to the journalEkistics. He was influenced by the group's founder,Constantinos Doxiadiswho led the Ekistics movement. This brought him into association withBuckminister Fuller,Arnold Toynbee,Margaret Meadand Jaquline Tyrwhitt.

Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies

Agustn Landa Verdugo(1923 3 October 2009) was aMexicanarchitectandurban planner, born inMexico City. He studied architecture in the National University of Mexico (nowUNAM). In 1945 he established a firm with his brotherEnrique, with whom he designed hundreds of public and private buildings during four decades of partnership. The firm's work distinguished itself by its modern language and the efficiency and economy of the solutions it proposed.The work of Landa Verdugo's firm was influential in many areas of architecture in Mexico, including the design of hospitals and social housing, where its pioneering designs became standards for younger architects.As an urban planner, Agustin Landa Verdugo was the author of the master plan of a number of new cities and neighborhoods in Mexico, most notably the city ofCancn, which was built in the early 1970s in an uninhabited island in thestateofQuintana Roo.

Master Plan of the city of Cancun

Moshe Safdie,CC,FAIA(born July 14, 1938) is anIsraeli/Canadianarchitect, urban designer, educator, theorist, and author. He is most identified withHabitat 67, which paved the way for his international career.[1] Moshe Safdie's works are known for their dramatic curves, arrays of geometric patterns, use of windows, and key placement of open and green spaces. His writings and designs stress the need to create meaningful, vital, and inclusive spaces that enhance community, with special attention to the essence of a particular locale, geography, and culture.He is a self-described modernist.

Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex, Anandpur Sahib, India, 2011

Alfred Bettman(1873 1945) was one of the key founders of modernurban planning.Zoning, as it is known today, can be attributed to his successful arguments before theU.S. Supreme Court, which resulted in the 1926 decision in favor of the Village ofEuclid, Ohio versus Ambler Realty Company.The concept of the "Comprehensive Plan," as used in most cities across the U.S., was in no small part due to the work of Bettman andLadislas Segoeon the "Cincinnati Plan." (SeeCity Plan for Cincinnati) Bettman also created the "Capital Improvements Budget."Bettman's planning work was interrupted in 1917 whenPresident Wilsonappointed him as a special assistant to Attorney GeneralAlexander Mitchell Palmer. Assigned to the War Emergency Division, he was in charge ofEspionage Actcases with John Lord O'Brian. At the end of the war, President Wilson granted clemency to over 100 prisoners on Bettman's recommendation.

City Plan for Cincinnati

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk(born December 20, 1950 inBryn Mawr, Pennsylvania) is anAmericanarchitectandurban plannerofPolish-Livonianaristocratic roots based inMiami, Florida. She received her undergraduate degree inarchitectureandurban planningfrom Princeton and her master's degree in architecture from theYale School of Architecture. Plater-Zyberk is a founder and emeritus board member of theCongress for the New Urbanism, which was established in 1993. She has been a visiting professor at many major North American schools of architecture, has been awarded several honorary doctorates and awards, and lectures frequently. In 2001, she and Duany were awarded theVincent Scully Prizeby theNational Building Museumin recognition of their contributions to the American built environment.

Arturo Soria y Mata(1844-1920) was an internationally importantSpanishurban plannerwhose work remains highly inspirational today. He is most well known for his concept of theLinear City(Ciudad Lineal) for application toMadridand elsewhere. He studied thecivil engineercareer (Ingeniero de Caminos), but he didn't finish it.Arturo Soria y Mata's idea of the Linear City (1882) replaced the traditional idea of the city as a centre and a periphery with the idea of constructing linear sections of infrastructure - roads, railways, gas, water, etc.- along an optimal line and then attaching the other components of the city along the length of this line. As compared to the concentric diagrams of Ebenezer Howard and other in the same period, Soria's linear city creates the infrastructure for a controlled process of expansion that joins one growing city to the next in a rational way, instead of letting them both sprawl.

Ciudad lineal de Arturo Soria