Gurjar history

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  • Gurjar /Gujjar :The Royal Aryan, The

    descendents of Ancient Yuezhi

    By: Adesh Katariyaplast.adesh@gmail.com

    +91 9411976062

  • Gurjar/Gujjar

    The Vedic Vayupurana describes a battle waged among the ancient Aryans. It was as a result of this war that Anavs part of the Chandravanshi clan and Gurtar ( Guzar ) of suryabanshi had to immigrate to wester Aryabart area of modern Iran (Iran means "land of Aryans") to Tarim basin.

    It was in these regions, where the fertile soil of the mountainous

    country is surrounded by the Turanian desert, that the prophet Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) was said to have been born and gained his first adherents. Avestan, the language of the oldest portions of the Zoroastrian Avesta, was once called "old-iranic" which is related to Sanskrit.

    Chandravansi known as Sythians and Suryabanshi known as Guzar/Gusur by Tibbetian , Yuezhi by Chineese , Tocharian by Romans and Tushara by Poranic Indians.

  • Migration of Gujjars (Yuezhi )from Tarim Besin

    In 176 BC, the Yuezhi were driven from Tarim Besin to westward by the Xiongnu, a fierce people of Magnolia.

    The Yuezhi under the leadership of the Kushanas came down from Central Asia and swept away all earlier dynasties of the Northwest in a great campaign of conquest. They established an empire which extended from Central Asia right down to the eastern Gangetic basin.

    In Bactria, they conquered the Scythians and the local Indo-Greek kingdoms, the last remnants of Alexander the Great'sinvasion force that had failed to take India.

    From this central location, the Kushan Empire became a wealthy trading hub between the peoples of Han China, Sassanid Persia and the Roman Empire. Roman gold and Chinese silk changed hands in the Kushan Empire, at a very tidy profit for the middle-men.

  • Migration from Tarim Besin

  • Ban Gujjars still live like Yuezhi of ancient central Asia

  • The Van Gujjars ("forest Gujjars") are found in the Shivalik hills area of North India.

    The Van Gujjars follow Islam, and they have their own clans, similar to the Hindu gotras.

    They are a pastoral semi-nomadic community, practising transhumance.

    In the winter season, the Van Gujjars migrate with their herds to the Shiwalik foothills, and in summer, they migrate to pastures high up in the mountains.

  • Walking through different landscapes, such as towns, villages and dense forests, for almost three weeks, they finally reach their summer home lush alpine meadows laced with gurgling streams. Leaving their cattle to graze, the nomads rest, sing, play, and relax for the season.

  • Due to their deep bond with their animals, Van Gujjars never eat their buffaloes or sell them for slaughter. The traditionally vegetarian tribe doesnt hunt, and even though they share the Shivaliks with tigers, leopards and bears, its very rare for the tribe to kill wild animals out of fear for their own safety.

  • First Gurjar Kingdom : Kushana Empire

    After Migration from Taerim Besin , the Yuezhi Gurjar defeatedthe Shakas and the Pahlavas/Parthinians and went on to createa big empire in Afganistan, Pakistan and Northern parts of India,Known as Kushana Empire.

    The first important ruler of the Kushana dynasty was KujulaKadphises or Kadphises I. He occupied the valley of Kabul andhad also issued coins in his name. He was then succeded by hisson, Wima Kadphises or Kadphises II. He had conquered theareas of Northern india till Mathura. He had issued coinsproclaiming himself as a Shiva devotee and as the ruler ofwhole world.

    There after the Kushana empire was ruled by Kanishka. He isconsidered the most important ruler of the Kushana dynasty.

  • Under Kaniska I (flourished 1st century CE) andhis successors, the Kushan kingdom reached itsheight. It was acknowledged as one of the fourgreat Eurasian powers of its time (the othersbeing China, Rome, and Parthia).

    The Kushans were instrumental inspreading Buddhism in Central Asia and Chinaand in developing Mahayana Buddhism andthe Gandhara and Mathura schools of art.

  • The Kushans became affluent through trade, particularly with Rome, as their large issues of gold coins show.

    These coins, which exhibit the figures of Greek, Roman, Iranian, Hindu, and Buddhist deities and bear inscriptions in adapted Greek letters, are witness to the toleration and to the syncretism in religion and art that prevailed in the Kushan empire.

    After the rise of the Ssnian dynasty in Iran and of local powers in northern India, Kushan rule declined.

  • Kushana Polity and Administration Nothing much is known about the administrative machinery of

    the Kushana.

