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  • Heat convective Olakan Haba Conduction (pengaliran) Heating heat bahangan Direct Terus-menerus 3 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • heat transfer occurs in liquids & gases. heat from fire heat the air - hot temperature. 4 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y OLAKAN HABA (HEAT CONVECTION)
  • heat transfer inside materials solid materials. heat from fire passed from molecule to molecule along material. 5 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y PENGALIRAN (CONDUCTION)
  • travels in sunrays, in straight lines. heat from rays - absorbed by combustible materials- causes them to heat up & ignite. 6 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y BAHANGAN (HEAT)
  • TERUS-MENERUS (CONTINUOUSLY ) The easiest way fire spreads. Fuels burned because fire spread through it if they get into contact with each other. 7 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • CONSTRUCT BUILDING THAT CAN .. i. Hold collapse enough time - residents save themselves Follow the rules - buildings are designed properly materials & structures quality comply with specifications. 9 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y HOW TO OVERCOME THE FIRE FLARE IN BUILDING
  • ii. CAN DAM UP FROM SMOKE & FIRE FLARE layout of the building separate compartment space & horizontal separated floor . vertical separated wall 10 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Fire door iii. Materials of wall & floor : not flammable dam up the fire & prevent smoke from get through
  • HOW ARE FIRES CLASSIFIED? Fires are caused by different materials, & classified to 4 categories: 12 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • CLASS A Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material ( wood, paper, cloth, rubber & some plastics ) CLASS B Flammable @ combustible liquids : gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners . 13 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • CLASS C Energized electrical equipment (appliance , switches, panel boxes & power tools) CLASS D Combustible metals : magnesium, titanium, potassium & sodium. - burn at high temperatures - React violently with water @ other chemicals - handled with care. 14 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE & FIRE FIGHTING METHODS 15 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y KELAS API CONTOH ALAT PEMADAM API PERMULAAN A Solid types paper , wood dust , cloth ABC (dry chemical fire extinguishers containing monoammonium phosphate) Water spray foam B Liquid types oil, gasolin, alkohol ABC, foam, CO2 , water , halon C Gas types acetylene , ammonia, butane ABC , water , halon (BCF ) D Metal type aluminium , calsium, magnesium ABC
  • CAUSES OF FIRES Use of flammable materials in buildings Careless use of electrical appliances /appliance is damaged . Imperfect electrical wiring circuit /not safe. 18 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Throw cigarette butts all over the place Careless use of mosquito coils, gas stoves, kerosene / flammable fuel. Willful / treacherous 19 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • 20 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y Terms of fire fighting a. Starvation i. Transfer the fuel - not burned to another place. ii. Transfer the fuel burned to another place. iii. Breaking @ crushing of fuel burned easily off.
  • b. Smothering Preventing the entry of air. cover the surface of the burning fuel 21 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • c. Cooling . cheap & cool - accelerate the heat transfer by reducing heat temperature low - flame goes out. 22 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • d. Memutuskan Rantai Tindakbalas. Break the chemical chain - fire extinguisher such as CO2 ,BCF & dry powder 23 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • begins when heat, oxygen & fuel source combine a chemical reaction resulting in fire. known as ignition represented by a very small fire which often goes out on its own, before following stages are reached provides your best chance - suppression or escape. 25 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • where the structures fire load and oxygen are used as fuel for the fire. factors affecting the growth stage including where the fire started, what combustibles are near it, ceiling height and the potential for thermal layering It is during this shortest of the 4 stages when a deadly flashover can occur; potentially trapping, injuring or killing firefighters. - Growth 26 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • When the growth stage has reached its max and all combustible materials have been ignited, a fire is considered fully developed This is the hottest phase of a fire and the most dangerous for anybody trapped within. Fully Developed 27 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Berkaitan unsur-unsur dalam bangunan bertujuan untuk: beri perlindungan kepada penghuni dari kecederaan semasa kebakaran bangunan beri kemudahan semasa anggota penyelamat menjalankan tugas elak api & asap merebak dari bangunan ke bangunan beri perlindungan kepada harta benda dari kemusnahan 29 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • laluan perlindungan kepada penghuni bangunan kebakaran laluan perlindungan kepada anggota bomba di waktu kecemasan 30 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Lampu kecemasan ( emergency light ) Pengudaraan & pencahayaan cukup (adequate ventilation & lighting ) 31 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • i) Jalan Keluar Keselamatan (security exit). Road conditions are held: 32 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y Free from any obstruction Bebas daripada sebarang halangan Fire resistance door Pintu rintangan api Exit signs installed in the emergency lane Tanda keluar dipasang pada laluan kecemasan
  • PENGUDARAAN (VENTILATION) 33 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y untuk menjamin keselamatan penghuni keluar dari bangunan semasa selamatkan diri . Jenis-jenis sistem pengudaraan pada bangunan : pengudaraan biasa spt tingkap & struktur terbuka.
  • Pengudaraan jalan-jalan keluar keselamatan : fire fighting lobby, safety ladder & under control corridors Prevent entry of smoke into protected area reduce spread of fire caused by smoke 34 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • sokongan kepada perlindungan pasif : cahaya kepada laluan keselamatan Example : light tape 35 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y PENCAHAYAAN ( LIGHTING )
  • Jalan keluar keselamatan (security exit ) Akses perkakas bomba (Fire Briged tools access ) Pemetakan ( building partition) 36 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Perlindungan aktif Sistem perlindungan kebakaran - dipasang tetap utk mengawal & memadam kebakaran - manual @ automatik. I. Sistem pemasangan sprinkler. Kawal kebakaran peringkat awal- semburan air bertekanan khusus di zon / kawasan terbabit. Sistem dihubungkan dengan penggera kebakaran bertindak automatik. 37 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y WHAT IS ACTIVE SYSTEM??
  • Extinguishing systems using water Wet riser system Dry riser system Hose reel Fire hydrant Automatic water spray system 38 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Sistem pemadam menggunakan gas (extinguishing system using gas) Sistem penggera kebakaran (fire alarm system) 39 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • ALAT PEMADAM API PERMULAAN Ditandakan simbol kelas api & jenis api yg boleh dipadamkan. 40 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y Cara guna alat pemadam api - PASS : P - Pull - Tarik pin di atas alat pemadam api A - Aim - Halakan muncung alat pemadam ke punca api (bahan) S - Squeeze