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"

. .MostlyTek Ltd , " 1 Dr. Moshe Ran /1

: Theodore S. Rappaport Wireless Communications - Principle and Practice",( 1 . 2nd Edition Prentice Hall 2002 .P. Mohana Shankar Introduction to Wireless systems Wiley, 2001( 2 : The Mobile Communications Handbook" , Ed. Jerry D. Gibson., IEEE Press( "3 1996 J.S. Lee and L.E. Miller, CDMA System Engineering Handbook, Artech( 4 .House 1998 T. Ojanpera and R. Prasad Ed. Wideband CDMA for Third generation( 5 .Mobile Communications, Artech House 1998 ", W.C.Y. Lee, "Mobile Communications Design Fundamentals( 6 .John Wiley& Sons, 199321/ - Dr. Moshe Ran

Mobile and Cellular Communication System

: 4 + 5.3 : . : : "

- . , , . .

: %08 WWW.MostlyTek.com : MosheLong : Mobile Moshe_Ran@mostlytek.com / / %02 / %08 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

3

: ]6[ , /. , , ), (, , , . , , . . , , . : ]6 [ , , : , , . , , , , , . ) , (frequency-reuse ,, , ACI ,CCI , Erlang , GOS , . )(handoff

1

2

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3 - 21[ Large Scale[ , , 3 : ,((reflection ) ,(diffraction ) , (scattering ) , (LOS ) ,(NLOS Moshe Ran - cost231,Okumura, Hata Walfish and Bertoni . /Dr )1 (outdoor ,

Small Scale

- 9( (:

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, ) ,(multipath : ,delay spread - Doppler spread , Saleh and Valenzuela ) ,(Indoor ,SUI ITU-B

)6 (: ), (, : ) ,(AM ,DSB SSB -: ) ,(PM ).(FM : ,PAM ,PDM ,PPM ,PFM ,PCM )( Delta Modulation

5*

6* , )6 (:, BPSK, DPSK, QPSK, O-QPSK : . FSK, MSK, GMSK :.M-PSK, M-QAM, M-FSK ( - OFDM .)Spread-Spectrum /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

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]6 [ ) ,(Multiple Access FDMA ,TDMA FHMA ,CDMA .OFDMA, MC-CDMA .

7

8 )3 ( . . ),(Link Budget

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

0.1

, /, , ), (, . , , , . . , , .

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

: ." , . "

' '

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

: ( , '( . : ( - . ' , , '- / ( , ' , , ' - : ( ( , ?9 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

, : . : , , : . :

, t .01 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

"" - ( , 8491(

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

( (

" "

" " " "

"" , ' . "" " " . , : ((? ( (? ?!

...!

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

Shannon : (H(X . - "" - .

: ( ( R C (" "(, , . - .] ( C = Max I ( X ; Y ( = Max [ H ( X ( H ( X | Y Max is maximum with repspect to all possible information sources used as input to the channel31 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

Shannon AWGN P B ((Hz AWGN N . (C (= P C = B log 2 1 + bps N P + 1R < C = B log 2 N0 B AWGN N =N0B (41

N0 noise PSD (one sided /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

- AWGN

B = 3kHz P P = 1000 N NdB

:

= 10 log10 1000 = 30dB

C = B log 2 (1 + 1000( ; 30kb / s . Hz "@ Spectral Efficiency units: bps/Hz or b/S/Hz C Spectral Efficiency for Shannon system=max B R b Spectral Efficiency for practical system with bit rate of R b [bps] B

bps/Hz 10 : "" 151/ - Dr. Moshe Ran

(s(t

(m(t

(R(t

BB

+

( I (t ( + n(t

BB

(

s(t(+n(t

- - 0>>fc ( ( bandpass61

- )(baseband : " LPF , 300-3400Hz "" "A/D ECC

/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

bandpass )[s(t) = R(t) cos[ ct + (t . (m(t "" (R(t , : : (m(t ((t

= + : baseband : "" ,

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

Generic Digital System Block DiagramThe block diagram below represent a generic communication system that represents virtually all of the functions that may be present in a digital system

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1/ - Dr. Moshe Ran

Subsystems of InterestDepending on the system under study, the functional clocks that we generally need to have models for are: Signal Sources: radio- frequency and optical Information encoding/ decoding Baseband modulation; line coding Radio-frequency and optical modulation Demodulators Filter/adaptive equalizers Channels Multiexing/ multiple access Noise and interference sources Error control coding Synchronization

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1/ - Dr. Moshe Ran

" " .

