Introduction to Statistics: Descriptive Statistics

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  • 1

  • (Statistics) (Study of methods handling quantitative information)

    2

  • (Descriptive Statistics )

    (Inferential Statistics)

    3

  • (counting) (measuring)

    (tabulating)

    (Ordering) (taking of

    censuses)

    (Describing)

    (theories of probability)

    4

  • T (descriptive statistics) (describe)

    (summarize) (reduce)

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  • (Nominal Scale)

    (Ordinal Scale)

    (Interval Scale)

    (Ratio Scale)

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  • T T T T

    (Descriptive Statistics)

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  • (Descriptive Statistics)

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  • (frequency)

    (range, cluster)

    1.

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  • (Percentage)

    (

    )

    1.

    10

  • 0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

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    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

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  • 2. (Central Tendency)

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  • 1. (Mode) -

    -

    10

    4 5 10 6 7 8 9 7 6 5

    .....

    2.

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  • 2. (Median) -

    Position of Median = N+1

    -

    ( 50)

    4 5 10 6 7 8 9 7 6 5

    4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 10

    (6+7)/2 = 6.5

    2.

    2

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  • 3. (Mean) - -

    X = x1 + x2 + x3 +... + xn

    4 5 10 6 7 8 9 7 6 5 6.7

    2.

    N

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  • -

    -

    - mean, median, mode

    - median mean mean mode

    ( out liner)

    2.

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  • -

    -

    3. (variability)

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  • 1. (Range)

    -

    Range = Max - Min

    4 5 10 6 7 8 9 7 6 5

    4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 10

    ... ... ...

    3. (variability)

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  • 2. (Semi-interquatile)

    - 3 1 Q = (Q3-Q1)/2

    4 5 10 6 7 8 9 7 6 5

    4 5 5 6 6 7 7

    1 ... 3 ...

    ...

    3. (variability)

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  • 3. (Variance)

    - ()

    -

    ...

    3. (variability)

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  • 4. (Standard Deviation)

    -

    ...

    3. (variability)

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  • 5. (Coefficient of Variation)

    -

    -

    3. (variability)

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  • 5. (Coefficient of Variation)

    CV = S.D/Mean

    3. (variability)

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  • -

    (Spearman Rank Correlation)

    (Pearsons Product Moment coefficient of Correlation)

    4.

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  • (Inferential Statistics)T T (infer)

    T T

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  • 2

    T T ()

    T T ()

    t-test, Z-test, ANOVA

    chi-square

    (Inferential Statistics)

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  • (generalized) (margin of error)

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