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GROUP PRESENTATION Adjective Phrases

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  • 1. GROUP PRESENTATION Adjective Phrases

2. GROUP 03

  • Phm Th Thu Trang-structure
  • Trn Th Thanh- Complementary adj
  • Nguyn Th Du-Noun pre modifier & Cs
  • Nguyn Th H-Postpositive & NP head
  • Phm Th Trang-Verbless Adj clause &
  • Exclamatory
  • Trn Th Phng-The head

3. CONTENT Adjective phrase StructureThe head Syntactic functions 4. INTRODUCTION What are Adjectives and the Adjective phrases? An adjective may be a word or group word with the same meaningAdjective phrases are defined as phrases in which an adjective functions as the head of the phras e Example s : 1. Susan isclever 2. The doctor isvery late 3. My sister isfondof animals 5. A.STRUCTURE 6. Adverbmodifier( or premodification):modifying, describing or qualifying constituents which precede the head The head: which isan Adj or participle serving as the focus of the Phrase Cadj ( post modification): contituent which follows head and completes the meaning implied by the head 7. THE TABLE SHOW THE STRUCTURE OF ADJECTIVE PHRASE 8. EXAMPLES OF THE ADJ ECTIVEPHRASE S

  • 1 )Premodifier
  • Partlyvery , so , extremely , too
  • => Form isAdverb andAdverb Phrase
  • 2) Head
  • Happy , excited , sweet , worry , cloudy
  • =>Form isAdjective
  • 3)Postmodifier
  • Indeedinspiritfor his agetobe trueenough to me
  • Form isAdverb ,Prepositional Phrase ,Infinitive Clause

9. Complementation Infinitive phrase That clause _ing clause _PP clause 10. ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT

  • An adjective complement is a clause or phrase that adds to the meaning of an adjective or modifies it. The adjective complement always follows the adjective it complements and it is a noun clause or a prepositional phrase

11.

  • 1)_ing clause :verb in adj clauseshowsV_ing
  • Ex1: When summer comes, students are busy preparing for the exam.
  • Ex2: Harry Porter story is worth reading
  • 2) _PP clause : verb in adj clause isa prepositional phrase (pp)
  • Ex1: We were shocked by the news.
  • Ex2:The child was eager for Christmas to arrive.

ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT 12.

  • 3) to Vinf_ clause : Adj clause has the Verbbe+ adj + inf complement
  • Ex1: Retailers seem eager to promote sales.
  • Ex2: I was surprisedto seehim doing that.
  • 4) That clause : adj + that clause, when you want to comment a fact
  • Ex1:It seems sad that the blue whale is becoming extinct.
  • Ex2: It is important that she is punctual.

ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT 13. B. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS 14. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS Syntactic functions Complement subjectpostpositive NP head Verbless adj clause Exclamatory adj sentence Noun pre-modifier 15. Noun pre-modifier adjectives are placed before nounsadjectives are attributive when they premodify nouns *eg :anew car AdjPNP * eg:thisbeautiful girlAdjPNP Syntactic Function of Adjectives 16. Syntactic Function of Adjectives Subject complement S+to be/ linking verbs+adj ( Cs) Eg:the book isimpressive Np Cs what he said iswrong Np Cs the function of adjectives are predicative 17. POSTPOSITIVE 1. DEFINITION: An adjective is postpositive when it comes after the noun it modifies 18. CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE

  • 1.Reduced as relative clause
  • Eg: 1.He is a man greedy of flame
  • 2.A room full of people
  • 2.Indefinite pronounsending in :_body ; _one; _thing ; _where
  • Eg : There isnothingspecial

19. CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE

  • 3.A few adjective change meaning when they are after noun phrase
  • Comon : elect; proper
  • Eg: the present electthe City of Londonproper
  • 4.In some nouns (legal), adjective arecompulsory after the noun
  • Eg: attorneygeneral , bodypolitic , courtmartial,heirapparent , notarypublic , postmastergeneral

20.

