Bстория вычислительной техники

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14 .

1946 ENIAC.

- (). , , . , , . . , . , , , . , ( ),

( , , 30 . .) ( , VII ..) , : ( , ).

(). .

1622 . , , ( ), .

, 1632 .

, . , .

, 1642 . . .

1672 . 12- .

1801 , . . , . . ( . perforo.charta ; ). , . , .

, , , . , , 1970-.

(.calcultor ), , , , , 1820 .

1791 . . . .

1823 , , , , , - . , . - . () .

1819 . , . 2,4 , 2,1 , . 1834 . . . . : (), ( ), .

(1815-1852) , . (1843). . , .

. 1876 .. . 1881 .

1870 . ( ) (William Stanley Jevons, 01.09.1835 13.08.1882) (, ) " ", .

1887 . IBM . , . , . (1890 .) (1897 .). IBM. . 1950 IBM . , , , , .

(Dorr E. Felt, 18621930) . 1885 - , . , , , . , .

1927 . ( - 1870 .). . , ,

1936 , , Z, ( ) . , , , , Z1, 1938 , , - .

Z3, 1941 . . , Z3 , . : 5,3 , : +,-,*,/, . : 1000 . .1944 Z4.

. 1945-1954. , . , . - (), ( - ) - (). , , - () (). , - . , , . , .

ENIAC 1942 . ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer - ) 200 . 1945 , 1946 . ENIAC, 178468 , 7200 , 4100 , 300 ., 1000 . ENIAC , . , , . 1955 . ENIAC .

ENIAC - . , . , EDVAC (1951 ). , . 1024 . 44 .

1948 (1890-1974) .. - . .. .. : - (1951 , ), - (1952 , ). , , , , .

. 1951 , ...

. 1953

(1955-1964 .). : , . , . . .

TRADIC (standing for TRAnsistorized DIgital Computer) - Bell Laboratories - 800 , 11000 .

1958 . . , , 1959 . . . .

TRADIC

1956 RAMAC IBM 305 . 50 ( 61 ) , 1200 /. 100 , 10000 . 5 (5 . ).

(Werner Buchholz) 1956 . (byte) IBM 7030 - ( ), (28) .

(1965-1970 .). : . . , , , . - -. . , . . , , , . . . . , - . IBM System/360 - .

1960 (Robert Noyce, 1927-1990) Fairchild Semiconductor ( 2981877) . . (Jack Saint-Clair Kilby, 08.11.192320.06.2005) Texas Instruments , . .

: ; ; , (, , RPG, 60, PL/1), ; "" , ; ( ); , , ; - , .

19 1964 IBM IBM 360 (System 360), . . , , , .

29 1969 . , , , . (Charley Kline) - (University of California at Los Angeles, UCLA) (Stanford Research Institute, SRI). G LOGIN. 500 , SRI UCLA ARPANet.

1965 (Maurice Vincent Wilkes, 26.06.1913) -. 1967 . ( , ).9 1968 - : , , , , .1969 . IBM (hardware) (software). , . ARPANet 25 :Jon Postel, Steve Crocker I Spent

(1970- 1990- .). . 70- ( ), . 3000 100000 , 100000 . 70- Intel () 4004. ( , () -), - . , . ( ) . , , .

Intel 4004

15 1971 ( ) (Marcian Edward Hoff, 28.10.1937), Intel, , : Intel-4004 - , . 4004 4-. 60 . , 108 . 2300 , 640 200 . Intel 4004 - Busicom. 1971 IBM/370 145 - , . IBM/370 , 128- .

(Seymour Roger Cray, 28.09.1925 05.10.1996) Cray Research, CRAY-1. -. 160 . Cray Research . - Cray X-MP, 1985 Cray-2 , - Cray-2 . 1990 Cray Cray Y-MP C90 - - , 16 , . CRAY Y-MP C90 4.1 , 250MHz.

CRAY-1

Cray Y-MP C90 1990

-6, 1967 , , .. .. . -6 , "", .

1975 . Microsoft.

1975 IBM - IBM 5100 Portable Computer. 1664 , , , , / APL , IBM 5100 25 . 8975 19 975 . 10 1983 Microsoft Microsoft Windows MS-DOS. 1984 Microsoft Windows.

