# Introduction to Statistics: Descriptive Statistics

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• (Statistics) (Study of methods handling quantitative information)

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• (Descriptive Statistics )

(Inferential Statistics)

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• (counting) (measuring)

(tabulating)

(Ordering) (taking of

censuses)

(Describing)

(theories of probability)

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• T (descriptive statistics) (describe)

(summarize) (reduce)

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• (Nominal Scale)

(Ordinal Scale)

(Interval Scale)

(Ratio Scale)

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• T T T T

(Descriptive Statistics)

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• (Descriptive Statistics)

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• (frequency)

(range, cluster)

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• (Percentage)

(

)

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• 0

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6

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12

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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

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• 2. (Central Tendency)

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• 1. (Mode) -

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4 5 10 6 7 8 9 7 6 5

.....

2.

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• 2. (Median) -

Position of Median = N+1

-

( 50)

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4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 10

(6+7)/2 = 6.5

2.

2

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• 3. (Mean) - -

X = x1 + x2 + x3 +... + xn

4 5 10 6 7 8 9 7 6 5 6.7

2.

N

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• -

-

- mean, median, mode

- median mean mean mode

( out liner)

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• -

-

3. (variability)

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• 1. (Range)

-

Range = Max - Min

4 5 10 6 7 8 9 7 6 5

4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 10

... ... ...

3. (variability)

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• 2. (Semi-interquatile)

- 3 1 Q = (Q3-Q1)/2

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4 5 5 6 6 7 7

1 ... 3 ...

...

3. (variability)

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• 3. (Variance)

- ()

-

...

3. (variability)

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• 4. (Standard Deviation)

-

...

3. (variability)

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• 5. (Coefficient of Variation)

-

-

3. (variability)

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• 5. (Coefficient of Variation)

CV = S.D/Mean

3. (variability)

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• -

(Spearman Rank Correlation)

(Pearsons Product Moment coefficient of Correlation)

4.

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• (Inferential Statistics)T T (infer)

T T

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• 2

T T ()

T T ()

t-test, Z-test, ANOVA

chi-square

(Inferential Statistics)

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• (generalized) (margin of error)

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