Green gram

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This presentation is done by 2010/2011 batch of Export Agriculture students of Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka as a requirement for the subject which is Rice & Field Crop Production. Note that the information included here is relevant to Sri Lankan condition.



2. Outline Classification Description Morphology Varieties Soil & climatic requirement Suitable cropping systems Field establishment Crop management Harvesting Storage and post-harvest Pest and disease management Uses and value added productsGreen gram Group No: 4 2 3. GREEN GRAM CLASSIFICATION Family : Fabaceae Genus : Vigna Species: V. radiataGreen gram Group No: 4 3 4. DESCRIPTION Annual legume crop Protein rich cereal Originated from India Cultivated in dry and intermediate zones of SriLanka 80% Cultivated during maha season Rest is grown in yala in paddy fields withsupplementary irrigationGreen gram Group No: 4 4 5. Annual yield around 8000-10000Mt/ha Extent of cultivation is 6500-7000 hectares Successfully cultivated in the districts: Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa Vavuniya, Kurunegala Puttlam, Killinochchi Mulathiv, Batticaloa JaffnaGreen gram Group No: 4 5 6. MORPHOLOGY It grows 45 to 120cm tall RootsDeep rooted plantLateral branches of roots contain nodules- it contain nitrogen-fixing bacteriaGreen gram Group No: 4 6 7. Stem- Herbaceous- Branching at the base- Covered with short, fine,brownish hairLeaves:- Alternate- Trifoliate with long petiolesGreen gram Group No: 4 7 8. Flowers:Greenish to bright yellow Fruit: Pod Seed:- Small- Slightly flattened- Globular with green, yellow, black,brown or mottled testaGreen gram Group No: 4 8 9. VARIETIES Suitable varieties in Sri LankaVariety Yield (kg/ha) Life cycle(days)MI 1 1500 60-65Harsha 1200 55-60Green gram Group No: 4 9 10. Recommended variety byDepartment of Agriculture MI 1Characteristics : Days to maturity Seed shape 1000 Seed wt.( g ) Seed color Average yield ( t / ha )- 80-90- Fairly cylindrical- 56- Black- 2.5Green gram Group No: 4 10 11. SOIL & CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT Rainfall600mm-1000mm SoilWell drained sandy to loam soil pH rangepH 6-7 Temperature25 C - 35 CGreen gram Group No: 4 11 12. SUITABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS Successfully incorporate in to the different types ofcropping systems1. Rainfed uplands- Yala / maha Mono culture- Intercropping: eg. Maize + green gram2. Rainfed lowlandsYala Mono culture IntercroppingGreen gram Group No: 4 12 13. 3. Major irrigation schemes- Yala -Rice-legume system- Green gram can be grown as a relay crop- before the on set of yala rains or with rainfallduring yala season4. Minor irrigation schemes - yala5. Under agro well -yalaGreen gram Group No: 4 13 14. FIELD ESTABLISHMENTLand preparation Plough and harrow the land Make ridges or flat beds according to the watersupplyTime of planting Maha (wet) season - mid September to October Yala (dry) season - March- AprilGreen gram Group No: 4 14 15. Sowing Seed rate is 30kgs per hectare Put 2 seeds per hill and thin not weaker plantafter 10-12 daysSpacing Between rows 30cm- 40cm Between plants 10cmdepending upon seed sizeand season Depth of the seedling 1- 1.5cmGreen gram Group No: 4 15 16. CROP MANAGEMENTFertilizer Application Basal dressing : Apply and incorporate in to the soil beforesowing Urea 35kg/ha - TSP 100kg/ha - MOP 75kg/ha Top dressing : Apply at flowering (about 30 days aftersowing) Urea 30 kg/haGreen gram Group No: 4 16 17. Weed Control Keep the crop free of weedsfirst 6 weeks from seedling emergence Before application of top dressing weeding should be done If there are more weeds regular weeding shouldbe practiced in 2 weeks intervalGreen gram Group No: 4 17 18. Irrigation Water supply should be done 4 days interval After 3 weeks, irrigation should be done7 days interval When pod maturing time water supply should be cut down Sufficient moisture is essential during- germination- flowering- seed filling stagesGreen gram Group No: 4 18 19. HARVESTING Maturity period should be coincide with the drywhether condition for high yield and quality seeds Harvesting is done when 80% of the pods havereached physiological maturity stage Two picking are done at weekly intervalsGreen gram Group No: 4 19 20. Pods are threshed manually after complete sun drying Finally seeds are winnowed to separate the chaff Dried under sunGreen gram Group No: 4 20 21. STORAGE AND POST-HARVEST Moisture content of seeds should not be above13% at storage Seeds are mixed with ash or sand to protect from storage pests Stored in gunny bags and kept in clean,ventilated placeGreen gram Group No: 4 21 22. PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT Diseases Mung bean yellow mosaic virus Powdery mildewGreen gram Group No: 4 22 23. Bacterial blight Anthracnose Cercospora leaf spotGreen gram Group No: 4 23 24. Pests Pod borer Beetles WhiteflyGreen gram Group No: 4 24 25. Aphids - Pod sucking bug Foliage beetle - Bean fliesGreen gram Group No: 4 25 26. USES AND VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS As a vegetable In confectionary production Noodles production- cellophane noodles Cosmetic production - as face cleanser Detergent and soap production Enzyme production- protease from green gram husk 27. Green gram Group No: 4 27 28. REFERENCES gram Group No: 4 28 29. GROUP MEMBERS H.A.S.P. Kularatne UWU/EAG/11/0003 B.M.S.K. Ekanayak UWU/EAG/11/0004 K.A.M.Y.C Jayathissa UWU/EAG/11/0010 S.M.V.M Senevirathne UWU/EAG/11/0011Green gram Group No: 4 29 30. Green gram Group No: 4 30