Môi trường và độc chất - ĐH Thái Nguyên

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  • TRNG I HC Y KHOA THI NGUYN

    MI TRNG V C CHT

    NH XUT BN Y HC H Ni - 2007

  • 2

    LI GII THIU

    gp phn nng cao cht lng ging dy cho sinh vin hc tp da vo cng ng, b mn Mi trng - c cht bin son tp ti liu hc tp cho i tng sinh vin chnh quy nm th ba. Cun sch Mi trng v c cht ny nhm cc mc tiu:

    1. Nu c nhng khi nim c bn ca khoa hc mi trng, sc khe mi trng, sc khe la tui, c cht hc.

    2. Trnh by c cc yu t nguy c mi trng v nhng nh hng ca n n sc khe con ngi.

    3. xut c mt s/gii php can thip thch hp bo v mi trng v phng chng cc yu t nguy c bo v sc khe con ngi.

    4. Nhn thc c cng tc bo v mi trng v phng chng cc yu t nguy c gn lin vi cng tc chm sc sc khe.

    5. Pht hin c cc du hiu bnh hc ng lin quan ti mi trng c cc bin php phng chng kp thi.

    6. Tin hnh c xt nghim mt s ch s trong mi trng v nh gi c cc ch s .

    Cun sch gm ba phn bao gm c phn l thuyt v thc hnh Phn 1: Khoa hc mi trng Phn 2: Cc thnh phn mi trng lin quan n sc khe Phn 3: c cht hc mi trng Cun sch l nhng vn c bn gip cho sinh vin c c nhng kin thc v sc khe

    mi trng - c cht, mt vn mang tnh thi s quc t. Cun sch c bin son da trn mc tiu v ni dung khung chng trnh d n H Lan v CBE, c cp nhp nhng thng tin, kin thc mi trn c s phng php ging dy, hc tp theo hng tch cc c th gip sinh vin t hc v lng gi.

    Xin chn thnh cm n s h tr ca chng trnh hp tc Y t Vit Nam Thy in, V Khoa hc - o to B Y t, Trng i hc Y khoa, Thi Nguyn gip chng ti hon thnh cun ti liu ny.

    Tuy nhin trong qu trnh bin son, khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st, rt mong cc bn ng nghip ng gp kin nhng ln ti bn sau ni dung cun sch c phong ph v hon chnh hn.

    Xin trn trng cm n !

    Cc tc gi

  • 3

    CC CH VIT TT

    C Vt tiu th (Consume) CBE Gio dc da vo cng ng (Community Base Education) CS Cng s E Mi trng (Environment) GV Gio vin IAQ Cht lng khng kh trong nh (Indoor An Quality) KTV K thut vin P Vt sn xut (Produce) SBS Hi chng nh kn (Sick Building Syndrome) SV Sinh vin T Vt phn hy TCCP Tiu chun cho php WHO T chc Y t th gii (World Health Organization)

  • 4

    MC LC

    LI GII THIU......................................................................................................................................2 MC LC ................................................................................................................................................4 HNG DN S DNG TI LIU......................................................................................................5 MN HC: MI TRNG - C CHT HC...................................................................................6 PHN 1: KHOA HC MI TRNG ...............................................................................................8 MI TRNG C BN V CC NGUYN L SINH THI HC ..................................................8 MI TRNG V SC KHE ...........................................................................................................21 NHIM MI TRNG.....................................................................................................................29 PHN 2: CC THNH PHN MI TRNG LIN QUAN N SC KHE.......................37 NHIM KHNG KH V SC KHE CNG NG ...................................................................37 NHIM NC V SC KHE CNG NG ..............................................................................58 NHIM T V SC KHE CNG NG..................................................................................73 X L CHT THI RN, CHT THI LNG.................................................................................82 MI TRNG NH V HI CHNG NH KN (SBS)...............................................................92 V SINH CC C S IU TR .......................................................................................................101 V SINH TRNG HC V CC BNH THNG GP TUI HC SINH LIN QUAN N TRNG HC ....................................................................................................................................113 XT NGHIM VI SINH VT TRONG MI THNG KHNG KH............................................126 XT NGHIM NC .........................................................................................................................131 O CC CH S V SINH LP HC, KHM PHT HIN CONG VO CT SNG TRONG NH TRNG ....................................................................................................................................142 PHN 3: C CHT HC MI TRNG ..................................................................................149 I CNG V C CHT HC...................................................................................................149 NH GI NGUY C CA CHT NHIM ................................................................................155 C NG HC. C LC HC ...................................................................................................162 BIN PHP TIU C.......................................................................................................................171 MT S CHT C V C TRONG MI TRNG V S TC NG TI SC KHE ...177 XT NGHIM MT S CHT C TRONG MI TRNG KHNG KH ..............................189 HNG DN T HC, T NGHIN CU, VN DNG THC T MN HC / HC PHN 196 HNG DN NH GI MN HC / HC PHN ......................................................................197 P N................................................................................................................................................198 TI LIU THAM KHO.....................................................................................................................209

  • 5

    HNG DN S DNG TI LIU

    Cun sch ny c bin son dng cho sinh vin nm th ba ca Trng i hc Y khoa Thi Nguyn trong chng trnh o to bc s a khoa h 6 nm. Cun sch ny gip cho sinh vin c c nhng kin thc v sinh thi hc, cc yu t gy nhim mi trng, cc bnh lin quan n mi trng nhim nh nhim t, nc, khng kh, cc bnh hc ng v ra cc bin php bo v mi trng, bo v sc khe ca cng ng.

