23 глобальные компьютерные сети

  • View
    132

  • Download
    7

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • 23 Internet Internet

  • .. . ., * , (, , ) . () (Metropoliten area network MAN), (Wide area network, WAN). , , RELCOM, "" ("Infonet"), "" . , .

    .. . ., * , , , , , . (wide area network, WAN). Internet, FIDONET, RELCOM, .

  • .. . ., * , . 1990- . 1996. " (RUNNet)" RUNNet -. (64/), - -. 1997 , - . 2000 "

    .. . ., * , . 1990- . , TCP/IP- UUCP- , BBS- FIDO-. 1996. " (RUNNet)" RUNNet -. (64/), - -. , TCP/IP; e-mail - . 1997-1999, . - 1997 , - . 1997 4 (10/, 10Base-T). 254, 143 , 50 -- ( ), 61 -- . "-2000 , ( ) , , ( ) (10 /) . . 2004 , (11-54 /), 10-15 , (11 /), 5-6 . 1997 - [4-97] [1-98, 2-98, 6-99] . . , (1998.) , (http://www.urbannet.ru/ 1999.). 2001-2004 . 2000 "": ( , ..) 1,5 . 2004, 2000 702: 99 603 . , , , , , .

  • .. . ., *RelcomRelcom IP- 1990 . Relcom - Reliable Communications ( ). . off-line, , (News-mail) (FTP-mail). on-line . 1995 .

    .. . ., *Relcom IP- 1990 . Relcom - Reliable Communications ( ). . Unix- . off-line, . , (News-mail) (FTP-mail).on-line . 1990 30 , Internet (Eunet). 1995 . Relcom (News-, FTP-, Wais-, Gopher- WWW- ), Internet. , .

  • .. . ., *Relcom Relcom , . Relcom 60 2500 260 .

    .. . ., * Relcom , . Relcom , -2. , , . . (Relcom) 60 2500 260 . , , , , , . . Relcom : , , . .

  • .. . ., *Fidonet () . . . .

    .. . ., * () . . . . IBM PC. Fidonet. . : Fido, Fidonet. , . , -, 1984 . , . : " - 1 - 2 . . : , . , - ".

  • .. . ., * BBS ( ), : 1984 , 3 , 30 , 1985 160, 1987 2000, 1992 20000, 1995 37000 ! BBS, , , , .

    .. . ., * BBS ( ), . 1984 , 3 , 30 , 1985 160, 1987 2000, 1992 20000, 1995 37000 ! BBS, - , ; , . , . 1990 . - , (!). Fidonet , 1995 . Fidonet : 420 Fidonet. , . , ( ).

  • .. . ., * . . : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 . . , , () . . . (node). , , (Policy). (). , (point). , .

    .. . ., * . , , , (). Fidonet - . - , (Nodelist), Fidonet . - . . : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 . . , , () . . . (node). , , (Policy). (). , (point). , . , . , , , . : : /: . ( , , ). 50- () 20- (). 60- , , 6023 . , Fidonet, 2:5020/113, 113 5020 50 2. : 2 - , 50 - , 5020 - . , : 2:5020/1829.2.

  • .. . ., *

    .. . .,

  • .. . ., *

    .. . .,

  • .. . ., * : : /: . ( , , ). 50- () 20- (). 60- , , 6023 . , Fidonet, 2:5020/113, 113 5020 50 2. : 2 - , 50 - , 5020 - . , : 2:5020/1829.2

    .. . .,

  • .. . ., * Fidonet , Fidonet, : ; ; .

    .. . ., * , Fidonet, : ; ; . Fidonet. , Fidonet, , . Fidonet - . , , . , . - -, Fidonet. , . , ; , Fidonet 1500-2000 . Fidonet Internet: , , . . Internet, , - , , . . . Fidonet , , . Fidonet , , . Fidonet , Internet, - , , , , . . Fidonet : , - , .

