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Assessing Writing English

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  1. 1. : : 57120803107
  2. 2. Published May 27th 2002 By Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521780276 Series Cambridge Language Assessment
  3. 3. Education 1994 Ph.D., Applied Linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles. 1988 M.A., Teaching English as a Second Language, University of California, Los Angeles. 1980 B.A., German Studies, Stanford University. Professor of Applied Linguistics at Georgia State University. Her current research focuses on assessing integrated skills and the use of automated scoring for second language writing. http://facebook.com/sara.c.w eigle Sara Cushing Weigle, Ph.D.
  4. 4. Experienced teachers often have questions about assessing their students writing. 1. Will students perform better one type of prompt than another? 2. Should I focus on content language or some combination in scoring esays? 3. How accurately does a writing test really represent how well my students can write?
  5. 5. In order to improve classroom writing assessment. It is important to understand some fundamental issues. This issues include the nature of writing ability . The qualities of good tests in general.
  6. 6. 1. The task. (what we ask students to do) 2. The scoring.
  7. 7. Scholars do not all agree about weather second language (L2) proficiency or first language writing ability is more important in L2 writing ability. Focus more on writing strategies or vocabulary and structure development in their classes.
  8. 8. Language proficiency and writing ability are highly interrelated and often inseparable. The central issue in writing assessment is defining the construct.
  9. 9. We are more interested primarily in their rhetorical abilities.
  10. 10. 1. At lower levels 2. At higher levels of proficiency
  11. 11. At lower levels of instruction and in many foreign language contexts, writing is often seen as a support skill for practicing the structures and vocabulary taught in class.
  12. 12. Situations test task need to be simple and not require students to generate new ideas or come up with their won organizational pattern.
  13. 13. At higher levels of proficiency,particularly is situations where students will be expected to write in the L2 for school or work. The task itself will be more demanding and the scoring criteria are likely to place and emphasis on content development and organization of ideas.
  14. 14. Particularly for classroom teachers is whether or not to give writing tests at all. Most real-world writing is not done under timed conditions
  15. 15. Teachers may wonder how timed writings relate to write performance under other circumstances. Prefer students do their writing outside of class, when feasible.
  16. 16. 1. Teachers may want to see what students can do without help and to ensure that the writing they submit is their own. 2. Students may be faced with high-stakes tests, such as TOEFL or IELTS, in which they will need to perform on a timed writing assessment. 3. From the perspective of second language acquisition, a writing test may function as a measure of automatized language knowledge.
  17. 17. - Reliability - Validity - A test needs to be practical
  18. 18. Design appropriate assessment tasks. Consider the many ways in which writing tasks. Differences may affect performance on writing tests. Students perform differently on different types. Recognize which of these variables is most important in any given situation.
  19. 19. The most important considerations in scoring : 1. Designing or selecting a rating scale or scoring rubric. 2. Selecting and training the people who will be doing the rating.
  20. 20. 3. Give students separate scores for different aspects of writing 4. At least two raters and raters background and experience.
  21. 21. Teachers can evaluate writing that is done in class along with writing that is done outside of class to get a fuller picture of what students are capable of in both timed and untimed settings and in a variety of genres and formats.
  22. 22. Writing assessment as an area of research inquiry has expanded substantially in the past 30 years. Barkaoui (2007) provides a comprehensive review of research on essay tests. Deville and Chalhoub-Deville 2006 have proposed that variation in tasks and raters in natural and needs to be understood and mapped rather than suppressed.
  23. 23. Two keys: 1. What extent is technology changing the process and product or writing? 2. What is the impact of technology on the scoring of writing?
  24. 24. Writing is becoming an increasingly important skills for second language learners, especially in major world languages such as English. Therefore the need to assess writing ability in academic and specific work contexts is becoming ever more important.