Ch 3 Hive & Accessories, Derrick Devereaux, Member, LA Master Beekeeper Advisory Group

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This PPT describes the parts of the Langstroth bee hive, perhaps the most popular hive design in use. The PPT starts at the bottom board, moves up through the supers, queen excluder, foundation, frames, inner & outer cover. This presentation also discusses feeding equipment, smokers, hive tools, veils, gloves and bee suits.

Text of Ch 3 Hive & Accessories, Derrick Devereaux, Member, LA Master Beekeeper Advisory Group

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2. Hill CountryHill Country BeekeepersBeekeepers Derrick DevereuxDerrick Devereux ~~ BeekeeperBeekeeper 3. Chapter 3Chapter 3 The Bee Hive and itsThe Bee Hive and its AccessoriesAccessories A colony of honey bees is theA colony of honey bees is the biological term for a nest of Apisbiological term for a nest of Apis mellifera.mellifera. A hive is a man-made containerA hive is a man-made container designed to house a colony.designed to house a colony. 4. This section deals with the American version ofThis section deals with the American version of the standard 10 frame Langstroth Hive.the standard 10 frame Langstroth Hive. Lorenzo Lorraine Langstroth, patented hisLorenzo Lorraine Langstroth, patented his moveable-frame Hive in 1852. Designed on themoveable-frame Hive in 1852. Designed on the preservation of certain minimum distancespreservation of certain minimum distances between combs. Bee space 1/4 to 3/8 inches isbetween combs. Bee space 1/4 to 3/8 inches is necessary to permit bee movement. To smallnecessary to permit bee movement. To small an area, bees fill it with propolis; gap space isan area, bees fill it with propolis; gap space is greater bees build extra comb. The simple boxgreater bees build extra comb. The simple box shape permitted standardizing and mechanizingshape permitted standardizing and mechanizing of handling. In short, the intractable problem ofof handling. In short, the intractable problem of practical bee management had been solved.practical bee management had been solved. 5. The Bottom Board is the floor of the colony. ItThe Bottom Board is the floor of the colony. It consists of floor boards set into two side railsconsists of floor boards set into two side rails with a block of wood across the back. There iswith a block of wood across the back. There is a gap at the front to provide an entrance for thea gap at the front to provide an entrance for the colony. The grooves in the side rails thatcolony. The grooves in the side rails that accommodate the floor boards are off-center.accommodate the floor boards are off-center. This provides two possible settings, one withThis provides two possible settings, one with narrow entrance and one wider. The Bottomnarrow entrance and one wider. The Bottom board should be placed up off the ground onboard should be placed up off the ground on blocks or similar water-proof material.blocks or similar water-proof material. Bottom BoardBottom Board 6. Bottom BoardBottom Board Wide Entrance Position. ThisWide Entrance Position. This position is more common and hasposition is more common and has the advantage of accommodatingthe advantage of accommodating a Boardman feeder.a Boardman feeder. Narrow Entrance Position.Narrow Entrance Position. 7. Since the late 1990s there has beenSince the late 1990s there has been increases interest in the use of Bottomincreases interest in the use of Bottom Boards with screen floors instead of solid.Boards with screen floors instead of solid. There is evidence that screen floorsThere is evidence that screen floors increase brood production and reduce theincrease brood production and reduce the growth rate of parasitic varroa mites andgrowth rate of parasitic varroa mites and small hive beetles. Also known as IPMsmall hive beetles. Also known as IPM bottom boards.bottom boards. Screened Bottom BoardScreened Bottom Board 8. Screened Bottom BoardScreened Bottom Board Screened bottom board inScreened bottom board in place below a hive body.place below a hive body. Screened bottom board.Screened bottom board. 9. Directly on top of the bottom board goesDirectly on top of the bottom board goes one or twoone or two hive bodieshive bodies,, sometimes calledsometimes called deep supersdeep supers. The deep size provides for. The deep size provides for broad, uninterrupted egg-laying space forbroad, uninterrupted egg-laying space for the queen, and as such this space isthe queen, and as such this space is sometimes called thesometimes called the brood nestbrood nest. This is. This is the heart of the colony. It is here that thethe heart of the colony. It is here that the queen produces brood and most of thequeen produces brood and most of the management occurs that dictatesmanagement occurs that dictates success or failure for the beekeeper.success or failure for the beekeeper. Hive BodiesHive Bodies 10. The purpose of honey supers is toThe purpose of honey supers is to provide storage space for honey. As theprovide storage space for honey. As the name implies, supers are above, orname implies, supers are above, or superior to the brood nest. Honeysuperior to the brood