  • 5 .A fewa-adjective :
  • a blaze;a fload;a fraid;a ghast;a lert;a like;a live;a sleep;a verse;a wake; aware;a bsent;aplenty
  • Some others :Present; concerned; involved;galore; Unspoken ,immemorial; payable
  • 6 .some postposed adjective _able; _ible retain the basic meaning

CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE 21.

  • 7.Noun phrasesare indefinite, not specific
  • Eg:A man usually intelligent will sometimes stupid
  • Polices angry do not arrest a thief
  • If adjective phrases are complements, the whole of an adjective must be after noun phrase
  • The boys easiest to teach were in my class (right)
  • The easiest to teach boys were in my class (correct)

CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE 22. 8.Superlative construction Eg:the smallest quantityimaginable The lowest pricepossible The best hotelvaluable9. Measures: a river two hundred mileslong a road fifty feetwidea man eighty-five yearsold a bulding ten storeyshigh CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE 23. 10.Some idioms :The theatre royal The princess royal For time immemorial By all means possibleNote: an adjective modified byenough ,too,so the modified adjectives can not be separated from its complement 24. HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE

  • Most commonly,such adjective personal reference:
  • Eg:The richbuilt many house forthe poor
  • The rich = rich people
  • The poor = poor people
  • The extremely oldneed a great deal of attention
  • the extremely old = extremely old people
  • note :adjectives functioning as noun phrase heads generally require a definite determiner if they are conjoined

25. HEAD OF NOUN PHRASEDenoting nationalities Eg: You British and you French ought to be alliesSuperlatives Eg: The lastest is that he is going to run for election 26. HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE Singular concord Some adjectives can function as noun-phrase Heads when they have abstract reference adverbs superlatives 27. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

  • What is verbless clause? ->Verbless clauses are clauses in which the verb (usually a form of to be) and sometimes other elements have been omitted or deleted.
  • Eg1:John believes the prisoner innocent.
  • ~ John believes the prisoner to be innocent.
  • Eg2:Nice to see you~Its nice to see you.

28. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

  • I)An adjective( alone or as head of an adjective phrase) can function as verbless clause. The clause is mobile, though it usually precedes or follows the subject of the superordinate clause.
  • Eg3: ( By then) nervous ,the man opened the letter.
  • Verbless ClauseSuperordinate Clause
  • The man,(by then) nervous,opened the letter.
  • The man opened the letter,(by then) nervous.

29. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSEII) THE IMPLIED SUBJECT OF THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

  • To be usually the subject of the sentence.
  • Eg 4.I see the boy , who is blind.
  • The boy whom I see is blind.
  • But we do not have:I see the boy , blind.
  • Can be other than the subject of the sentence if the
  • clause contains additional clause constituents.
  • Eg 5. She glanced with disgust at the car ,quiet(now) in her daughters lap.

30. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSEII) THE IMPLIED SUBJECT OF THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

  • Can be the whole of the superordinate clause.
  • Eg 6 .Stranger ,it was she who initiated divorce proceedings.
  • That it was she who initiated divorce
  • proceedings is strange .

31.

  • We can use a corresponding adverb to replace the
  • adjective in this case, as with strangely for strange.
  • Strangely , it was she who initiated divorce proceedings.
  • The adjective refers to the subject without explicit referenceto the action, and unless otherwise stated, the characterization is only temporary in its application.
  • Nervous, the man opened the letter.( connected with the action)
  • Always nervous, the man opened the letter .( not connected with the action,the mans nervousness becomes a permanent characteristic)

32. CONTIGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

  • 1.WHAT IS CONTINGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE?
  • A contingent adjective clause expresses the circumstance or condition under which what is said in the superordinate clause applies. A subordinator is often present but can be omitted.
  • Eg 7 :Enthusiastic ,they make good students
  • (=When enthusiastic,)
  • Eg 8:When ripe ,these apples are sweet.

subordinator subordinator 33.