    Cun ti liu ny c ban bin son gii thiu chng trnh chi tit mn hc, cch tin hnh tng bi hc. Trong cun ti liu ny chng ti cng hng dn cho sinh vin hc cc bi hc theo cc mc tiu c th.

    Trc khi bt u mn hc, sinh vin xem phn chng trnh chi tit ca mn hc c cch nhn tng quan v mc tiu, ni dung, thi gian ca tng bi hc c th nhn nhn s logic ca cc bi hc trong chng trnh.

    i vi tng bi hc sinh vin s c bit n mc tiu ca tng bi hc Trong phn ni dung ca bi hc sinh vin c th hiu c b cc, ni dung cc phn c th trong tng bi.

    Phn t lng gi sinh vin s t tr li cc cu hi cui mi bi hc kim tra li kin thc ca sinh vin sau khi hc xong tng bi. Sau khi tr li xong sinh vin c th i chiu vi p n cui cun sch ny.

    Phn hng dn sinh vin t hc, t nghin cu, vn dng thc t s gip cho sinh vin bit cch vn dng nhng ni dung d c hc trong chng trnh c ng dng trong thc t nh th no?

    Phn ti liu tham kho, ti liu c thm s gip cho sinh vin c th tm cc ti liu lin quan n mn hc: b sung thm vo phn ni dung c hc. Phn hng dn nh gi hc phn s gip cho sinh vin bit c mt cch tng qut cch thc thi, kim tra khi kt thc hc phn.

    p n cho mi cu hi trong tng bi gip cho sinh vin kim tra li xem mc tr li ca mnh v ni dung bi hc nh th no?

    Phn mc lc s gip sinh vin nhanh chng tm thy ni ung bi hc cn tm.

  • 6

    MN HC: MI TRNG - C CHT HC

    i tng o to: Y3 chnh quy S n v hc trnh: Tng s: 2.5 L thuyt: 2 Thc hnh: 0.5 S tit Tng s: 45 L thuyt: 30 Thc hnh: 15 S im kim tra: 2 S im thi: 1 Thi gian thc hin: Hc k: 2 nm th 3

    MC TIU

    Sau khi kt thc mn hc, sinh vin c kh nng: 1. Nu c nhng khi nim c bn ca khoa hc mi trng, sc khe mi trng, sc

    khe la tui, c cht hc. 2. Trnh by c cc yu t nguy c mi trng v nhng nh hng ca n n sc

    khe con ngi. 3. xut c mt s gii php can thip thch hp bo v mi trng v phng

    chng cc yu t nguy c bo v sc khe con ngi. 4. Nhn thc c cng tc bo v mi trng v phng chng cc yu t nguy c gn

    lin vi cng tc chm sc sc khe. 5. Pht hin c cc du hiu bnh hc ng lin quan ti mi trng c cc bin

    php phng chng kp thi. 6. Tin hnh c xt nghim mt s ch s trong mi trng v nh gi c cc ch

    s .

    NI DUNG

    S tit hc TT Tn bi hc

    Tng s L thuyt Thc hnh

    Phn 1 : Khoa hc mi trng 1 Mi trng c bn v cc nguyn l sinh thi hc 2 2 0 2 Mi trng v sc khe 2 2 0 3 nhim mi trng 2 2 Phn 2: Cc thnh phn mi trng lin quan n sc khe 4 nhim khng khi v sc khe cng ng 3 3 0 5 nhim nc v sc khe cng ng 3 3 0 6 nhim t v sc khe cng ng 2 2 0 7 X l cht thi rn, cht thi lng 1.5 1.5 0

  • 7

    8 Mi trng nh v hi chng nh kn (SBS ) 1.5 1.5 0 9 V sinh cc c s iu tr 1.5 1.5 0 10 V sinh trng hc v cc bnh thng gp tui

    hc sinh lin quan n trng hc 1.5 1.5 0

    11 Xt nghim vi sinh vt trong mi trng khng kh 4 0 4 12 Xt nghim nc 4 0 4 13 o cc ch s v sinh lp hc, khm pht hin cong

    vo ct sng trong nh trng 4 0 4

    Phn 3: c cht hc mi trng 14 i cng v c cht hc 2 2 0 15 nh gi nguy c ca cht nhim 2 2 0 16 c ng hc, c lc hc 2 2 17 Bin php tiu c 2 2 18 Mt s cht c v c trong mi trng v s tc

    ng ti sc khe 2 2 0

    19 Xt nghim mt s cht c trong mi trng khng 3 0 3 Tng s 45 30 15

  • 8

    PHN 1: KHOA HC MI TRNG MI TRNG C BN V CC NGUYN L SINH THI HC

    MC TIU

    Sau khi hc xong bi ny, sinh vin c kh nng: 1. Trnh by c cc khi nim v mi trng, thnh phn mi trng c bn, cc chc

    nng ca mi trng. 2. M t c cu trc, chc nng ca h sinh thi, vng tun hon vt cht, vng tun

    hon nng lng. 3. Trnh by c cc nguyn l ca h sinh thi.

    1. Khi nim tng qut v mi trng v chc nng ca mi trng Trong cc ch chng chnh sch ca ng, Nh nc xc nh vai tr quan trng ca

    cng ng trong cng tc bo v mi trng. Ch th s 36/CT-TW ca Ban Chp hnh Trung ng ng Cng sn Vit Nam ngy 25/06/1998 xc nh: "Bo v mi trng l s nghip ca ton ng, ton dn, ton qun". Quyt nh s 256/2003/Q-TTg, ngy 3/12/2003 ca Th tng Chnh ph ph duyt Chin lc Bo v mi trng quc gia nm 2010 v nh hng n nm 20