nest. Honey supers come in one of two sizes: Mediumsupers come in one of two sizes: Medium depth of 6-5/8 inches and a Shallowdepth of 6-5/8 inches and a Shallow depth of 5-3/8 inches. A third exist, at 4-depth of 5-3/8 inches. A third exist, at 4- 3/4 inches but is for comb honey3/4 inches but is for comb honey exlusively.exlusively. Honey SupersHoney Supers 11. Hive Bodies/SupersHive Bodies/Supers The standard super sizes, from the bottom up: a deep super orThe standard super sizes, from the bottom up: a deep super or hive body, medium honey super, and shallow honey super.hive body, medium honey super, and shallow honey super. Shallow Super 5-3/8 depthShallow Super 5-3/8 depth Medium Super 6-5/8 depthMedium Super 6-5/8 depth Deep Super(Hive Body)Deep Super(Hive Body) 9-5/8 depth9-5/8 depth 12. One hive body provides enough space forOne hive body provides enough space for a good queen to produce an optimala good queen to produce an optimal colony population of 50,000 to 60,000colony population of 50,000 to 60,000 workers. Two hive bodies is consideredworkers. Two hive bodies is considered necessary by many beekeepers becausenecessary by many beekeepers because it provides a large space for winter foodit provides a large space for winter food stores and relieves brood nest congestionstores and relieves brood nest congestion a prime stimulant for swarming. There a prime stimulant for swarming. There are two basic Hive configurations.are two basic Hive configurations. Hive Bodies ConfigurationHive Bodies Configuration 13. Hive Bodies ConfigurationHive Bodies Configuration Base Configuration #1: one hive body to house the queen andBase Configuration #1: one hive body to house the queen and brood, a queen excluder, and one or more honey suppers for foodbrood, a queen excluder, and one or more honey suppers for food stores.stores. 14. Hive Bodies ConfigurationHive Bodies Configuration Base Configuration #2: two hive bodies for queen, brood, andBase Configuration #2: two hive bodies for queen, brood, and food stores. In either configuration this space is regarded as thefood stores. In either configuration this space is regarded as the domain of the bees. Honey is Harvested from supers addeddomain of the bees. Honey is Harvested from supers added above this base configuration.above this base configuration. 15. The device is a metal or plastic gaugedThe device is a metal or plastic gauged such that the worker bees can freely passsuch that the worker bees can freely pass through, but the larger queen cannot. It isthrough, but the larger queen cannot. It is placed between the brood nest and honeyplaced between the brood nest and honey supers, and its purpose is to exclude thesupers, and its purpose is to exclude the queen and her eggs and brood fromqueen and her eggs and brood from the area of the hive dedicated to honeythe area of the hive dedicated to honey production.production. Queen ExcluderQueen Excluder 16. Queen excluders are useful in a one-hive bodyQueen excluders are useful in a one-hive body configuration, but not necessary with twoconfiguration, but not necessary with two because of thebecause of the Honey BarrierHoney Barrier. In nature, a. In nature, a honey bee nest has a central core of brood withhoney bee nest has a central core of brood with the honey stores above. Generally, a queen isthe honey stores above. Generally, a queen is reluctant to cross this honey barrier and depositreluctant to cross this honey barrier and deposit eggs above it. In a two-hive body configurationeggs above it. In a two-hive body configuration thethe Honey BarrierHoney Barrier occurs naturally in theoccurs naturally in the second hive body, but in a one-hive bodysecond hive body, but in a one-hive body configuration it is likely to occur in the honeyconfiguration it is likely to occur in the honey super.super. Queen ExcluderQueen Excluder 17. Queen ExcluderQueen Excluder A queen excluder goes between the brood nest and honey supers.A queen excluder goes between the brood nest and honey supers. The wires are gauged to keep the relatively large queen out of theThe wires are gauged to keep the relatively large queen out of the honey supers.honey supers. 18. Foundation is a sheet of beeswax or plastic imprintedFoundation is a sheet of beeswax or plastic imprinted with the shape of hexagonal cells. Bees use foundationwith the shape of hexagonal cells. Bees use foundation literally as the foundation or mid-rib upon which toliterally as the foundation or mid-rib upon which to build their combs. The traditional is made of 100%build their combs. The traditional is made of 100% bees wax and has reinforcing wires embedded in itbees wax and has reinforcing wires embedded in it vertically. The vertical reinforcement is adequate forvertically. The vertical reinforcement is adequate for shallow or medium frames, but for deep framesshallow or medium frames, but for deep frames additional horizontal reinforcement is needed. Combadditional horizontal reinforcement is needed. Comb durability has motivated beekeepers to use plasticdurability has motivated beekeepers to use plastic foundation material. Its popularity has risen with afoundation material. Its popularity has risen with a beeswax coat