  • .. . ., *

    .. . .,

  • .. . ., *

    .. . .,

  • .. . ., *

    .. . ., * 05/03/2007 - 21:43 - - , Fidonet [3]. Fidonet , , ( - ) , , , , , , , , . ? , , , . [9] , -, , [10] , . , Wi-Fi WiMAX dial-up.http://webplanet.ru/news/life/2007/03/05/medvedev_answers.html

  • .. . ., * 1969 , . (ARPA) . 1971 , . 1973 , . 1984 1989 , . -, HTTP, HTML URL.

    .. . ., * , Internet . , 60-, ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency), . , ARPAnet , . , . ARPANET. ARPANET , , . 1975 ARPANET . 1983 TCP/IP, , , , . TCP/IP , , Internet . 1983 ARPANET MILNET, . Internet : MILNET ARPANET. 1991 ARPANET , Internet , , .

  • .. . ., * 1990 ARPANET 1991 , 1993 - Mosaic, . 1995 , FTP, (W3C). 1996 . 1990- ( , FidoNet, ). , , . 1997 10 , 1 . .

    .. . .,

  • .. . ., *

    .. . ., *Internet - , . , 2005 1 . . : 1995- 45 ., 2000 420 . 2011 2 . . 7-10%. Internet , , , . - , 197,8 . . 119,5 . , (86,3 .) (50,6 .). , Internet , , , , , . , . , , . , . , , . ( ) , , ()., , . , , . , . , , .

  • .. . ., * ; , . . , , , ,

    .. . ., * ; , . , 1998 - CNN (http://www.cnn.com) , . (http://www.rbc.ru), . , . , . , , , . , . , . , , , . ( , , , . , , . , , , , .) : , . , , - , .

  • .. . ., *, - . - , . 24 , 7 . - , . - , . - . - , , , . .

    .. . ., *, . , . : , . - . - , . 24 , 7 . - , . , . (UPS). UNIX. , -. - , , . Microsoft Windows . - . . , . - , , , . .

  • .. . ., *

    .. . .,

  • .. . ., * - - (, , ) , "" (. cache). . "-" (. proxy-server).

    .. . ., * -. - (, , ) . . , -, "" (. cache). , -, . "-" (. proxy-server). - , . , - -. , - . , . , - - . - , .

  • .. . ., * Internet TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). IP , .. , , , . , . IP- , 256, . : 192.112.36.5. .. , , 1500 , . , , 1500 .

    .. . ., * TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). TCP/IP - , , . IP , .. , , , . , . ( ), .IP- , 256, . : 192.112.36.5. , , 1500 , . , , 1500 . . TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol).TCP , , , , . TCP IP. TCP , . - , .

  • .. . ., * -(Domain Name System, DNS) - . (IP) (, www.rbc.ru 194.186.36.142). . . , , cyb123.vsau.ru. , , . cyb123.vsau.ru cyb123 IP . vsau ( ). vsau , ( ru).

    .. . ., * IP- (, 192.112.36.5.) , . Internet (Domain Name System, DNS). . . , , cyb123.vsau.ru. , , . cyb123.vsau.ru cyb123 IP . vsau ( ). vsau , ( ru).

  • (URL) URL (uniform resource locator). url : ( , ) ( , , http) () . : http://iomas.vsau.ru/nauka/nauka.shtmlhttp:// - iomas.vsau.ru ()nauka nauka.shtml

    .. . ., *

    .. . ., URL "uniform resource locator" ( ). . URL : FTP, .. HTML - url -. , , , url , . url , , , , .

    Google Chrome3 September 2010, 8:00 pm Net Applications , Internet Explorer 60,4% , Mozilla Firefox 22,9%, Safari 5,2%. Google Chrome .

    *

  • , . - , . , " " . , , - , , . . (, "" "Renault"). ( ) - : , , www.doktor.ru www.doctor.ru. !

    .. . ., *

    .. . .,

  • .. . ., * , . , , , , Internet. Internet , . , .

    .. . ., * , . Interne