  • 2.THE IMPLIED SUBJECT OF THE CONTIGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE IS NORMALLY THE SUBJECT OF THE SUPERORDINATECLAUSE, BUT IT CAN ALSO BE THE OBJECT.
  • E.g 9:We can drink it hot
  • E.g 10: You must eat it when fresh
  • 3.THE IMPLIED SUBJECT CAN BE THE WHOLE OF THE SUPERORDINATE CLAUSE.
  • E.g 11:If( it is)possible,the dog should be washed every day.

CONTIGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE 34. EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE SENTENCE

  • An adjective as head of an adjective phrase or as its sole realization can be an exclamation:
  • E.g 12: How good of you!
  • E.g 13: How wonderful!
  • E.g 14: Excellent!
  • E.g 15: Good!

35. C. THE HEAD 36. Syntactic classification ofadjs 37. CENTRAL

  • central=both attributive and predicative
  • eg: a(1) lazy student-> the student is (2) lazy
  • attributivepredicative
  • the (1) bluesea->the sea is (2) blue
  • attributivepredicative
  • note: (1) attributive position
  • (2) predicative position

38. ATTRIBUTIVE ONLY

  • Adjectives which are restricted to attributive positiondo not characterize the referentof the noun directly
  • eg. Asmallbusinessman
  • ->a businessman whose business is small
  • ->nota businessman is small
  • Note:
  • words with strongly emotive value:
  • poor man, my dear lady, wretched lady

39. ATTRIBUTIVE ONLY

  • Characterize the referent of the noun directly
  • Eg:
  • Distanthills
  • acompletechapter
  • aheavy bag
  • asocialsurvey
  • anoldman
  • Do not characterize the referent of the noun directly
  • Distantrelatives
  • acompleteidiot
  • aheavysmoker
  • Asocialanimal
  • anoldfriend
  • Inherent adjs
  • Non-inherent adjs

40. ATTRIBUTIVE ONLY 41. INTENSIFYING ADJECTIVES Emphasizers: have a general heightening effect on the noun and convey speakers attitude toward the referenteg.Utterdespair,purebliss, arealhero, acertainwinner Amplifiers: denote the upper extreme of the scale are central(inherent) eg. Acompletevictory ->the victory wascomplete are attributive only(non-inherent) eg. Acompleteidiot ( notthe idiot iscomplete ) Notes: mere, sheer, utter (always attributive only) 42. LIMITER ADJECTIVES

  • Particularize the reference of the noun
  • eg. themaintopic, theonlyperson, theprecise reason , etc.
  • Note: acertainperson
  • a limiter -> a particular person
  • acertainwinner
  • an intensifier-> a sure winner

43. RELATED TO ADVERBIALS

  • adjs that are attributive only can be related to adverbials.
  • eg. myformerfriend ~ formerly my friend
  • adjs premodify agentive nouns have a relationship to the verb base
  • eg. ahardworker ~ a worker who workshard .
  • the implied process can be associated with an inanimate object.
  • eg. afastcar ~ a car that one can drivefast

44. DENOMINAL ADJECTIVES

  • are derived from nouns and attributive only
  • eg. Amathematicalpuzzle (a puzzle based on mathematics )
  • acriminallaw (a law concerning crime)
  • Note:
  • acriminallaw ~ a law seemscriminal
  • ->a central adjective
  • denominal # nominal adjs
  • eg.The Frenchare noted for their wines.
  • The French peopleare noted for their wines.

45. PREDICATIVE ONLY

  • Eg.Children were asleep . (notasleep children)
  • SVCs
  • Adjectives which are restricted to predicative positionrefer to condition rather than to characterize
  • Some group of adjs must take complementation: afraid(that, of, about); fond(of); conscious(that, of) etc
  • Eg.Jean is keen on maths .
  • SVCs

46. PREDICATIVE ONLY

  • Some of the common predicative only adjectivesin English are:
  • ablazealiveunaware
  • abreastalone
  • afirealoof
  • afraidashamed
  • aghastasleep
  • aglowawake
  • alertaware
  • alikefond

47. Thank you for your attention!