Ch11 (12) urban structure

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  • Wendy A. Mitteager

    State University of New York, Oneonta

    CITY

    SPACES:

    URBAN

    STRUCTURE

  • Urban Structure - Key Terms

    Land Use & Spatial

    Patterns

    North American Cities

    European Cities

    Islamic Cities

    Unintended

    Metropolises

    Mega Cities

    Dualism

    Infrastructure

    Urban Land Use

    Models

    Racial Segregation

    Smart Growth

    Urban Sprawl

    Gentrification

    Edge Cities

  • City The term is a political designation

    Refers to a municipal entity that is governedby some kind of administrative organization

    In Europe the largest cities (especially capitals) are often

    the foci of the state

    microcosms of their national cultures

  • Urban Structure

    Isotropic surface

    A hypothetical uniform plane representing a City & its Use Zones

    Accessibility of a location is a function of its utility, which decreases steadily with distance from the city center.

    Utility decreases from center but at different rates for different land users.

    Figure 11.1 Accessibility, bid-rent, and urban structure

    Bid-rents - Different users are

    prepared to pay different

    amounts for locations at various

    distances from the City center.

    Trade-off model

    Urban dwellers trade-off

    between accessibility & living

    space

  • North American City Structure

    Central business district

    (CBD) traditional city development based on

    urban center with administrative functions

    including government, banking, law, education,

    & retail functions.

    Zone in transition as city space evolves &

    changes, previous zones of industrial use fall

    into decay, may develop into new business

    with different land use; mixture of growth,

    change & decline.

    Figure 11.2 Chicago's

    Globalized Financial CBD

    Historic 3rd Street

    Central Business

    District

    Santa Monica, CA

    1950s to 2012

  • North American Cities

    Figure 11.3 The ecological model of urban land use

    The Chicago Model

    Zones of concentric land use in a model City.

    Central business district (CBD) at center, location of

    original agricultural farmers markets, livestock

    transport & slaughter, rail yards for shipping nationally

    & regionally. Manufacturing. Historic ethnic enclaves

    with distinct cultural fabric in proximity to groups

    experiencing discrimination due to race and ethnicity.

    http://www.chicagohs.org/history/stockyard/stock6.html

    Kids in the Dump yards of

    Chicagohttp://www.chicagohs.org/history/stockyard/stock8.html

    Worker Housing

    Chicago Union Stockyards, Railroads

    Manufacturing Zones

    http://www.chicagohs.org/history/stockyard/stock6.htmlhttp://www.chicagohs.org/history/stockyard/stock8.html

  • Urban Population & Congregation

    Congregation provides a means of cultural preservation. Allows religious & cultural practices to be maintained & strengthens group identity

    through daily involvement in routines & ways of life.

    Minority groups are population subgroups that are perceived as different

    from the general population. Defining characteristics of minority groups can

    be based on race, language, religion, nationality, caste, sexual orientation, or

    lifestyle.

    Segregation The combined result of congregation & discrimination, the spatial separation of specific subgroups within a wider population.

    Enclaves are tendencies toward congregation & discrimination are long-

    standing but dominated by internal cohesion.

    Ghettos long-standing products of discrimination than congregation.

    Colonies result from shorter lasting congregation, discrimination or both.

    Persistence depends on continuing arrival of new minority-group members.

  • Racial Segregation

    Detroit

    Long BeachNew York

    Washington, D.C.

    Figure 11.a,b,c,d

    Segregation The combined

    result of

    congregation &

    discrimination, the

    spatial separation

    of specific

    subgroups within

    a wider

    population.

    Development of

    American Cities

    reflect historical

    trend of racial

    segregation.

  • Spatial Organization

    Figure 11.6 Decentralized multiple-nuclei model

    Contemporary American urbanization; ever-

    increasing metropolitan sprawl with outlying nodes

    of residential & economic development

    Ex: Los Angeles & southern California regions,

    Northeastern Indiana Chicago metropolitan region

    Figure 11.5 Hoyt's model of urban structure:

    Sector model

    Hoyt observed dominant patterns of population

    classes in as concentric & sectors of land use.

