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IB Chemistry III B5 presentation

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  • 1.B5 Micronutrients and Macronutrients
    • Preston Sluder and Logan Stern

2.

  • There is no difference in importance
  • Micronutrients
    • Required in small amounts (mg or g)
    • Mainly co-factors (non-protein parts) in enzymes
    • 0.005% body weight

B.5.1 Outline the differences between micronutrients and macronutrients 5.

  • Macronutrients examples:
    • Fats
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Minerals including:
      • Sodium (Na)
      • Magnesium (Mg)
      • Potassium (K)
      • Calcium (Ca)
      • Phosphorous (P)
      • Sulfur (S)
      • Chlorine (Cl)

B.5.1 Outline the differences between micronutrients and macronutrients 6.

  • Retinol (vitamin A)

B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 7.

  • Calciferol (vitamin D)
  • Cholecalciferol (D 3 ) Ergocalciferol (D 2 )

B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 8.

  • Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 9.

  • Functional groups
    • Vitamin A
      • 1 hydroxyl group
    • Vitamin D
      • 3 hydroxyl groups (cholecalciferol)
      • 1 hydroxyl group (ergocalciferol)
    • Vitamin C
      • 4 hydroxyl groups
      • cyclic ester (lactone)

B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 10.

  • Shape
    • Vitamin A
      • 1 6-carbon ring
      • 5 double bonds
      • Generally straight chain
    • Vitamin D
      • 2 6-carbon rings, 1 5-carbon ring
      • 3 double bonds (cholecalciferol)
      • 4 double bonds (ergocalciferol)
    • Vitamin C
      • 1 5-carbon ring
      • 2 double bonds

B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 11.

  • Look at any non-carbon/hydrogen
  • Order of polarity
    • Amide (most polar)
    • Acid
    • Alcohol
    • Amine
    • Ether
    • Alkane (non-polar)
  • Many polar groups
      • Water-soluble
  • Few to no polar groups
      • Fat-soluble

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 12.

  • Vitamin A
    • Fat-soluble
  • Vitamin C
    • Water-soluble
  • Vitamin D
    • Fat-soluble

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 13.

  • Vitamin B 1(thiamine)

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 14.

  • Vitamin B 2(riboflavin)

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 15.

  • Vitamin B 3(niacin)

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 16.

  • Vitamin B 5(pantothenic acid)

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 17.

  • Vitamin B 6(pyridoxine)

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 18.

  • Vitamin B 7(biotin)

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 19.

  • Vitamin B 9(folic acid)

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 20.

  • Vitamin B 12(cobalamin)

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 21.

  • What do all of the B-vitamins have in common?
  • They are all polar!
  • Water-soluble

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 22.

  • Vitamin E
  • Fat-soluble

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 23.

  • Vitamin K
  • Fat-soluble

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 24.

  • To recap
    • Water-soluble
      • Vitamin B
      • Vitamin C
    • Fat-soluble
      • Vitamin A
      • Vitamin D
      • Vitamin E
      • Vitamin K

B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 25.

  • Micronutrient Deficiencies
    • Iron anemia
    • Iodine goiter
    • Vitamin A (retinol) xerophthalmia, night blindness
    • Niacin (vitamin B 3 ) pellagra
    • Thiamin (Vitamin B 1 ) beriberi
    • Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) scurvy
    • Calciferol (Vitamin D) rickets
    • Selenium (rare) uncertain, but linked to chronicdisease risk, slower immune response

B.5.4 Discuss the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies in different countries and suggest solutions 26.

  • Macronutrient deficiencies
    • Protein marasmus and kwashiorkor
    • Calcium weak bones, rickets
    • Sodium/Chlorine (salt) hyponatremia
    • Potassium hypokalemia
    • Magnesium hypomagnesemia, rickets
    • Phosphorous - rickets

B.5.4 Discuss the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies in different countries and suggest solutions 27.

  • Mainly in developing countries, often in Africa, developing parts of Asia, or rural South America
  • Examples of developing countries:
    • Kenya
    • Haiti
    • Rwanda
    • Nigeria
    • Ethiopia

B.5.4 Discuss the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies in different countries and suggest solutions 28.

  • Possible solutions:
    • Provide food rations with fresh vitamin and mineral rich foods
    • Add missing nutrients to commonly eaten foods
    • Genetically modify foods
    • Provide nutritional supplements
    • Provide Se supplements for people eating food grown in Se-deficient soil (NZ)
    • Provide iodized salt

B.5.4 Discuss the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies in different countries and suggest solutions