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Experiences concerning Stone age building constructions in Finland Eero Muurimäki Museum of Saarijärvi [email protected]

Experiences concerning Stone age building constructions in Finland - OpenArch Conference, Kierikki 2014

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by Eero Muurimäki, Museum of Saarijärvi

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  • Experiences concerning Stone age building constructions in Finland Eero Muurimki Museum of Saarijrvi [email protected]
  • 2 History of the studies Risl Pitkjrvi Sakari Plsi, Excavation in 1915
  • 3 Risl hut 12 post hole making a circle, 2 outside Plsi: a conical hut which an entry way. probably the main structure has been upright because of the vertical post holes. slanting poles for the cover had not been preserved.
  • Plsi made a sketch of the structure of the hut. no remains of the roofing material in the soil. He did not decide, if it has been covered with hides, birch bark or twigs of spruces as contemporary hunter- gatherers
  • U. T. Sirelius, professor in Ethnology, found an analogy in Eastern Siberia A hut of the Gilyaks, nowadays known as the Nivkhs
  • After the later decades only 3 of the kind were recognized among thousands of excavated stone age sites. Skkijrvi, Hevonuitti Vrtsil Kesmaa Honkajoki, Lauhala Myllyluoma
  • 7 C. F. Meinander pole holes are main roots of pines. Our experimental studies: the inner horizontal structure of Risl hut has no function, no need, because diameter of the circle is only 6 m) Oula Seitsonen 2005: Risl hut has probable been the same kind of rectangular structure as the normal type of pit house is nowadays seem to be. Risl hut in Saarijrvi Stone Age Village
  • Saarijrvi Stone age village The First Village Founded 1980 Simo Vanhatalo the first archaeologist Stone Age buildings reconstructed artefacts traps dugout possibility to try a stone axe
  • 9 Saarijrvi
  • In the beginning Huts of: Risl Narva Byske Fur hut a small pit house single walled lent- to shelter hut
  • 11 Stone Age Village in the beginning of 1990s
  • 12 Small pit house Simo Vanhatalo in front of the picture
  • 13 Conical Hide hut elk hides One small hut needs 17 hides. to clean one hide takes about week very bad smell!
  • 14 Hut of Byske Byske and Risl hut, only turf Keeps water out about 1/2 hours. Keep on raining inside about 12 hours after the rain outside has stopped! too steep angle
  • 15 Hut of Narva Birch bark white side out pieces about 0,5 x 1 m Keeps water cold in wintertime
  • 1616 Turf and birch bark Keeps water, warm also in winter time
  • 17 Birch bark Khanty (Ostyaks) summer dwelling birch bark backside up, sewn
  • 18 Narva hut, model 1992 sewn with tree roots, about 2 km
  • Northern Ostrobothnian type Hannu Kotivuori 1983 Turf and birch bark First new type after Plsi 1915! In stone age village 1993 Problem with the drawing: does the drawing mean an gabled house or a Risl hut type building.
  • 20 The New Village 1993 Bases Evijrvi Isokangas, house grounds over 20 m in diameter. No structures found, not even fireplaces Depression round or oval
  • 21 Yurt-like structures Yurt-like structures 1993 planned according the form of the pits.
  • 22 Yurt hut basically the same structure as n Risl hut, but two rounds of upright posts and a turn
  • 23 No evidence about the structure first In 1990`s evidence of rectangular structures
  • Puumala Krmelahti 1998 1999 3 depressions . 3900 cal. BC.
  • 2525 Puumala Krmelahti
  • 2626 Puumala Krmelahti
  • 2727 Puumala Krmelahti
  • 28 Rusavierto house Excavation by Sirpa Leskinen and Petro Pesonen 1990- 2000 About 800 m from Saarijrvi Stone age village Stone age village x
  • 29 Rusavierto house Saarijrvi, Rusavierto X Rusavierto
  • 30 Saarijrvi, Rusavierto 7 different periods from Mesolithic to iron age Fireplaces were Mesolithic House pit n. 2200 cal BC.
  • 31 house was burnt. Wall lines about 30 cm fro the corners out, timber frame