    Perhaps the whole empire was divided into provinces, eachruled by a mahakshatrapa ( a military governor), who wasassisted by a kshatrapa; but how many provinces were there inthe empire, is not known.

    Sources indicate that Kushana horsemen wore trousers whileriding. A headless statue of Kanishka found at Mathura reflectsthe same.

    A prominent feature of Kushana polity was the titleof devaputra , i.e., son of God, used by the Kushana kings. Itindicates the claim to divinity by the Kushana kings.

  • The Contributions of Kushana Gurjars The Kushanas occupy a special place in the ancient Indian

    history because of their contribution to various aspects of life. Their vast empire helped in the growth of internal and external

    trade. It resulted in the rise of new urban centres. The rich state of economy under the Kushanas is also

    evidenced by the large number of gold and copper coins that they struck.

    Even in literature and medicine, India made progress. Charaka, known as father of Ayurveda, wrote a book on medicine called Charaksamhita whereas Asvaghosha, a Buddhist scholar, wrote Buddhacharita, a full length biography of the Buddha. Both these scholars were believed to be the contemporaries of king Kanishka.

    The Kushanas patronized the Gandhara and the Mathura schools of sculptural art which are known for producing the earliest images of Buddha and Buddhisattavas.

  • The successors of Kanishka had ruled for another one hundred and fifty years. His son Huvishkakept the empire intact. While Mathura became an important city under his rule, like his father Kanishka he was also a patron of Buddhism religion.

    The last significant Kushana ruler was Vasudeva. The Kushana empire got much reduced in his rule. Various inscription with his name are found in and around Mathura. He was a worshipper of Siva.

    And after Vasudeva, petty Kushan princes ruled for sometime in northwestern India after which the empire faded away.

  • Kushan art The art and culture of Gandhara, at the crossroads of the

    Kushan hegemony, constitute the best known expressions of Kushan influences to Westerners.

    Several direct depictions of Kushans from Gandhara have been discovered, represented with a tunic, belt and trousers and play the role of devotees to the Buddha, as well as the Bodhisattva and future Buddha Maitreya.

    In the iconography, they have never been associated with the Hellenistic "Standing Buddha" statues of an earlier historical period. The style of these friezes incorporating Kushan devotees, already strongly Indianized, are quite remote from earlier Hellenistic depictions of the Buddha.

  • Kushan king or prince, Greco-

    Buddhist art of Gandhar

    (2nd-3rd century CE)

  • A Buddhist devotee in Kushan dress, Mathura, 2nd century. The Kushan

    dress is generally depicted as quite stiff, and it is thought it was often made of leather

    (Francine Tissot, "Gandhara").

  • King Kanishka,Mathura art,

    Mathura Museum.

  • Kumara/ Kartikeyawith

    a Kushana devotee, 2nd century CE

  • Kushan prince making a donation to a Boddhisattva.

  • Standing Female, 1st century CE Terracotta. This lively female figure comes from an area of Pakistan where merchants from around the Mediterranean had long maintained trading posts.

    The area, known in antiquity as Gandhara, developed an unusual hybrid style of art and culture that was at once Hellenic and Indic. Brooklyn Museum

  • Ek Mukhi Siva Linga, Kushana period (Government

    Museum, Lucknow). The Siva Linga is

    one of the most profound symbols of humankind.

    It is the mark of the unmanifest eternal manifesting itself in innumerable forms of the world.

  • Kushan Dynastic Ring.....Gold finger ring

  • Huna Gurjar Kingdom

    Gurjar of Huna gotr ( subtribe) have established two kingdoms in Central Asia ,

    1. Bectrian Kungdom of Hepthelites2. Aryabart(Indian) Kingdom of Hepthelites.

  • Bectrian Kungdom of HepthelitesProcopius claims that the Hephthalites live in a prosperous territory, are the only Huns with fair complexions, do not live as nomads, acknowledge a single king, observe a well-regulated constitution, and behave justly towards neighboring states.

    At the summit of their power around 550 AD, the Hephthalites ruled a roughly triangular empire extending over most of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgystan, and Uzbekistan.

    They soon built up a considerable empire extending from the Caspian to the Indus, including Chorasmia, Sogdiana, and part of north-western India.

  • The Huna Kings of Central Asia

    Akshunwar Napki Malka

  • First major invasion of India by the Hunas: 458 AD

    The Gupta Empire in India reigned in the Ganges basin during the 5th century, and the Kushan dynasty occupied the area along the Indus. After defeating the Kushanas, the Hunas entered the subcontinent from the