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ESDEP Course- : 2010-11-22

ESDEP European Steel Design Education Programme

ESDEP Course:

Disclaimer Ta

ESDEP (The European Steel Design Education Programme) was published in 1993 and referred to the pre-Standard version of the Eurocodes (the ENV versi*****). The technical content therefore does not necessarily conform to versi***** of the Eurocodes that are being published (as EN versi*****) from 2002 to 2007. The advice given in ESDEP may be used as general guidance but reference should always be made to the published EN Standards and National Annexes for the actual rules and recommendati*****.

Copyright[161] [2]

This English language version of ESDEP may be freely used by Universities and Colleges as a source of reference for education and training in steel c*****truction, provided this is not for financial gain. In this context it may be freely copied. Other potential uses of the English version of ESDEP should be referred in writing to the SCI for guidance.

IntroductionThere are links from the 18 Working Groups of the ESDEP course contents to 201 lectures which cover 22 broad subject areas. These are identified by group and lecture number, and each lecture corresponds approximately to a presentation of 50 minutes duration. The lectures include a summary page which lists the objectives and scope. Any pre-requisites are also itemised and a brief summary description of the content is given. References, bibliography and line diagrams are included after the main text.

ContentThe content of the lectures ranges from applied metallurgy to structural systems, and includes mainstream subjects, such as buckling and composite behaviour, as well as specialised secti*****, for instance those dealing with corrosion protection and seismic design. The material covers not only buildings and bridges but also structures such as offshore platforms, tanks, chimneys and masts. The depth of study ranges from basic introduction to very advanced. Material may be useful to both teachers, as a source for lecture presentati*****, and to students, working individually or in groups. WG 1A : STEEL C*****TRUCTION: ECONOMIC & COMMERCIAL FACTORS WG 1B : STEEL C*****TRUCTION: INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN WG 2 : APPLIED METALLURGY WG 3 : FABRICATION AND ERECTION WG 4A : PROTECTION: CORROSION WG 4B : PROTECTION: FIRE WG 5 : COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE WG 6 : APPLIED STABILITY WG 7 : ELEMENTS WG 8 : PLATES AND SHELLS WG 9 : THIN-WALLED C*****TRUCTION WG 10 : COMPOSITE C*****TRUCTION WG 11 : CONNECTION DESIGN: STATIC LOADING

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WG 12 : FATIGUE WG 13 : TUBULAR STRUCTURES WG 14 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BUILDINGS WG 15A : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE WG 15B : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BRIDGES WG 15C : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: MISCELLANEOUS WG 16 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: REFURBISHMENT WG 17 : SEISMIC DESIGN WG 18 : STAINLESS STEEL

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: 2010-11-22

Course Contents

WG 15A : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORELecture 15A.1 : Offshore Structures: General Introduction:

Lecture 15A.2 : Loads (I) : Introduction and Environmental Loads Lecture 15A.3 : Loads (II) - Other Loads Lecture 15A.4 : - Analysis I

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Lecture 15A.5 : - Analysis II Lecture 15A.6 : Foundati***** Lecture 15A.7 : Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures Lecture 15A.8 : Fabrication Lecture 15A.9 : Installation Lecture 15A.10 : Superstructures I Lecture 15A.11 : - Superstructures II Lecture 15A.12 : Connecti***** in Offshore Deck Structures

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Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE

Lecture 15A.1: Offshore Structures::

General IntroductionOBJECTIVE/SCOPE

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To identify the basic vocabulary, to introduce the major concepts for offshore platform structures, and to explain where the basic structural requirements for design are generated.

PREREQUISITESNone.

SUMMARYThe lecture starts with a presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation, the basic steps in the[161] [2]

development process (from seismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based, GBS-based, TLP, floating). The major codes are identified. For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS), the different execution phases are briefly explained: design, fabrication and installation. Special attention is given to some principles of topside design.

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A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented. Finally terms are introduced through a glossary.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Offshore platforms are c*****tructed to produce the hydrocarb***** oil and gas. The contribution of offshore oil production in the year 1988 to the world energy c*****umption was 9% and is estimated to be 24% in 2000. The investment (CAPEX) required at present to produce one barrel of oil per day ($/B/D) and the production costs (OPEX) per barrel are depicted in the table below.

Condition [/td] [/td] [/td] Conventional [/td] Average [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] Offshore [/td] North Sea [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] 35000 [/td] [/td] World oil production in 1988 was 63 million barrel/day. These figures clearly indicate the challenge for the offshore designer: a growing contribution is required from offshore exploitation, a very capital intensive activity. Figure 1 shows the distribution of the oil and gas fields in the North Sea, a major contribution to the world offshore hydrocarb*****. It also indicates the *****hore fields in England, the Netherlands and Germany. [td=1,1,76] 10 - 15 [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] Deepwater [td=1,1,131] 15000 10000 - 25000 5 - 10 Non-Opec [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] 3000 - 12000 8 [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] Middle East [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] 500 - 3000 1 4000 - 8000 5 [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] CAPEX $/B/D OPEX $/B

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2.2.1(see Slides 1 and 2).

OFFSHORE PLATFORMSIntroduction of Basic Types

The overwhelming majority of platforms are piled-jacket with deck structures, all built in steel

Slide 1 : Jacket based platform - Southern sector North Sea

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Slide 2 : Jacket based platform - Northern sector North Sea A second major type is the gravity concrete structure (see Figure 2), which is employed in the North Sea in the Norwegian and British sectors.

A third type is the floating production unit.

2.2

Environment

The offshore environment can be characterized by: water depth at location soil, at seabottom and in-depth wind speed, air temperature waves, tide and storm surge, current ice (fixed, floes, icebergs) earthquakes (if necessary) The topside structure also must be kept clear of the wave crest. The clearance (airgap) usually is taken at approximately 1,50 m, but should be increased if reservoir depletion will create significant subsidence.

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2.3

C*****truction

The environment as well as financial aspects require that a high degree of prefabrication must be performed *****hore. It is necessary to design to limit offshore work to a minimum. The overall cost of a man-hour offshore is approximately five times that of an *****hore man-hour. The cost of c*****truction equipment required to handle loads, and the cost for logistics are also a magnitude higher offshore. These factors combined with the size and weight of the items, require that a designer must carefully c*****ider all c*****truction activities between shop fabrication and offshore installation.

2.4

Codes

Structural design has to comply with specific offshore structural codes. The worldwide leading structural code is the API-RP2A [1]. The recently issued Lloyds rules [2] and the DnV rules [3] are also important. Specific government requirements have to be complied with, e.g. in the rules of Department of Energy (DoE), Norwegian Petroleum Direktorate (NPD). For the detail design of the topside structure the AISC-code [4] is frequently used, and the AWS-code [5] is used for welding. In the UK the Piper alpha diaster has led to a completely new approach to regulation offshore. The resp*****ibility for regulatory control has been moved to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and the operator has to produce a formal safety assessment (TSA) himself instead of complying with detailed regulati*****.

2.5

Certification and Warranty Survey

Government authorities require that recognized bodies appraise the aspects of structural integrity and issue a certificate to that purpose. The major certification bodies are: Det norske Veritas (DnV) Lloyds Register of Shipping (LRS) American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Bureau Veritas (BV) Germanischer Lloyd (GL) Their requirements are available to the designer [2, 3, 6, 7, 8]. Insurance companies covering transport and installation require the structures to be reviewed by warranty surveyors before acceptance. The warranty surveyors apply standards, if avai