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Bch Khoa Online Giao lu - Hc hi - Chia s kinh nghim ca cc th h sinh vin Bch Khoa hutonline.net

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MC LCChng 1: BN V KT CU THP 1.Khi nim chung 2.Cch biu din cc loi thp hnh 3.Cc hnh thc lp ni ca kt cu thp 4.c im ca bn v kt cu thp 5.Gii thiu mt s bn v kt cu thp v trnh t biu din Chng 2: BN V KT CU B TNG CT THP 1.Khi nim chung 2.Cc loi ct thp 3.Cc qui nh v k hiu qui c dng trn bn v BTCT 4.Cch c v v bn v BTCT Chng 3: BN V KT CU G 1.Khi nim chung 2.Cc hnh thc lp ni ca kt cu g 3.Ni dung v c im kt cu g 4.Trnh t thit lp bn v kt cu g Chng 4: BN V NH 1.Khi nim chung 2.Mt bng ton th 3.Cc hnh biu din ca mt ngi nh 4.Bn v nh cng nghip 5.Trnh t thit lp bn v nh Chng 5: BN V CNG TRNH CU 1.Khi nim chung 2.Cc loi bn v cng trnh cu 03 03 05 08 11 21 21 22 25

32 32 35 41

44 47 48 55 58

62 66

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V XY DNGTrong phn ny chng ta s vn dng nhng khi nim hc phn trc nh cc quy nh v hnh biu din, v nt v, v ghi kch thc ... vo vic biu din cc kt cu cng trnh v cc cng trnh xy dng . Cc kt cu cng trnh c nhiu dng phc tp , nhng ni chung c th quy v my loi sau: -Kt cu thp -Kt cu b tng ct thp -Kt cu g Sau khi bit cch biu din cc kt cu , chng ta s nghin cu cch th hin mt cng trnh .Chng ta khng i su vo cc vn chuyn mn ca cc cng trnh , m ch nghin cu cc quy tc thit lp bn v , cc yu c i vi bn v trong tng giai on thit k . Chng 1:

BN V KT CU THP

1. KHI NIM CHUNG Kt cu thp l kt cu do cc thanh thp hnh v cc bn thp hoc v mng kim loi ghp li vi nhau bng nhiu hnh thc lp ni . l loi kt cu c dng rng ri trong xy dng . Trong kt cu thp thng c hai loi kt cu : h thanh v h v . -H thanh gm cc yu t c bn l dm, ct, dn... c dng lm khung nh , nhp cu ... -H v gm cc v mng bng kim loi ghp li vi nhau lm cc thng cha , ni hi , ng dn ... Thi cng kt cu thp thng chia ra lm hai giai on : ch to cng xng v lp rp hin trng . Nh vy trong bn v thi cng , ngoi vic ghi y kch thc , cn cn ghi cc k hiu ch r vic lp rp tin hnh cng xng hay hin trng . 2. CCH BIU DIN CC LOI THP HNH Thp hnh gm my loi chnh sau : I. THP GC ( hay thp ch L) Hnh 89 v hnh chiu trc o ca mt on thanh thp gc .C loi thp gc u cnh v loi thp gc khng u cnh . Trn bn v ch loi thp gc ny ngi ta dng k hiu Lb s (u cnh ) Lb1 h2 s ( khng u cnh )3

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Trong b ch chiu rng ca cnh thanh thp , s ch b dy ca cnh .

Hnh - 89

V d : L100 12 ; L100 75 10 Bng 6-4 v 6-5 cho ta kch thc mt ct ca thp gc . II. THP HNH MNG (hay thp ch U) . Hnh 90 v hnh chiu trc o ca mt on thp ch U .Dng k hiu L n ch loi thp ch U trn bn v , trong n l s hiu thp. V d : L 22. Bng 6-6 cho bit cc kch thc ca mt ct thp ch U , trong h l chiu cao , b -chiu rng ca cnh , - b dy ca thn , t- b dy trung bnh ca cnh .

Hnh - 90

III.THP CH I . Hnh 91 v hnh chiu trc o ca mt on thanh thp ch I . Dng k hiu I ch loi thp ny trn bn v . V d : I 24 . Bng 6-7 cho bit cc kch thc ca mt ct thp ch I ; trong h l chiu cao , b -chiu rng ca cnh , s - b dy ca thn ; t - b dy trung bnh ca cnh .

