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Thousands of Indexes in the Cloud 1

Thousands of indexes in the Cloud

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  • Thousands of Indexes in the Cloud 1
  • Greplin searches: 2- Greplin helps you search all your personal information, wherever it is.- As Michael Arrington of TechCrunch said, weve attacked the other half of search.- Greplin supports over a dozen services today, with more added constantly.
  • Requirements Many inserts Fewer searches Low per-user cost 3- We insert up to 5,000 documents/second- Average document size of 2KB-4KB- A fully loaded server is an Amazon c1.medium machine responsible for up to 80,000,0003KB documents- Each machine has just 1.7GB of RAM!- Overall, we handle about 50M documents per GB of RAM with median search latenciesaround 200ms.
  • Memory Per doc: 2 longs + 1 int +1 String (avg 5 letters) into the FieldCache, and average of 10 normd elds/doc 27 bytes/doc * 50M docs = 1.3GB 4- Ranking requires pulling a few eld values and norms into memory.- For 50M documents would require well over 1.3GB of memory.- Assuming an optimized index, searching the number of docs we have per machine with1GB of RAM is impossible without swapping.- We benchmarked using a single-index + swapping: search times were multi-second.
  • Virtual memory was meant to make it easier to program when data was larger than the physical memory, but people have still not caught on. Poul-Henning Kamp,Varnish architect and coder. Whats Wrong With 1975 Programming http://www.varnish-cache.org/trac/wiki/ArchitectNotes 5- Over the last decade, the trend has been to stop manually managing what goes on disk andwhat goes in RAM, instead trusting the operating systems virtual memory and pagingsystems to swap data in/out appropriately.- For example, the caching HTTP proxy Varnish trusts the OSs virtual memory, and is thussignicantly simpler and faster than Squid, which tries to manage the what-belongs-in-memory vs what-belongs-on-disk itself.- This philosophy has been jokingly summarized as Youre not smarter than Linus, so donttry to be.
  • Were Smarter than Linus!** When we cheat 6- Many signals (such as user logins) let us predict which users are likely to do searches betterthan the OS can.- By keeping each users data in a separate index, we save memory and improveperformance.- We only keep open IndexSearchers for users who are likely to do searches.
  • Other Benets tar -cvzf user.tar.gz user && mv user.tar.gz du -h Smaller corruption domain 7By keeping each users index separate, we can:- more easily move users between servers- gure out their space usage- ensure index corruption affects only one user
  • RAM Index Deletion Filters MultiSearcher Flush planning 8- Inspired by Zoie (http://sna-projects.com/zoie/)- All incoming documents are rst added to a RAM Index.- A user search encompasses a ltered view of the RAM Index, the currently ushing index,plus their disk index.- When the RAM index is full we create a new RAM index.- We open IndexWriters for each user in turn and ush documents from RAM to disk.- Interesting cases including updates and deletions are handled with temporary lters on thedisk index.
  • Amazon Cloud Script everything XFS+LVM expandability and snapshots are helpful Some pain is unavoidable EBS Performance 150000 112500 KB/sec 75000 37500 0 Seq. Write Seq. Read Random Read Random Write Single EBS RAID10 EBS Instance Store RAID 0 EBS 9More info at: http://tech.blog.greplin.com/aws-best-practices-and-benchmarks
  • Other Cool Stuff kill -9 any time with no data-loss via a Protocol Buffer Write Ahead Log Detect duplicate documents with Bloom Filter Dynamically sized SoftReference Cache Custom MergeScheduler Custom FieldCache for multi-valued or sparse elds Efcient result clustering and faceting 10Some of this is open source: https://github.com/Greplin
  • Questions? Suggestions? Robby Walker Shaneal Manek [email protected] @smanek 11Were hiring: http://www.greplin.com/jobs