Khóa luận tốt nghiệp

  • View
    23.601

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Kha lun tt nghip

Transcript

  • 1. Trng i hc ngoi thng Khoa kinh t ngoi thngKho lun tt nghip vn tiu chun cht lng, mi trng v x hi i vi hng ho xut khu sang eugio vin hng dn :Th.s Nguyn Thanh Bnh sinh vin thc hin : Nghim Qunh Nga Lp A2 K38A KTNT H ni, nm 2003

2. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Em xin chn thnh by t lng bit n su sc n Th.s Nguyn Thanh Bnh - ngi nhit tnh hng dn, ch bo v gip em trong qu trnh vit kha lun.Em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio trng i hc Ngoi Thng dy d em kin thc, cch nghin cu, gip em c th hiu v x l ti vi kh nng ca mnh.ng thi, xin chn thnh cm n cc cn b th vin, cc cn b chuyn mn trong ngnh v cc bn cng kha gip ti thu thp ti liu hon thnh kha lun ny 3. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38Mc lcDanh mc cm t vit ttLi ni uChng I: Cc tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca EU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng...................1.I Gii thiu chung v th trng EU...................1.1 Lin minh Chu u (EU)..........................1.2 c im v tp qun tiu dng ca th trng EU 2 .II Cc quy nh v tiu chun v cht lng ca th trng EU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng.. .7.1 Vn tiu chun ho v b tiu chun EN.......7.2 Tiu chun qun l cht lng ISO 9000.........10.3 Cc quy nh v m bo sc kho v an ton chongi tiu dng...................................14 .III Cc tiu chun v mi trng ca EU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng.........................28.1 Tiu chun qun l mi trng .................28.2 Bao b v ph thi bao b......................32.3 Nhn hiu sinh thi EU (Eco-label).............37.4 Cc quy nh v an ton v sinh thc phm c linquan n bo v mi trng........................40 .IV Vn trch nhim x hi ca th trng EU i vi cc doanh nghip xut khu............................44.1 Cc b quy tc ng x .........................44.2 B tiu chun SA 8000..........................47 Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 4. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Chng II: Thc trng xut khu hng ho vit nam sang eu di tc ng ca cc tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng, v x hi.. .50.V nh gi thc trng chung ca hng xut khu Vit Nam sang EU di tc ng ca cc quy nh/ tiu chun ca EU v cht lng, mi trng v x hi................50.1 Thc trng quan h thng mi Vit Nam - EU. . . .50.2 nh gi thc trng ca cc doanh nghip xutkhu Vit Nam trong vic p ng cc tiu chun caEU v cht lng, mi trng & x hi.............61 .VI nh gi thc trng ca mt s ngnh xut khu ch yu ca Vit Nam sang EU di tc ng ca cc quy nh/ tiu chun ca EU v cht lng, mi trng v x hi. 87.1 Hng giy dp .................................88.2 Hng dt may ..................................95.3 Hng nng sn ................................104.4 Hng thu sn.................................110Chng III: Mt s gii php nhm p ng cc quy nh/tiu chun ca eu v cht lng, mi trng & x hi.....................116.VII Trin vng xut khu hng ho Vit Nam sang th trng EU............................................116.1 Chin lc xut khu ca Vit Nam sang EU giaion 2001- 2010..................................116.2 Trin vng xut khu hng ho Vit Nam sang thtrng EU........................................122 .VIII Nhng gii php ch yu nhm p ng cc quy nh v tiu chun ca EU v cht lng, mi trng v x hi133.1 Gii php v pha Nh nc....................133.2 Gii php v pha cc doanh nghip............140Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 5. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Kt lun......................................................147Danh mc tI liu trch dn v tham khoPh lc Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 6. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38Danh mc cm t vit tt K hiuTing Anh Ting Vit Nam BS British Standard Tiu chun ca Anh CE European ConformityNhn hiu CE CEEC Centre and Eastern European CountriesCc nc Trung v ng u CENComit Europen de Normalisation - U ban tiu chun ho chu uEuropean Committee for StandardizationCENELECComit Europen de Normalisation -U ban tiu chun ho k thutEuropean Committee for Electrotechnical in t chu uStandardization Electrotechnique CODEXTheo ting Latin l Food Codey ban quc t v thc phm CoCCode of ConductQuy tc ng x CSRCorporation Social ResponsibilityTrch nhim x hi doanh nghip DIN(Deutsches Institut fuer Normung - Tiu chun ca cGerman Institute for Standardisation)ECBEuropean Central BankNgn hng Trung ng chu u ECSC European Coal and Steel CommunityCng ng than thp chu u EEAEuropean Economic Area Khu vc kinh t chu u EECEuropean Economic CommunityCng ng kinh t chu u EFTA European Free Trade AssociationHip hi mu dch t do chu u EMAS Ecological Management and AuditChng trnh kim nh v qunScheme l sinh thi. EMUEuropean Monetary UnionLin minh tin t chu u EN European StandardTiu chun chu u ETSI the European TelecommunicationsVin tiu chun vin thng chuStandards InstituteuEU European Union Lin minh chu u EURATOM European Atomic Energy CommunityCng ng nguyn t chu u EUREPEuro-Retailer Produce Working GroupT chc cc nh bn l hng u chu u Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 7. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38EVAEthyl Vinyl Acetate Nha EVA FRZFrizzyKhng sinh FRZ FAOFood and Agriculture Organization T chc nng lng quc t GAPGood Agriculture Practice Quy trnh canh tc nng nghipm boGMPGood Manufacturing Practice H thng thc hnh sn xut tt. GOST Gosstandart of Russia Tiu chun ca Lin X GSPGeneralised Scheme of Preferences Ch u i thu quan ph cp HACCPHazard Analysis and Critical ControlH thng phn tch, xc nh vPoint t chc kim sot cc mi nguytrng yu. IECInternational ElectrotechnicalU ban in quc tCommission ILOInternational Labour Organization T chc lao ng quc t ISOInternational Organisation forT chc quc t v tiu chunStandardization ho. ITUInternational Telecommunication Union Tiu chun quc t v vin thng. LEFASO Vietnam Leather and FootwearHip hi da giy Vit NamAssociation NAFTANorth American Free Trade Agreement Khu vc mu dch t do Bc M NF Necrotizing Fasciitis Khng sinh NF PU PolyurethaneNha PU SAISocial Accountability International T chc v tiu chun trchnhim x hi SAI TPUThermoplastic PolyurethaneNha TPU Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 8. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38Li ni u y mnh xut khu l ch trng kinh t ln ca ng v Nh nc Vit Nam. Ch trng ny c khng nh trong vn kin i hi ng ton quc ln th VIII, Ngh quyt 01 NQ/TW ca B Chnh tr v mt ln na khng nh trong vn kin i hi ng ton quc ln th IX, nhm thc hin mc tiu chuyn dch c cu kinh t theo hng cng nghip ho, hin i ho. thc hin ch trng ca ng, chng ta cn phi tip tc tng cng m rng v a dng ho th trng xut khu.Lin minh chu u hin l mt trong nhng i tc thng mi quan trng, l khu vc th trng xut khu ln th hai ca Vit Nam sau M (theo s liu c tnh nm 2003, xut khu sang EU chim 19,2% kim ngch xut [1] khu ca c nc) . Tuy nhin quy m bun bn gia Vit Nam - EU hin nay vn cn nh (mi chim 0,12% tng kim ngch ngoi thng ca EU v chim 13,7% tng kim [2] ngch ngoi thng ca Vit Nam). c bit trong nhng nm gn y, tc tng trng xut khu ca Vit Nam sang EU li c xu hng gim st. Mt trong nhng nguyn nhn l do hng xut khu ca Vit Nam cn ngho nn v chng loi, tp trung cao vo mt s t mt hng, cht lng hng thp, khng t ng u... ng thi EU li l mt trong nhng th trng kh tnh trn th gii vi hng ro tiu chun k thut rt cao v nghim ngt.Hn na trong xu th hin nay, vic tip cn th trng chu u s cn kh khn hn do s lng cc yu cu ca th trng v an ton, sc kho, cht lng, mi Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 9. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38trng v cc vn x hi ang tng ln nhanh chng, thay th cho cc bin php bo h bng thu quan, hn ngch... ang dn b ct gim vi qu trnh t do ho thng mi din ra si ni khp mi ni.Xut pht t nhng l do nu trn, em chn Vn tiu chun cht lng, mi trng v x hi i vi hng ho xut khu sang EU lm ti kho lun tt nghip ca mnh. Mc tiu nghin cu ca kho lun:- Mc tiu tng qut: Nghin cu cc tiu chun vcht lng, mi trng v x hi i vi hng hokhi nhp khu vo th trng EU- Mc tiu c th:+ Lm r cc yu cu v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca EU i vi hot ng sn xut v xut khu hng ho ca cc nc th ba (trong c Vit Nam) vo th trng EU+ nh gi kh nng p ng cc quy nh trn ca hng Vit Nam xut khu sang EU.+ xut gii php p ng cc quy nh, tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca EU nhm nng cao sc cnh tranh v y mnh xut khu hng ho ca Vit Nam vo th trng ny. i tng nghin cu:Vic tun th cc quy nh v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca hng Vit Nam khi xut khu sang EU Phm vi nghin cu:Hng ho ca Vit Nam xut khu sang EU (gii hn i su vo 4 nhm hng ch lc: giy dp, dt may, nng sn v thu sn)Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 10. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Ni dung ca kho lun:Ngoi li m u, kt lun v cc ph lc, kho lun c chia lm 3 chng:Chng I: Cc quy nh/ tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca EU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng.Chng II: Thc trng xut khu hng ho Vit Nam sang EU di tc ng ca cc quy nh/tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng, v x hi.Chng III: Mt s gii php p ng cc tiu chun ca EU v cht lng, mi trng v x hi.y l mt ti c tnh thi s v mi m c v l lun cng nh thc tin, ng thi do kinh nghim v trnh bn thn cn hn ch nn kho lun khng trnh khi nhng thiu st v ni dung cng nh hnh thc. Em rt mong nhn c s nh gi gp ca cc thy c gio, bn b v nhng ai quan tm n vn ny ti nghin cu c hon chnh hn.H Ni, thng 12 nm2003 Nghim Qunh Nga Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 11. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Chng I: Cc tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng v x hi caEU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng.IGii thiu chung v th trng EU .1Lin minh Chu u (EU)Ngy 18/4/1951 ti Paris, 6 nc: Php, c, Italia, B, H Lan, Lcxmbua k Hip c thnh lp Cng ng than thp chu u (ECSC) iu hnh vic sn xut v tiu th than thp ca cc nc thnh vin nhm y mnh tin b khoa hc k thut trong sn xut, phn phi, tiu th v nng cao nng sut lao ng.Da vo kt qu hp tc t c, cc quc gia ny m rng lin kt sang cc lnh vc khc. Thng 7 nm 1957, Cng ng nguyn t chu u (EURATOM) v Cng ng kinh t chu u (EEC) c chnh thc thnh lp, trong EURATOM iu hnh sn xut nng lng nguyn t v EEC iu hnh ton b cc lnh vc sn xut 6 nc. Tuy nhin, nhm trnh s chng cho trong hot ng ca 3 cng ng, n nm 1967, cc quc gia ny li nht tr hp nht cc thit ch ca c 3 cng ng trn thnh Cng ng chu u (EC)Trong qu trnh hot ng, EC ln lt kt np thm 6 thnh vin na l Anh, Ailen, an Mch, Ty Ban Nha, B o Nha v Hy Lp. EC cng xc tin vic pht trin suhn na lin kt kinh t v k Hip c Maastricht vo thng 2/1992 nhm lm chu u thay i mt cch cn bn, ng thi i tn EC thnh Lin Minh Chu u (EU). Nm 1995, EU kt np thm 3 thnh vin 12. Kho