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Hnh - 91

IV. CC LOI THP KHC Ngoi cc loi thp trn ta cn c thp ch T ( k hiu ch T ) ch Z ( k hiu ch Z ) thp trn ( k hiu ) thp tm (k hiu ). Cch ghi k hiu cc loi thp hnh trn bn v . - S lng v k hiu ca mi thanh thp ch ghi mt ln trn hnh biu din . Con s ch s lng c ghi trc k hiu thanh thp ( v d : 2L50 2 ) Nu b phn kt cu ch c mt thanh hoc nu du k hiu th hin r dng ghp ca nhiu thanh , th khng cn ghi s lng thanh thp trc du k hiu ( v d : 50 5 ; 50 5 ) i vi bn thp dng lm bn m , bn nt , ng sau du k hiu thp tm c ghi thm kch thc khun kh ca bn thp v b dy ca n . ( V d : - 220 360 10 ) . Trn bn v mi thanh thp u c nh s . Cc con s ny vit bng ch s - rp trong vng trn ng knh 7 - 10 mm v ghi theo mt th t nht nh . ( t tri sang phi , hoc t trn xung di ) . 3. CC HNH THC LP NI CA KT CU THP Trong kt cu thp thng dng hai hnh thc lp ni : - Lp ni tho c ( bng bulng ) - Lp ni khng tho c ( bng inh tn ) I .Trn bn v kt cu thp, nhng mi ghp bng inh tn hay bulng u c TCVN 2234 - 77 "Thit lp bn v kt cu thp" . Bng 6-1 trnh by mt s k hiu theo quy c : BNG 3-1 K hiu quy c mi ghp inh tn v bu lng ( Trch TCVN 1610- 88 )

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S T.T 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Tn gi 2 V tr l khoan L trn L bu dc inh tn m chm cu inh tn u chm c 2 pha inh tn u na chm c hai pha Bulng lin kt tm thi Bulng lin kt c nh Mi hn i u khi ch to Mi hn i u khi lp rp Mi hn gc, hn ch T hn chng khi ch to Mi hn gc, hn ch T hn chng khi lp rp ng dng v ghi ch mi hn thy ng dng v ghi ch mi hn khut ng dng v ghi ch mi hn hai pha hay hay ca ca ca

K hiu qui c 3

Ch thch : a- Trn hnh 92a , b trnh by cc chi tit c ren ( nh l , v trc c ren ) . Cn ch : ng chn ren v bng nt lin mnh ; trn hnh biu din vung gc vi trc ren , ng chn ren c th hin bng khong 3/4 ng trn . ng gii hn ren v ng nh ren v bng nt6

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lin m . b- Trn hnh 92c , v mi ghp bng ren ( lp ni hai ng ) , ren ngoi ( ren trn trc ) che khut ren trong ( ren trn l ) c- Trn cc bn v lp kt cu thp t l ln , khi khng cn thit th hin r mi ghp bng bulng , cho php c v n gin nh trnh by trn hnh 93. d- K hiu bulng gm k hiu ren ( prfin , ng knh ren ) , chiu di bu lng v s hiu tiu chun bulng .

Hnh 92a,b,c

V d :Bu lng M 12 60 TCVN 189276( Bulng u su cnh , ren h mt , ng knh ren 12 mm , chiu di bulng 60mm ).

Hnh 93

II.GHP BNG HN a)Phn loi mi hn : Ngi ta phn loi mi ghp bng hn nh sau ( H.94 ) - Hn i nh k hiu l D . - Hn ch T , k hiu l T . - Hn gc , k hiu l G . - Hn chp , k hiu l C . b)Cch biu din v k hiu quy c cc mi ghp bng hn ( TCVN 3746 - 83 ). Trn hnh biu din cc mi hn thy c v bng nt lin m ( nh ng bao thy ) , cc mi hn khut Hnh 947

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c v bng nt t ( nh ng bao khut ) . Khi mi hn c ghi r bng mt ng dng gy khc tn cng bng mi tn mt cnh ch vo mi hn . K hiu v cc kch thc lin quan ca mi hn c ghi pha trn ca an dng nm ngang nu l mi hn thy , s ghi pha di nu l mi hn khut . K hiu bng ch nh cc loi mi ghp bng hn c trnh by trong bng 3-2 . Hnh 95 l th d v cch ghi k hiu mt mi hn chp theo ng bao h ,hn cch qung ,chiu cao mi hn 6mm ,chiu di mi mi hn 50mm, bc ca mi hn 100 mm (suy ra khong cch gia hai mi hn k nhau 50mm) Hnh 95 Hnh 96 l th d mt mi hn ch T theo ng bao kn , hn cch qung , chiu cao mi hn 5mm , chiu di mi hn 50mm , bc 100mm . - K hiu ph ca mi hn ( v d hn so le , hn theo ng bao h )Hnh 96