' "

'

, , . : - ( ,(ECC !!02 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

dB, dBm, dBw " , ( 11 dB = 10 log ( P2/ P

1P

, G

2P

1P2 = G*P ]1dBm] P2 [dBm] = G[dB] + P ,

1dBw= 10log P/1W1.0 011 0 2 3 4 6 6 8.7 8 9

1dBm = 10log P/1mW01 01 02 31 001 021P2/P

[] dB

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

,dBmv1 ( dBmV = 20 log ( V/ 1mV " :

1 g 0lo P 2 = 1 0lo g P 1 22V V V 2 2 = g2 Z 2 lo 1 0lo = 20 g 1V 1V Z2

1V

1.0 -02

1 0

2 6

4 21

6 6.51

8 81

01 02

02 62

001 04

1V2/V

[] dB

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Pin Vin

2 :11 Pin 2

1, Pout ,1 Vout 2, Pout ,2 Vout

2:1

1:

= 2, Pout ,1 = Pout

, .. -3dB . 2 .. 3 -dB

Vout ,1 = Vout ,2 = 2Vin

2: Z=75 1mV ] 1mV 0 dBmV 42.11 06 = -67.84 6-01((dBm = P[dBm]=10log(13.3(+10log

,

,P=V2/Z=10-6 /75=1.33*10-8 [W]=13.3*10-6 [mW

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

)( (w(t " . : . "" . .

( w(t

(W(f

f

= ( W( f

+

w(t (e j 2 ft dt

= ( w(t

+

W ( f (e + j 2 ft df

: ( ( ( ( . (w(t | |(W(f 0= .f . /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

42

[ ( ( f1, f2] : |( . W(f|

Telephone Radio - monaural, Radio - stereo, FM Telegraphy (CCITT-2) 120 Hz Facsimile (FAX) Television High Definition TV

4 kHz (300 -3400 Hz) AM 8 kHz (160 Hz - 8 kHz) 15 kHz (30 Hz - 15 kHz) 1.1 kHz 6.5 MHz 30 MHz

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1/ - Dr. Moshe Ran

((

: 3dB ]2( [f1, f ( | (|W(f 2 |(|W(f . . : . ( " (.

:FCC . " " .

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

(w(t (( : : " " |(|W(f |2|)W(f

PSD=power Spectral Density

?PSD .: ,

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

1.1

), (, , , , . . , , .

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

: PSTN : 0043-003 . 01-6 " , 081 /" . , . : ADSL, VDSL

:

(--- ( . 0001 " . . , cable modem

: LOS , NLOS (( . " 001 ". ". . . .

) (, )(

.GHZ ., , . . ( " (.92 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

( 900MHz , ,1800MHz 2400MHz, 3.5GHz 5GHz, 10.5GHz , 28GHz'( , , Large Scale , - Small Scale

Outdoor Indoor

LOS NLOS

.

03

/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

(( :

, (large (scale models ((small scale, Fading

/ NLOS

) : (Reflections . . : , , '. ) :(Diffraction .. , . ) :(Scattering .. (, , ( .

3 4 13

/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

2.1

, , , . , , . .

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

+ " "

: $ 3G 90B $500M (ISM (license exempt, )WLAN (802.11a,b 4.61.208IEEE

, IP

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/Dr. Moshe Ran - 1

ISM902-928MHz 2400-2483.5MHz 5725-5850MHz EIRP