    Wage earners live in proximity to manufacturing

    The Central Business District containing

    administrative functions & segregated low & higher

    income residential areas.

    Where

    are

    vistas

    located?

  • Spatial OrganizationFigure 11.7

    Polycentric new metropolis

    Non-concentric reality of American

    Urban & suburban growth

    Both multiple-nuclei & polycentric

    Metropolitan urban regions merge into

    megalopolis Gottmans 1961

    Conceptualization of the urbanized region

    from Boston New York Baltimore

    Washington, DC & its role in industrial,

    trade/shipping, financial, &

    government activities.

    Edge City

    Tysons Corner, Virginia**

    Urban development with new

    Business, commercial, retail, &

    Upscale residential areas

    Outside of more established cities.

    Business Parks are ex. of outlying

    Centers of economic innovation.

    Also planned developments such as Irvine, CA

  • Spatial Organization

    Figure 11.9 Gentrification in Philadelphia Elite

    economic class enjoys revitalization of older core

    residences near the CBD & Downtown of American

    cities. Controversial for displacing lower income

    residents & neighborhoods.

    Figure 11.8 Metroburban landscapes merging of

    urban centers with edge cities of residences, retail

    centers, & business parks. Commute times are

    extended but over time the regions merge into

    interconnected metro-urban areas. Example is San

    Diego from Mexico border north east and north

    west is all developed commercially & residentially &

    connected via freeway networks to Orange County

    and to Los Angeles.

  • Smart Growth versus Sprawl

    Figure 11.F Smart growth in Pasadena

    Figure 11.E Transformation of California farmland to

    suburban sprawl Water comes from Colorado River

    Water & from Water Table via municipal wells.

    Pasadena was founded in 1900, part

    of original Los Angeles landscape at

    turn-of-century; not the same as

    contemporary sprawl, not really a

    good comparison, nations 1st freeway

    led from downtown LA over pass LA

    River into town against Mts. Pasadena

    used to be connected to Pacific Ocean

    via the Red Cars trolley system

    removed when automobiles became

    popular.

  • Problems of North American Cities Central cities inner-city cores experience decay, crime, poverty.

    Fiscal squeeze Occurs when tax revenue goes down (businesses

    leave area, homeowners move out) plus increasing demand for

    money to improve & support urban infrastructure & city services.

    Detroit entire industry leaves & city disintegrates

    Infrastructure Bridges, roads,

    Sewers, electrical grids, public

    Transportation all has to be maintained

    Poverty- lower wage populations who

    need support to escape cycle of poverty.

    Neighborhood decay lack of investment in maintenance of

    properties - low income areas needs investment

    Redlining racial/financial profiling of homebuyers nice word for

    economic Racism. Contributes to economic decline by undermining

    neighborhood stability.Figure 11.10 Decaying infrastructure, Minneapolis

  • Problems of North American Cities

    Figure 11.11 Devastation of Poverty in the District of Columbia or DC

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development oversees homes owned by the government, and ensures that

    tenants and renters are treated fairly under the law. http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/Federal/Executive/HUD.shtml

    The mission of the Office of Housing is to:

    Contribute to building and preserving healthy neighborhoods and communities

    Maintain and expand homeownership, rental housing and healthcare opportunities

    Stabilize credit markets in times of economic disruption

    Operate with a high degree of public and fiscal accountability

    Recognize and value its customers, staff, constituents and partners

    http://defeatpovertydc.org/

    Addresses Literacy as many as 37% of DC residents are functionally illiterate.

    Discrimination in Education, Employment & Housing: What

    explains such significant racial disparities?

    Historically, African Americans have faced many uphill challenges

    that partly trace back to longstanding spatial segregation, social

    and economic exclusion, and isolation. All, in turn, can

    undermine employment and educational success especially in

    neighborhoods served by failing public schools. Some disparities

    in