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VTScout Photography

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Hoc nhiep Anh

Text of VTScout Photography

  • S O N T H E O T I L I U H U N L U Y N C H U Y N H I U N H I P N H C A C H R I S T I A N E N N E R F E L T

    n h i p n h c n b n

    c a o h n g l y n h

  • y u c u

    1. gii thch cch thc cc yu t sau y tc ng n phm cht ca bc hnh:

    a. nh sng t nhin, nh sng n flash

    b. khu (f-stops), tc (Shutter Speed), su nh trng (Depth of Field DOF)

    c. b cc mt phn ba (rule of thirds), ng dn (leading lines), framing

    d. gc chp (angle of view)

    e. bt ng mt din bin, mt ng tc (stopping action)

    2. gii thch cc b phn c bn v cch vn hnh ca my k thut s. Gii thch cch thc s phi sng (exposure) din ra khi ta chp mt bc hnh

  • n h i p n h l v b n g n h s n g

    nh sng t nhin l nh sng ban ngy chiu sng bn ngoi ng ph, hoc len v bn trong nh qua khung ca s. nh sng nhn to bao gm nh n ng, n xe c, n trong nh, hoc n flash ca my chp hnh. nh sng sn c (ambient light) l nh sng ca tt c mi ngun sng hin c ti ni chp hnh, tr nh sng n flash v n studio. Mu sc ca nh sng s tc ng n mu sc v kh hu/tm trng (mood) ca bc hnh.

    Trong mt khung cnh c nhiu nh sng, ta chn tc chp nhanh (tr s tc ln), m ng knh hp (khu - aperture)1, v/hoc nhy sng (ISO) thp.

    Tri li, trong mt khung cnh t nh sng, ta chn tc chp chm (tr s tc nh), m ng knh rng2 , v/hoc nhy sng cao.

    1 ngha l chn tr s f-stop ln

    2 ngha l chn tr s f-stop nh

  • n h n g b n g t i ( s h a d o w s ) l u n l u n l m t y u t q u a n t r n g t r o n g m t b c n h p

    nh sng n Flash l mt ngun sng nhn to dng thm nh sng cho nh sng sn c. nh sng Flash bao gm nh sng c pht t n flash ca my chp hnh v t cc loi n chuyn dng trong studio nhip nh (strobes).

    nh sng n Flash ca my chp hnh l loi nh sng khng lin tc, trong khi nh sng n studio l nh sng lin tc.

    Ta dng flash thm nh sng vo ni ta cho l cn thit, hoc b sung bng ti (shadows) cho bc hnh, hoc bt ng cc ng tc trong th dc th thao.

    Flash c cng nhit mu (temperature of color) vi nh sng mt tri.

  • hnh chp vi nh sng t nhin, khng flash

  • hnh chp vi nh sng sn c, gm tt c mi ngun sng, tr flash

  • hnh chp vi nh sng flash

  • hnh chp vi nh sng sn c v thm flash lm sng v r chi tit khun mt

  • tr s f-stop (khu ) cng nh, nh sng v cng nhiu. M khu c ngha l gim f-stop; khp khu l tng f-stop

  • tr s tc chp cng cao, nh sng v cng t, v ngc li

    Tc chp (shutter speed): tc (hoc qung thi gian) ng m mn trp, c tnh bng cc tr s nh 1/30, 1/60 1/4000 ca 1 giy.

    Mn trp (curtain shutter): l b phn c hnh dng nh hnh minh ha di y. nh sng i qua ng knh, trc khi n card cm quang, phi i ngang qua mn trp. Nu mn trp ng hon ton (ngha l ta khng bm nt chp) th nh sng khng th n c cm card cm quan, cho d nh sng vn xuyn qua ng knh. Khi ta bm nt chp, mn trp s m ra mt lc ri ng li. Thi gian mn trp m ra nhanh hay lu s quyt nh lng nh sng nhiu hay t lt v my chp hnh.

  • mn trp (curtain shutter)c hnh dng v cng dng rt ging vi mn so treo ni ca s

  • bt ng ng tc bng tc cao, lm nhe chuyn ng bng tc thp

    Ta thit lp tr s tc chp t 1/500 tr ln bt ng cc ng tc, trong th thao chng hn.

    Ta thit lp tr s tc thp, th d 1/30, to hiu ng nhe ca mt chuyn ng.

    ISO - nhy sng: tr s ISO thp, 100 n 200, thng c thit lp chp hnh trong khung cnh c nhiu nh sng, nh cnh ban ngy ngoi tri chng hn.

    Tr s ISO trung bnh, 400 n 800, thng c thit lp chp hnh trong nh, ni nh sng thng khng mnh.

    Tr s ISO cao, t 1600 tr ln, thng c dng trong khung cnh thiu sng, nhng nhip nh gia li mun chp tc mn trp cao nhm bt ng ng tc.

  • dng ISO cao chp hnh ni thiu sng, nhng ISO cao khin bc hnh b nhiu ht (noise)

    Tr s ISO cng cao th bc hnh cng b nhiu ht (noise).

    Trong mt iu kin nh sng no , thit lp tr s ISO thp c ngha l ta phi m rng m ng knh (tr s f-stop nh) v/hoc tc mn trp chm. Cng trong iu kin nh sng , phi tng tr s ISO ln, ta mi c th tng tc mn trp v/hoc khp m ng knh li (tr s f-stop ln).

