Working Memory

  • View
    457

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

/ . . )4791 , (Baddeley & Hitch . . . . . . .

. ) 2002; ;4991 ,Kluwin 4691 ,.( Trybus & Karchmer, 1977; Kathleen / );1991 .Hanson et al 5991..(Daneman et al : ) 36:9891 7:7891 22:7591(. )) Working Memory )4791 (Baddeley & Hitch " " )8691 , (Atkinson & Shiffrin . ) 0991 ,6891 , .(Baddeley )0991 , (Baddeley ) 1( .

/

1: )4791 (Baddeley & Hitch " " )Central (Executive : / )Articulatory or Phonological (Loop ) (Speech-Based - ) (Visuo-Spatial Scratchpad . / ) (The Phonological Loop . - )Baddeley 0991(. / ) (The Phonological Loop :

- / ) (Phonological store . - ) (The Articulatory Control Process ).(Inner speech 1,5-2 / ) (Trace reading )The Articulatory Control (Process /. ) .(Subvocal Rehearsal / ) .(Phonological Store . . )0991 , (Baddeley . );3991 ,Baddeley, Gathercole & Baddeley 8991 , (Gathercole, & Papagno .

)(articulary ).(semantic : . )Daneman 8991 , (et al., 1995; Wilson & Emmorey ),Wallas & Corballis 0991 ,. 1973; Campbell & Wright )5991 . (Daneman et al dj . ) (Mild ) (Profound. .

)8991 , (Wilson & Emmorey )(American Sign Language . ) ( ) (. . )9791 , (Conrad 1 ): (b,g,d,c,v . ),Dodd & Hermelin 7791( ) (bear/bare . )3791 , (Hermelin & OConnor . / ) .1

0991 , .( Wallas & Corballis, 1973; Campbell & Wright ) 8891 , .(Campbell & Wright . . )& Wallas 3791 , (Corballis .

)& Ericsson ;8991 ,Kintsch, 1995; Gernsbacher, 1990; Kintsch, 1988; Paul Marschark, 1993; Akamatsu & Fisher, 1991; Fisher, 1985; Hung 0991, .(et al., 1981; Moores&Sweet .

. );0991 ,Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995; Gernsbacher 8891 , (Kintsch . . ) 3991 , .(Paul, 1998; Marschark ) ;1891 ,.Akamatsu & Fisher, 1991; Fisher, 1985; Hung et al 0991 ,.(Moores & Sweet )6991 .(Marschark & Harris ),.Koh et. al 1791( . . . .

. )9991 ,(Marschark & Everhart . 24 . . ),Koh et. al., 1971; Marschark & Everhart 9991( . . . .

. . . . . / . ) - /(

) : /(. . .

: : . 1- 2-

. : 1- . 2- 3- 4- . . .

. . : : ) 5991( " ..." ) (mild loss 04-05 ) (profound loss 09 . 55-09 ) 5991(. . : ) 9891 7891 7591(.

. : 26 11-02 51,53 23 03 . . . 95 . 11-81 31,39 . 92 03 . : 51 01 x ) (Cliparts . 01 01 . .

"- " -" "-". . : 6 51 : : 1- "" "". : 2- "" "". : 3-

"" "".

) ( ) 5141( ) 2002(. 53 : . . . . . . 1( 2( 3( 4( 5( 6(

"" . : .

: 1- . 2- . 3- . : 51 . . ) (.

. . ) ( : -- / - - / -- ... . . . . )01( . .

) ... ( .

)1( ) 2(. )1( ) ( ) (

0,10 10, 0 0,50

0,3 0,26 0,22

)2( ) ( ..

0,10 10, 0

0,73 0,05 0,91

. )2( . . .

51 5 0 01

)2(

"" )3(. )3(

"" . 0,10 0,10 "" 4,87 5,20 1,9 31,68 3,38 01,22 0,52 41,39 3,21 21,70

.

)4( "" . )4( "" . ""* 5,40 1,99 2,37 3,99 2,36 2,58 31,9 3,48 11,1 31,5 3,55 11,59 5,1 2,66 3,60 * "" 0,10

. )5( .

. )5( ) ( .

0,44 0,83

0,64

0,10

. . )Dodd & Hermelin, 1977 Wilson 5991 ,. .(;& Emmorey, 1998; Daneman et al ) 8991 , (Wilson & Emmorey

. )9791 , (Conrad ): (b,g,d,c,v . )& Dodd 7791 , (Hermelin ) (bear/bare . . . . . );9991 ,Marschark & Everhart 1791 ,. (Koh et. al . ).Koh et 1791 . (al

. . . )9991 , (Marschark & Everhart 24 . . . . . . . . .

)1791 ,. (Koh et. al . . . . . . . .

)7891(: : 1. .

2. )5991(: : . . . )5141(: 3. . . )2002(: 4. : . 21 )4( 975-806. )7591(: : 5. .

)9891(: .6 .

7.

Akamatsu, C. T. & Fisher, S.D. (1991) Using immediate recall to assess language proficiency in deaf students. American Annals of the Deaf, 136, 428-434.

8.Baddeley, A.D. (1990). Human Memory: Theory and Practice. London, Laurance Erlbaum. 9. Baddeley,A.D. & Hitch, G.J. (1974) Working Memory. In G.A. Bower, The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol. 8, pp. 47-89). New York: Academic Press. Baddeley, A.D. (1986). Working Memory. Oxford, U.K: Claredon. Baddeley, A.D., Gathercole, S.E. & Papagno, C. (1998) The Phonological Loop as a Language Learning Device. Psychological Review, Vol. 105, 158-173. Campbell, R. & Wright, H. (1990) Deafness and Immediate Memory for Pictures: Dissociations between Inner Speech and Inner Ear. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 259-286. Campbell, R. & Wright, H. (1988) Deafness, Spelling and Rhyme: How Spelling Supports Written Word and Picture Rhyming Skills in Deaf Subjects. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol.40 A (4) 771-788. Conrad, R. (1979) The Deaf School Child. London: Harper & Row. Daneman,M., Nemeth, S., Stainton, M., & Huelsmann, K