MISC.: dead, alive, broken, etc Comparison can also be done
A few intensifier may pre-modify noun phrase: quite, rather and the pre-determiners such and exclamatory what, the noun phrase is normally indefinite and the intensifiers precede and determines
Ex:- I was rather a mess
- He was quite some player
- I have never heard such wickedness
Noun phrase: We can put a phrase of measurement before some adjs
Ex : The man is about forty years old
I am 1,67 metres tall
2.The HeadIs an adjective or participle serving as the
focus of the phrase Ex: She is a nice cat adj
I was very excited. past participleThey have been very curious about this (strange) guy adj
Modifying constituent which follows the head; and complementation,(the major subcategoryof postmodification here) is the constituent which follows any postmodification and completes the specification of a meaning implied by the head
Adverbs as postmodifiers ( enough/indeed)
Ex: This fruit is not ripe enough to eat
He doesn’t do it badly.He is sucessfull indeed
+ complements of adj
That-clause:Ex: We were confident that he was still alive
To-infinite clause:Ex: Bob was slow to catch the ball
This meal is too expansive to enjoy
Ing-clauseEx: I’m busy getting the house redecorated
We’re fortunate having Aunt Agatha as a baby-sistter
Prepositional phrase:Ex: Bobby is fond of maths
Comparative clauseEx: It was easier than they said
1. NOUN PRE – MODIFIER ( attributive adjs)
Adjs are attributive when they premodify nouns, appear between the determiner and the head of the NP.
1. she had a big hat. Det adj.p H of HP
2. Only rich people can afford that flat. Det Adj.P H of NP
2. COMPLEMENTS (predicative adjs)
- Subject complement: with corpus verbs: look, seem, sound ,hear, get, become. . . Ex: 1. He looks handsome. S C
2. She feels unhappy.
+ Subject complement (subject is a finite clause) Ex: What the said is right.
Finite C + Subject complement (subject is non-finite clause) Ex: Learning English is very difficult. Non-finite C
2. COMPLEMENTS (predicative adjs)
- Object complement: Ex: The gifts make children happy.
O C + Object complement (object is a clause) Ex: I consider what he did foolish.
O C + Object complement expresses the result of process denoted by the verb Ex He pulled his belt tight. (as the result, his belt was then tight)
A post-positive adjective is an adjective that appears after noun that it modifies. A postposed adj can usually be regarded as a relative clause. There are some following cases: + Indefinite pronoun ending in-body, -thing,-one. . . Ex: I’d like to have something useful. (I’d like to have something which is useful) +the adjs having different senses for each position with some adjs EX: The president-elect is an intelligent man. (Soon to take office) The elect man is Mr. Smith.(the best man)
+ In several compounds: Ex: Courts martial, heir apparent, body politic + Some adjs not occurring attributively in the relevant meaning like ablaze, afloat, afraid, alike, alive, absent . . . Ex: The house ablaze is next door to mine. The people involved were not found.
4.THE HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE Adjective can often function as heads of NPs as the following cases: + adjs having personal reference: Ex: The poor get poorer, the rich get richer. H H These seats are for the disabled. H + Adjective denoting nationalities Ex: The French like eating well. The Dutch are the tallest in the world. + Adjective having abstract reference Ex: The newest is that he is going to China. He ventured into the unknown.
6.EXCLAMATORY ADJ SENTENCE
An adj as head of an adj. P or as its sole realization can be an exclamatory.
How beautiful! Great!
What a nice day!
5.VERBLESS ADJ CLAUSE Verbless clauses are clauses in which the verb and
sometimes other elements have been deleted. +An adj can function as a verbless clauses. The
clause may be mobile in sentence. Ex: (By then) nervous, the man opened the gift. The man, (by then) nervous, opened the gift. The man opened the gift, (by then) nervous. Contingent adjective clause An adj Contingent clause expresses the circumstance or
condition under which what is said in the superordinate clause applies.
Ex: Enthusiastic, they make good students.(when
enthusiastic) (When) ripe, these apples are sweet.
Syntactic classification of adjs
attributive only Adjectives which are restricted to
attributive position do not characterize the referent of the noun directly
eg. A small businessman → a businessman whose business
is small → not a businessman is small My old friend → One who has been a friend for
a long time → not a friend is old
Note: words with strongly emotive value: poor man, my dear lady, wretched lady…
Inherent adjs Non-inherent adjsCharacterize the referent of the noun directlyEg: Distant hills a complete chapter a heavy bag a social survey an old man
Do not characterize the referent of the noun directly Distant relatives a complete idiot a heavy smoker A social animal an old friend
Related to adverbials
Emphasizers: have a general heightening effect on the noun
and convey speaker’s attitude toward the referent eg. Utter despair, pure bliss, a real hero, a
certain winner…Amplifiers: denote the upper extreme of the scale are central(inherent) eg. A complete victory →the victory was
complete are attributive only(non-inherent) eg. A complete idiot (not the idiot is complete) Notes: mere, sheer, utter (always attributive only)
Particularize the reference of the noun eg. the main topic, the only person,
etc…. Note: some of adjectives have homonyms Ex: a certain person a limiter → a particular person a certain winner an intensifier→ a sure winner( one
who is certain that he will win )
RELATED TO ADVERBIALS
adjs that are attributive only can be related to adverbials.
eg. my former friend ~ formerly my friend adjs premodify agentive nouns >have a
relationship to the verb base eg. a hard worker ~ a worker who works
hard. the implied process can be associated with an
inanimate object eg. a fast car ~ a car that one can drive fast
are derived from nouns and attributive only Ex: a criminal law (a law concerning
crime) Note: a criminal law ~ a law seems
criminal → a central adjective a medical school ( a school for
students of medicine)
Eg. she is alive ( not alive girl ) S V CsAdjectives which are restricted to predicative
position refer to condition rather than to characterize
Gradable- Most everyday adjectives are gradable- They denote qualities, properties, states,
conditions or relations…. Which vary in their degree or extent?
- Gradable adjectives can be pre-modified by degree expression.
gradable and non-gradable adjectives
-Gradability includes comparison.Ex My sister is taller than I
gradable and non-gradable adjectives
•… Can not be pre-modified by degree adverbs or used in comparative sentence such as automatic, dead\ alive; \male; Irish\English; married\ unmarried\single.Ex She is single
Inherent and non-inherentExAn old man = a man who is old. A small businessman ≠ a businessman who is small. “small” is non-inherent•inherent adjs: are the adjs which directly denote attribute and quality of the noun they modify.•Non-inherent adjs: are the adjs which don’t denote attribute and quality of the noun they modify.
Adverb PhraseDefinition: An adverb phrase is a word group with an adverb as its head.This adverb may be accompanied by modifiers or qualifiers.