Wg yasemin özüm bozkurt - Youth Entrepreneurship Context and the Vision of Public Employment Service

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Youth Entrepreneurship Contextand the Vision of Public Employment Service


Yasemin zm BOZKURTEmployment Expert

Stockholm, SWEDEN; 24-25 April 20141The Overview of Youth Labour Market in TurkeyEntrepreneurship Context in Turkey and an Alternative SWOT Analysis Public Employment Services Targeting YouthWhat Works Best Country Experiences


2Youth Labour Market3Years PopulationLabour force (Thousand People)Employment (Thousand people)

Unemployed (Thousand people)

Labour force participation rate (%)

Unemployment rate (%)

Employment rate (%)

Not in Labour force (Thousand People)200012.7035.4014.69670542,513,1377.302200112.6415.3234.46086242,116,235,37.318200212.5205.1164.13598040,919,2337.404200312.3794.7533.77797538,420,530,57.626200411.8404.4743.55491937,820,6307.366200511.7574.4363.55488137,719,930,27.321200611.6704.3653.53383237,419,130,37.305200711.5834.3643.49387137,72030,27.218200811.4904.3813.48489738,120,530,37.109200911.5134.4543.3281.12638,725,328,97.059201011.5484.4263.46596138,321,7307.122201111.5344.5293.69783239,318,432,17.005201311.5744.4223.64777538,217,531,57.1522014*11.5634.5843.72785739,618,732,26.979Source: TurkStat* 2014 January3Youth Unemployment Trends in EA-EU4

45Active Labour Market Programmes are covered vocational training courses, job and vocational trainings, on the job trainings, public works and entrepreneurship training programmes.

Public employment services widely carry out entrepreneurship training programmes as a tool for reducing unemployment. This policy creates both high level of entrepreneurship skills and sustainable entrepreneurship eco-system.

KUR allocates 1,8 billion TL for active labour market programmes in 2014.

Entrepreneurship as a Labour Market Policy5Entrepreneurship Context in Turkey6Efficiency-driven economy to innovation driven economy

High impact enterprises

Public and Private institutions, NGOs to develop entrepreneurship

6An Alternative SWOT Analysis of Youth Entrepreneurship in Turkey7



OpportunitiesThreats7Total early stage entrepreneurs in Turkey, GEM8

Source: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor8Proportion of Entrepreneurs by Age Group9Age Group20102011201215-190,10,10,120-242,72,32,125-2910,09,59,230-3416,81716,835-3917,11718,140-4417,21717,745-4913,513,212,950-549,410,19,755-595,86,86,360-643,83,5465 +3,53,53,2Source: TurkStat, 20149GEDI 2013 Country Excerpt for TURKEY

10IndexTurkeys Score/RankThe Best ScoreThe Worst ScoreOverall GEDI Score0,320,670,07Rank in Global Competitiveness Index 2011-2012591142Rank in Economic Freedom Index 2011-2012871179Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index rank451118Entrepreneurial Attitudes sub-index rank (point):48/0,351/0,73118/0,04Entrepreneurial Action sub-index rank (point):57/0,281/0,73118/0,09Entrepreneurial Aspirations sub-index rank (point):35/0,341/0,63118/0,02Weakest pillar to improve (value):PROCESS INNOVATION Source: Global Entrepreneurship &Development Index Turkey 201310GEM Indicators11Index200620072008201020112012International Orientation early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity 171721-915New Product early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity 657087-6860Growth Expectation early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity: Relative Prevalence 446132-4443Informal Investors Rate 34,74,8-5,19,1Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity for Female Working Age Population 3,52,42,43,77,26,9Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity for Male Working Age Population 8,58,79,413,516,517,5Improvement-Driven Opportunity Entrepreneurial Activity: Relative Prevalence 233541474555Necessity-Driven Entrepreneurial Activity: Relative Prevalence 293639373231Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) 6,15,668,611,912,2New Business Ownership Rate43,735,165,4Nascent Entrepreneurship Rate 2,21,93,23,76,37,3Know Startup Entrepreneur Rate343431-2534Entrepreneurial Intention 20,11920,819,48,514,7Fear of Failure Rate 272334252230Perceived Opportunities 343936363240Source: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor1112Every job seeker and every employer has a job and vocational counselor

Public Employment Services Targeting YouthWithin the Job and Vocational Counseling services;Vocational Information and evaluation of individual competenciesVocational guidanceOrientation to Entrepreneurship or vocational training coursesJob placementSupport for job orientationCounseling services for entrepreneursVocational information seminars at schools.Thus,Shortening unemployment periodIncreasing job creation, employment and productivitySustainable employment and entrepreneurship ecosystem are targeted.