(Stephen Gary Wozniak, 11.08.1950), , : , ( , ). Hewlett-Packard, , Atari, (Steven (Steve) Paul Jobs, 24.02.1955) .

Apple-1: . Apple 1 - 666,66 . . 1 1976 Apple Computer inc., , , , .

1977 : Apple-2, TRS-80 PET.Apple-2 (1300$ ) , . . 6502 ( ), - Basic, 4 , , .

PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) Commodore , , , . 6502, 14 Basic , 4 , 9- . 595$. TRS-80, Z-80, - 12- , , Radio Shack CTR-41. Basic Level ,

1981 IBM " - IBM Personal Computer". , " , , 1565 ", " , ". Personal Computer (PC), .

(David J. Bradley, 04.01.1949), , : , , . - ++, .

IBM 5150

1 1982 Intel 80286 16- , 1,5- 134 . . 6 , 10 12 . 80286 : . . . , - . , 80286 , . 80286 ( ) .

Commodore Business Machines Commodore 64, 64, 1980- . 595 . Commodore 64 : MOS Technology 6510, 64- , 20- Microsoft, (VIC-II SID ). C64 , , . 1993 64 .

90- . . "", , , , , . - , . - . 90- , 2000- . , , IT-, - . , 90- ., , , . , , , , 3D-.

5- : - ( , ); ; ; . .

1990 World Wide Web ( ). - (Tim Bernes-Lee, 08.06.1955) HTML (Hupertext Markup Langauge ; ) , Web- NextStep Next. CERN , -, 17 1991 Web-, 1 .

- .. . 28 1990 , , . 19 1990 UNIX (SUUG Soviet UNIX User's Group) SU (Soviet Union ) . . ipsun.ac.msc.su ( www.ras.ru). Web-

1997 ASCI RED, 1,34 . , Pentium II, , . Massively Parallel Processing, MPP. MPP- - : , - , . . , , . ( ""; 1 = 1000 ) 2008 Roadrunner IBM. , , : 100 , 20 000 ... , Linux- Red Hat Fedora, , .

K Fujitsu Roadrunner . Top-500, K Fujitsu, . 70 000- ( , , ) 8,162 . , , . , - .

2000 . Intel: Pentium 4, , NetBurst. 20 2000 .

Intel: Pentium III, Pentium III Xeon, Intel Itanium, Intel Xeon.

2001 . Intel: Pentium III, Pentium III Xeon, Intel Itanium, Intel Xeon

NetBurst . : , , , . NetBurst CISC- RISC- ( x86- ): x86 (). . - , x86 , .

2005 . Intel: Xeon. Intel Xeon , , , . 2006 . Intel: Core Duo, Itanium 2 Core 2 Duo.2007 Intel: Itanium, Core 2 Extreme. One Laptop Per Child (, ), MIT Media Lab 2006 XO-1. . 2008 100 ., , - Linux. ( Wi-Fi) , , .

2009 Intel Core i7 Core i5 . Core i7 Core i5 Intel - Xeon 5500. , Intel Intel Pentium Pro 15 . , .

2008 GPS- xDevice X1 . xDevice Windows Mobile 6.0 Professional. 2008 Android - , , .23 2008 , . T-Mobile G1 HTC. .

2010 Huawei IDEOS S7 (SmaKit S7, Telstra T-Touch Tab, ).

27 2010 iPad -. 7 2010 CES HP Slate 500, Microsoft Windows 7. -, , , , , .

IDEOS S7 HP Slate 500

2013 Intel 60- , . Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core (MIC) Xeon E5-2600/4600.

60- Intel Xeon Phi 2013 3Doodler .

3Ddoodler

WayTools Bluetooth TextBlade - , . , . 2015 .

Microsoft , , The Next Web. 10 . Microsoft, 20 "" , . . , . - A, C, T G.

2016 Sharp , , . (OLED), LCD- . , . 3,4 540960 . 93% NTSC, 0,4 . , 2 , , , .

, , , 6 . , .

, , , .

: . http://informat444.narod.ru/museum/index.htm 1998 . : 28 2015 . 200 , 600 , 150 .