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  • Why Muslim Integration Fails in Christian- Heritage Societies

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  • Why Muslim Integration Fails in Christian- Heritage Societies

    Claire L. Adida David D. Laitin Marie- Anne Valfort

    Cambridge, Massachusetts London, En gland 2016

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  • Copyright © 2016 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America

    First printing

    Library of Congress Cataloging- in- Publication Data

    Adida, Claire L., 1979– Why Muslim integration fails in Christian- heritage socie ties / Claire L. Adida, David D. Laitin, and Marie- Anne Valfort. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-674-50492-9 (alk. paper) 1. Muslims— France— Public opinion. 2. Islamophobia— France. 3. France— Emigration and immigration. 4. Immigrants— France— Social conditions. 5. France— Ethnic relations. I. Laitin, David D. II. Valfort, Marie- Anne, 1978– III. Title. DC34.5.M87A35 2016 305.6'970944— dc23

    2015014163

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  • To Antonin, Ethan, Gabi, Ida,

    Julia, Louise, and Mina— the seven children

    and grandchildren from our three families

    born while we were producing this book—in

    the hope that they grow up in a world

    where all barriers to achievement due to

    discrimination have been lifted.

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  • Contents

    List of Figures and Tables ix

    Preface xi

    part I Introduction 1

    1 The Challenge of Muslim Migrants into Christian- Heritage Societies 3

    2 Anti- Muslim Discrimination in the French Labor Market and Its Consequences 15

    part ii Research Strategy 29

    3 Solving the Problem of Causal Identifi cation 31

    4 Procuring a Sample 41

    5 Research Protocols 54

    part iii Why Is There Religious Discrimination in France? 77

    6 Muslim Characteristics That Feed Rational Islamophobia 79

    7 Evidence of Nonrational Islamophobia 93

    8 A Discriminatory Equilibrium 108

    part iv Looking Beyond, Looking Ahead 125

    9 Beyond France: Muslim Immigrants in Western Eu rope and in the United States 127

    10 What Is to Be Done? 148

    Appendix 185

    Notes 217

    Glossary 233

    References 237

    Index 255

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  • ix

    Figures and Tables

    Figures 2.1 Interview callback rates for Marie Diouf and Khadija Diouf 24 2.2 House hold income of Senegalese Muslim and Senegalese

    Christian survey respondents 27 3.1 Senegalese origins of our Senegalese Muslim and

    Senegalese Christian populations 34 5.1 Sample sheet of the 2009 speed chatting game 60 5.2 Sample sheet of the voting decision in the 2009 voting game 62 5.3 Sample sheet of the allocation decision in the 2009 voting

    game 63 5.4 Variations in the ethnoreligious identity of the recipients in the

    2009 dictator game 65 5.5 Sample screenshot for the 2010 name game 69 5.6 Sample screenshot for the 2010 beauty game 72 5.7 Sample screenshot for the 2010 strategic dictator game 73 5.8 Sample screenshot for the 2010 double strategic dictator

    game 74 6.1 Donations in the 2009 dictator game 88 7.1 Donations of FFFs in the 2009 dictator game when the

    number of SMs and SXs in the room varies 100 9.1 Comparing discrimination by host populations in Western

    Eu rope against Muslim and Christian immigrants from Muslim- majority countries 130

    9.2 Comparing gender and religious norms in Western Eu rope of Muslim and Christian immigrants from Muslim- majority countries 134

    9.3 Intergenerational trends in gender norms and religious norms in Western Eu rope of Muslim and Christian immigrants from Muslim- majority countries 137

    9.4 Comparing Muslim and Christian Arab Americans on profi ciency in En glish 142

    9.5 Comparing Muslim and Christian Arab Americans on attachment to America 144

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  • x F I G U R E S A N D TA B L E S

    Tables 1.1 Share of the Muslim population in Muslim- majority

    countries 6 4.1 Balance test for the 2009 SM and SX players 47 5.1 First names of the 2009 SM and SX players 68 5.2 Categorization of the 2009 SM players’ fi rst names as SMM or

    SMA by our 2010 FFF players 70 8.1 Level of SM and SX distrust in French institutions 112 8.2 Comparing SM and SX agreement that French institutions treat

    all on equal basis 113 8.3 Comparing average SM and SX attachment to the country or

    continent of origin 117 8.4 Comparing average SM and SX identifi cation with French

    culture and society 118 8.5 Comparing average SM and SX identifi cation with secular

    norms 120 8.6 The evolution of SM and SX integration over time 122 9.1 Comparing Muslim and Christian Arab Americans on

    discrimination from the host society 140 9.2 Comparing Muslim and Christian Arab Americans on

    attachment to their region of origin 146 10.1 Multiculturalism Policy Index in 1980 and 2010 for sixteen

    Western Eu ro pean countries 178 10.2 Trends in norms for Muslim and Christian immigrants in

    assimilationist and multicultural countries of Western Eu rope 179

    10.3 Intergenerational trends in discrimination for Muslims and Christians in assimilationist and multicultural countries 180

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  • xi

    Preface

    The origins of this book go back to the co- participation of Gilles Kepel and David Laitin in the Giorgio Cini Foundation’s “I Dia- loghi di San Giorgio” in September 2006 on the topic of martyr- doms. In the interstices of this erudite colloquium, Kepel and Laitin discussed the threats to Eu rope coming from radicalized Islam. Kepel is a renowned expert on the Islamic world and author of a major text on Islam in France. He served as a con sul tant to President Jacques Chirac’s Stasi Commission, which addressed the French response to the affaire concerning the legality of students wearing the foulard, a symbol of religious identity, in their schools. Kepel then or ga nized with department chair Astrid von Busekist at Sci- ences- Po of Paris, where they both taught, to invite Laitin to de- liver a course to graduate students in the fall of 2007 in his com- parative politics specialization. Laitin agreed and, inspired by his conversations with Kepel, made it his agenda to determine whether he could advance his research on the cultural foundation of po liti cal behavior through a study of Muslim integration into Eu rope. He consulted with colleagues as well as with a set of excellent students and postdocs in Kepel’s program on the Arab and Muslim world at Sciences- Po.

    While teaching in Paris, Laitin narrowed his concerns to a spe- cifi c question. He wondered whether Muslims faced higher barriers to socioeconomic integration into France than they would if every- thing about them were the same but they weren’t Muslim. While living in Eu rope, he observed the vitriol hurled across the En glish Channel in which French intellectuals decried the accommodations to Muslim culture in what they called “Londonstan”; meanwhile, British intellectuals decried French insouciance to the cultural

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  • xii P R E F A C E

    practices of its Muslim migrants. Both of these orientations were based on biased inferences without any systematic data.

    Upon refl ection on this question, Laitin saw an opportunity to deploy modern social science techniques to address a question that remained a subject of speculation and polemic in Eu rope. This re- quired him to isolate a migrant population of Christians and Mus- lims living in France that were alike in all other respects save reli- gion. He relied on his earlier specialty as an Africanist to identify two small ethnic groups in Senegal— the Serers and the Joolas— who met these criteria. He spent his fi nal weeks at Sciences- Po exploring the feasibility of this effort and, upon returning to his home institu- tion at Stanford, wrote a National Science Foundation (NSF) ap- plication to conduct such a study. He relied heavily on an informal collaboration wi