The problem of asymmetric information which is one of the most important problems of labor market will be solved by means of counseling services. 1213Success in the profession takes place with the selection of the appropriate professional skills. KUR vocational orientation testsKUR The Journal of Support to Vocational Choice University Contact PointsKUR, EUROGUIDANCE Country RepresentativeCareer Days and Employment FairsActivities related to Skills Matching for Youth14Brings together employers, jobseekers and related partiesModules based on sectors / entrepreneurshipBrings together succesfull entrepreneurs and university students

Entrepreneurship Fairs

15Information Desks at Universities

Carreer ConsultingEntrepreneurship opportunitiesInforming about probable active labour market programmes16

Entrepreneurship Training Programmes

Entrepreneurship training programmes are delivered to help those registered in the Institution establish and improve their own businesses and enable them to apply Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organisation (KOSGEB) New Entrepreneur SupportIt is delivered to people who are registered to the Institution, are willing to benefit from entrepreneurship training programme, undergo evaluation processes developed by the Institution and are found acceptable for benefiting from this programme within job and vocational counselling services.


Entrepreneurship Training ProgrammesParticipation Conditions

Conditions are as follows:Unemployed and registered to the Institution (except for the retired),At least 18 years old,Not having benefited from the same module in the Entrepreneurship programme before.

Applied Entrepreneurship Training Participation Certificate is given to participants. This certificate is a document that can be used to apply KOSGEB New Entrepreneur Support.


Entrepreneurship Training ProgrammesParticipation Conditions

Each participant attending programmes; receives trainee compulsory expense (20 TL), whose amount has been determined by the Administrative Board of the Institution, for each actual training day they attend.

In the course of the programme general health insurance premiums and insurance of occupational accidents and professional diseases premiums of participants are paid.


Entrepreneurship Training ProgrammesContent of Training

In trainings; applied and interactive techniques like sample case, exercise etc. are used. In workshops, analysis/research studies realized by the participants are evaluated together with the other examples that the trainer would present. Success stories of successful entrepreneurs may be included in trainings.These trainings are composed of four modules;1st Module: Examining entrepreneurship qualities, developing business ideas and exercises on creativity 8 (eight) hours,2nd Module: The concept of business plan and its components (market research, marketing plan, production plan, management plan, financial plan) - 18 (eighteen) hours,3rd Module: Workshops for consolidation of business plan components (market research, marketing plan, production plan, management plan, financial plan) - 24 (twenty four) hours,4th Module: Writing business plan and points to consider during its presentation - 20 (twenty) hours.


Entrepreneurship Training ProgrammesSome Statistics

Source: Turkish Employment Agency KUR 2021

Entrepreneurship Training ProgrammesSome Statistics

Age GroupsMenWomenTotal20122013201220132012201315-1938131021517159648120-242.7052.4531.6521.6394.3574.09225-293.4533.4262.2562.2805.7095.70630-342.8182.7952.7312.5485.5495.34335-391.9011.9862.4482.3724.3494.35840-441.1411.1331.7451.7072.8862.84045-495075608738781.3801.43850-5416022932640548663455-5945858111412619960-6415331523305665+11366719Total13.12713.02312.34812.14325.47525.166Source: Turkish Employment Agency KUR The Distribution of Trainees by Ages, 2012-20132122

Projects Targeting Youth

A) Promoting Youth EmploymentEU-TR Joint IPA Project (Sep 2011-Sep 2013) To reduce youth unemployment by implementing ALMPs, local action plans, supporting entrepreneurship and on the job training Components:Grant : 24.133.081 (127 Projects Completed)Service: 1.947.6802223

Projects Targeting Youth

B) Growth with Decent Work for All: National Youth Employment Program and Pilot Implementation in Antalya (South-West Turkey)United Nations Millenium Development Goals Achievement Fund (Oct 2009-Dec 2012)Budget: USD 3,980,000Local Project with National outcomes.To reduce youth unemployment among vulnerable young members of migrant families and increase the participation of young women in the labor force. A National Youth Employment Action Plan lays the policy, budgetary and institutional framework for this objective.2324

Projects Targeting Youth

National Youth Employment Action PlanObjective 1: Development of KUR Capacity on youth employmentPerforming periodic needs analysis of youthSocial Dialog MechanismsPVTEB effectivenessObjective 2 :