  • tc chp thp lm nhe chuyn ng, nhng mt bc nh b nhe khng hn l mt bc nh b hng

  • tc cao bt ng chuyn ng

  • tr s f-stop nh khin hu cnh m i lm ni bt ch tr s f-stop ln to cho hnh c chiu su

    su nh trng (depth of field): l khong cch r nt ca vt gn nht v vt xa nht trong mt bc hnh.

    su nh trng ty thuc vo m ng knh, tiu c ng knh v khong cch t ng knh n ngi/vt c chp. Tr s f-stop nh ( m ng knh rng) lm cho bc hnh c su nh trng nng/mng. Tr s f-stop ln ( m ng knh hp) lm cho bc hnh c su nh trng dy, tc l qung r nt di hn gia vt gn v xa nht; khi , ta ni bc nh c chiu su.

    Thit lp tr s f-stop nh chp chn dung hoc th thao; lm nh vy, ta s lm ni bt ch trong bc nh.

    Thit lp tr s f-stop ln chp phong cnh hoc kin trc.

  • tr s f-stop nh lm m hu cnh (xa phng), ni bt ch

  • tr s f-stop ln lm cho bc hnh c chiu su

  • b cc: lut mt phn ba

    lut mt phn ba (rule of thirds): dng cc ng thng tng tng chia khung hnh ra lm 3 phn theo chiu ngang v 3 phn theo chiu dc. 4 giao im gia cc ng chia ngang dc y l 4 im d thu ht nh nhn ca mt. Hy sp t ngi/vt mun chp nm trn cc ng thng hoc 4 im y. Khi b cc nh vy, bc hnh s d gy n tng vi ngi xem.

  • ng t ch gia khung hnh hy t lch sang mt bn

  • khi chp chn dung, nn t ngi mu lch sang mt bn khung hnh v i mt nm trn ng mt phn ba

  • tn dng cc ng cong, ng thng, ng cho, ng song song to b cc bc hnh

    ng dn (leading lines): s dng hnh dng cong hoc thng ca con ng, ng ray xe la, hng ro, v.v dn nh nhn ca ngi xem n ch bc hnh. Trong bc hnh, c th b cc ng dn xut pht t cnh bn hoc cnh y, t gc bn tri hoc gc bn phi ca phn bn di bc hnh.

  • ng cong ca con dc v ng cho tng tng

  • sng mn man v ng cong trn b ct

  • ng ray l ng l tng thu ht nh nhn

  • framing

    framing: l dng nhng ng thc v ng o to nn 1 ci khung khc bn trong bc hnh

  • cnh ca bc vch qun n to thm 2 khung nh trong bc hnh

  • c gn, c xa th bc hnh mi c chiu su

    to chiu su c ngha l p dng lut vin cn cho bc hnh. Th d thay v ch chp nh ni, ta nn chp thm mt nhnh cy, mt ng my tin cnh.

  • xe sa u nnh gn ngi phu qut ng xa xa

  • bc hnh p lun lun c chp qua mt gc nhn khc thng

    Gc nhn (angle of view): mt ngi c gc nhn tng ng vi gc nhn ca ng knh 50mm; do , ng knh ny cn c gi l ng knh normal. ng knh c gc nhn rng hn (ngha l c tiu c ngn hn 50mm) so vi ng knh 50mm c gi l ng knh gc rng. ng knh c gc nhn hp hn (ngha l c tiu c di hn 50mm) so vi ng 50mm c gi l ng tele. Nhip nh gia thng dng ng knh gc rng chp sinh hot ng ph hoc phong cnh, v dng ng tele chp chn dung hoc th thao.

  • phi ln cao mi thy mt Nha Trang nh vy

  • v qu tht thp cng vi nng chiu t nt thanh tn thiu n

  • flash khng ch c dng chiu sng

    Ngoi vic thit lp tc mn trp cao, 1/500 chng hn, ta cn c th dng

    n flash bt ng cc chuyn ng ca vt/ngi c chp.

  • nhng ht ng li ti b flash bt ng khi ang ri

  • iu g xy ra khi ta bm nt chp hnh?

    khi bm nt chp, cc l khu ca ng knh s di chuyn thnh mt l trn (ng knh ca l trn c kch thc ln nh ty theo s thit lp tr s f-stop), gng phn x s lt ln, ca mn trp m ra (thi gian nhanh hay chm ty thuc vo s thit lp tr s tc mn trp); nh sng, khi , s i qua ng king v c card cm quang (sensor) ghi nhn v lu tr thnh hnh nh. sng ca bc hnh, v vy, s ty thuc lng nh sng thm nhp v my nh. Ni cch khc, sng ca bc hnh ty thuc vo khu ng knh v/hoc tc mn trp v/hoc nhy sng ca card cm quang (ISO).

    ton b din trnh trn c gi l s phi sng (exposure)

  • thc hnh

    K chuyn bng mt b nh (photo essay) t 8-12 bc. Th d: mt bui sinh hot hng o, mt tr chi trong bui sinh hot, hot ng dng ct c, bui cho c, tht dy

    B nh phi c m bi, thn bi, kt lun nh mt bi vn. Nn c ta cho b nh v vit vi dng thuyt mnh (caption) cho mi bc nh. Sau , c th dng powerpoint trnh by b nh ca mnh.

    Tham kho mt s photo essays ti cc a ch sau:

    tai nn ti mt xng may Bangladesh

    ending child marriage