4. C IM CA BN V KT CU THP

- Cc hnh chiu ca kt cu thp c b tr nh trnh by chng bn v v tr ca cc hnh chiu c bn . Tuy nhin , trong mt s trng hp cc hnh chiu bng v cnh c b tr nh trnh by trn hnh 97 . Khi cn ch r hng nhn v ghi tn hnh chiu tng ng ( "A" "B" ) - Trn bn v kt cu thp thng v s hnh hc ca kt cu . S v bng nt lin mnh , chiu di cc thanh ghi theo n v mm , v khng cn ng dng kch thc . - Khi v tch mt s nt ca kt cu trc cc thanh phi v song song vi cc thanh tng ng trn s hnh hc . nghing ca cc thanh c ghi nh trn hnh 98. Bng 3-2

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Hnh dng Loi mi hn mp vt u chi tit Khng vt u Mi hn ghp i u Vt u

c tnh thc Hnh dng hin mi hn mt ct mi hn Mt pha

Khiuquyc dhiu Ch s 2

Hai pha

4

Mt pha

5

Mt pha Khng vt u Mi hn ghp gc Vt mt u Hai pha

G3

G5

Mt pha

G6

Mt pha Khng vt u Mi hn ghp ch T Vt mt u Hai pha

T1

T4

Hai pha

T7

Mt pha t qung Mi hn ghp chp Khng vt u Hai pha

C1

C2

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- Trn hnh chiu v hnh ct ch cn v nhng ng khut ca cc b phn nm ngay sau cc phn t ny . Nhng phn nm su pha trong khng cn biu din bng nt t . Trn hnh chiu cho php khng v mt s chi tit khng cn thit nht l khi nhng chi tit ny che khut nhng b phn quan trng cn biu din hn .

Hnh 97

Hnh 98

Hnh 99

- cho hnh v c sng sa v r rng , mt ct ca cc chi tit khng gch cho m trng . Nu bn v c t l nh , cho php t en mt ct nh trn hnh -99. - T l ca hnh biu din c th chn nh sau .10

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Chng 2

BN V KT CU B TNG CT THP.1. KHI NIM CHUNG i Btng ct thp l loi vt liu hn hp di dng btng lin kt v ct thp chng cng lm vic vi nhau trong cng mt kt cu . Btng l mt loi nhn to , chu nn tt nhng chu ko km nn ngi ta t ct thp vo nhng vng chu ko ca kt cu khc phc nhc im trn ca b tng . Btng ct thp c s dng rng ri trong xy dng . .2. CC LOI CT THP . Ngi ta phn ra hai loi ct thp - Ct thp mm : gm nhng thanh thp c mt ct trn . - Ct thp cng : gm cc thanh thp hnh ( ch I , ch U ) Loi ct thp mm c s dng nhiu hn loi ct thp cng . Ct thp mm li chia ra : ct thp trn v ct thp gai : cc gai ny lm tng s lin kt gia btng v ct thp ( H.108 ). Ct thp gai c dng trong cc cng trnh chu rung v chn ng nhiu .

Hnh 107

Hnh 108

Tu theo tc dng ca ct thp trong kt cu , ngi ta phn ra : - Ct thp chu lc: Trong cn phn ra ct chu lc ch yu , ct chu lc cc b , ct phn b .

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-Ct ai : dng gi cc ct thp chu lc v tr lm vic , ng thi cng tham gia chu lc . -Ct cu to : c t thm theo yu cu cu to , tit din ca chng khng xt n trong tnh ton .

Hnh 110

Cc ct thp thng c lin kt thnh li ( H.115 ) hoc thnh khung ( H.118,119 ) Ngi ta thng dng dy thp nh hoc dng hn lin kt cc ct thp . tng cng lin kt trong btng , ct trn c un thnh mc hai u . ( H.108 ) Nu ct thp khng di , ngi ta ni ct thp bng cch buc hay hn