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Drugs & Behavior II: Stimulants Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.

Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology II (Stimulants)

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lecture 8 from a college level introduction to psychology course taught Fall 2011 by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. ([email protected]) at Willamette University, focus is on nicotine including history, epidemiology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics

Text of Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology II (Stimulants)

  • 1. Drugs &Behavior II:StimulantsBrian J. Piper, Ph.D.

2. StimulantsStimulants are drugs that excite neural activity andspeed up body functions. Examples of stimulantsare: 1. Nicotine 2. Caffeine 3. Amphetamines 4. Ecstasy (?) 3. Prevalence 4. 3.2Drug Distribution Nicotine: active ingredient of Jean Nicottobacco leaves 1530-1600 half-life: 2 hoursNicotiana 1 cigarette = 9 mg Cotinine: inactive metabolite ofnicotine half-life: 20 hours 5. Nicotine by Route of Administration Blood nicotine after smoking 1.33 cigarettes for 9 minutes (upper left) or 2.5 g oral snuff(upper right), 7.9 g chewing tobacco (lower left), two-2 mg pieces of nicotine gum for 30 minutesHukkanen, et al. (2005) Pharmacology Reviews, 57: 79-115. 6. Nicotine over 24 hours Cotinine > Nicotine Steady state during dayBenowitz et al. (1983) Circadian blood concentrations of nicotine and cotinine duringunrestricted smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther 34: 604-611. 7. 3.3Smoking and the Brain: Acetylcholine Vagusstoff: Otto Loewi Function: movement &cognition Nicotinic ACh receptorCH3O|||CH3 N - CH2 - CH2 O C - CH3|CH3For more details, see: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chnt1.html 8. 3.3 Smoking increases nACh Smoking increases receptorlevels in human post-mortemtissue in hippocampus (top) andthalamus (bottom).Breese et al. JPET (1997) 282, 7-13. Non-Sm Smoker Ex-smoker 9. Why Do People Smoke? 10. Risks of Smoking: Statistics There are three types of lies: lies, damn lies, and statistics (Mark Twain/Leonard Courtney) Absolute Risk: Rate of condition/total population studied Relative Risk: Rate of condition among exposed divided by rate of condition among unexposedsee Statistics.ppt for additional information 11. Psychology of Decision Making: Smoking & Lung-CancerNon-Smokers SmokersDeath from Lung-Cancer10100Non-Death from99,99099,900Lung-CancerTotal 100,000 100,000Relative Risk of Death: Smokers Odds of Lung Cancer Death 100/100,000 or .001Non-Smokers Odds of Lung Cancer Death of 10/100,000 or .0001.001/.0001 = 10 Fold!Absolute Risk of Non-Death: Smokers: 99.90% Non-Smokes: 99.99% 12. Fig 1 Survival from age 60 for continuing cigarette smokers and lifelong non-smokers among UKmale doctors born 1851-1899 (median 1889) and 1900-1930 (median 1915), with percentages aliveat each decade of ageWhy physicians?Pipes & Cigar CohortSir Richard DollCigarette Cohort Doll, R. et al. BMJ 2004;328:15191912-2005 13. But theres good news!25-3435-4445-5455-64Doll, R. et al. BMJ 2004;328:1519 14. Smoking & Pregnancy Risks of smoking: Spontaneous abortion: 26 weeks Small size: SGA SIDS: 1 month to 1 year Behavioral issues: ADHD Smoking Cessation: Nicotine Replacement Therapy NHSDUH, 2011 15. Dose Related? Online study with Craigslist volunteers Behavioral Rating of Executive FunctionPiper & Corbett (2012) Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 14, 191-199. 16. Benefits of Quitting Smoking Hypothesis: Smokingduring pregnancy,but not quitting, hasnegative outcomes Online study of non-smokers, smokers,quittersPiper et al. (2012). Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 121, 62-67. 17. 0.6Nicotine by College Plans 18. Child Endangerment Toddler Smoking: 2 min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4c_wI6kQyE 19. Insula 20. Lesions of Insula Smoking following braindamage was examined inpatients with insuladamage.Naqvi et al. (2007). Science, 315, 531-534. 21. Lesions of Insula Smoking following brain damage wasexamined in patients with insula damage. He quit because his body forgot the urge tosmokeNaqvi et al. (2007). Science, 315, 531-534. 22. Summary Neurochemistry: Acetylcholine (& dopamine) Public Health Statistics 23. CocaineCocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash. Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms of cocaine can be sniffed or injected.http://www.ohsinc.com 24. Nicotine by College Plans