  • 32 Diagram by Leskinen & Pesonen, National board of antiques
  • 33 bark on the logs, timber has not been barked. pine 2300 1900 cal BC. Plj ceramics from the site is contemporaneous.
  • 34 Reconstruction of Rusavierto Reconstruction by Sirpa Leskinen and Petro Pesonen year after the excavation
  • 35 use in winter assumes turf cover turf is the moss cover of the dry forest near by, not from bog.
  • 36 The structure is like Sami timber kota Differences: Sami kota is small and it is not semi subterranean
  • 37 Saarijrvi, Uimaranta Excavation by Leskinen & Pesonen 2001 Uimaranta house pit 2 post holes found in profile. Symmetrically there should be 2 more. 3000 cal BC not published
  • 3838 Structure: Risl hut type with 4 upright posts.
  • 39 Uimaranta house
  • 40 House of Lillberget Ove Haln 1994 Haln: the walls have to been relatively high because of the fireplaces are so near to the gable walls.
  • Houses Excavated and reconstructed (drawing) by Ove Haln Two fireplaces in every house Haln: the walls have to been relatively high because of the fireplaces are so near to the gable walls.
  • 42 House of Lillberget One of the houses of Lillberget as reconstructed in Saarijrvi Stone Age village
  • Vara The timber walls were low because in Stone age there were no vara, an tool for drawing the form of the undermost timber on the uppermost timber. Without sharp fit wind goes through the walls In the picture an ethnographic example of vara, about 1000 years old.
  • Durability How long the huts will last depends on the covering. frameworks covered only with turf are non-usable within three years. Constructions with birch bark only or with turf coverings can survive 10 15 years if the huts are kept dry with heating inside, they can remain in good condition for a much longer time.
  • The Stone Age Village in Saarijrvi in the year 2014 26 Ha
  • Litterature Christiansson, Hans, Knutsson Kjel 1985. Bjurselet Gamla nya experiment. Finn forntiden. Vsterbottens norra fornminnesfrening. Skellefte museum. Meddelande XLVII 1985. Haln, O. Sedentariness during the Stone Age of Northern Sweden in the light of the Altrsket site, C. 5000 B.C., and the comb ware site Lillberget c. 3900 B.C. Source Critical Problems of Representativity in Archaeology. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia. Series in 4:o. No. 20. Stockholm 1994. 1-163. Hiekkanen, M. 1984. Otlitsitelnnye osbennosti postroek tipa madeneva. otnosjastsihsja k manennomy veku. Novoe v apheologi CCCP i Finljandii. Nauka. Ljeningrad. Karjalainen, Taisto 1996a. Outokumpu Sts ja Orov Navolok 16, talo 3. Muinaistutkija 1/1996. Helsinki. Kotivuori, Hannu. Kivikauden asumuksia Perpohjolassa - vertailuja ja rakenteellisia tulkintoja. Selviytyjt. Nyttely Pohjoisen ihmisen sitkeydest. Lapin maakuntamuseon julkaisuja 7. 1993 Leskinen, Sirpa 2002. The Late Neolithic House at Rusavierto. In Helena Ranta (ed.). Huts and Houses. Stone Age and Early Metal Age Buildings in Finland. National Board of Antiquites. Helsinki
  • Muurimki, Eero 1995. Saarijrven museon kivikauden kyln rakennusennallistukset - teoreettista taustaa. Muinaistutkija 2/1995. Suomen arkeologinen seura r.y. Helsinki 1995. s. 3-11. Muurimki, Eero 2007. Stone Age Village in Saarijrvi - an Overview. Vilkuna, Janne, Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka and Heiskanen, Virpi (ed). IV Mittnordiska arkeologidagar Saarijrvi 14.-16. Juni 2007. Keski-Suomi 20. Syntsalo. s. 91 -112. Plsi, Sakari 1916. Kulttuurikuvia kivikaudelta. Otava. Helsinki Plsi, Sakari 1918. Kaivaus Pitkjrven kivikautisella asuinpaikalla Rislss v. 1915. Suomen Museo XXV. Helsinki 1918. Rihl, Oili 1997. Kuoppatalon merkitys. Muinaistutkija 4/1997. Helsinki Seitsonen, Oula 2006. Risl Pitkjrvi revisited new interpretations of the dwelling remains. Arkeologipivt 2005. Suomen arkeologinen seura Hamina 2006. Sepnmaa, Timo 1987. Saarijrven museon kivikauden kyl. Saarijrven museon kivikauden kyln opasjulkaisu. Saarijrven museon julkaisuja 1. Paavon paino ky.