Marriage Poverty - South Carolina

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  • 1.Marriage:South Carolinas No. 1Weapon Against Childhood PovertyHow the Collapse of Marriage Hurts Childrenand Three Steps to Reverse the DamageA Heritage Foundation Book of Charts 2012Richard and Helen DeVos Center for Religion and Civil Society

2. Growth of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in South Carolina, 19292010 Throughout most of SouthPERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKCarolinas history, out-of-wedlockchildbearing was rare. 50% 47.5%When the federal governmentsWar on Poverty began in 1964,only 12.8 percent of children in 40%South Carolina were born out ofwedlock. However, over the nextfour decades, the number roserapidly. By 2010, 47.5 percent of30%births in South Carolina occurredoutside of marriage. 20%Note: Initiated by President LyndonJohnson in 1964, the War on Povertyled to the creation of more than three 10%dozen welfare programs to aid poorpersons. Government has spent $16.7trillion on means-tested aid to the poorsince 1964.0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 19902000 2010Statistics.Chart 1 Marriage and Poverty in South 3. Death of Marriage in South Carolina, 19292010The marital birth ratethePERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN TO MARRIED COUPLESpercentage of all births that occurto married parentsis the ip side100%of the out-of-wedlock birth rate.Through most of the 20th cen-tury, marital births were the normin South Carolina. In 1964, over87 percent of births occurred tomarried couples.80%However, in the mid-1960s, themarital birth rate began to fallsteadily. By 2010, only 52.5 per-cent of births in South Carolinaoccurred to married couples.60%52.5%Note: In any given year, the sum of theout-of-wedlock birth rate (Chart 1)and the marital birth rate (Chart 2)equals 100 percent of all births.40%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. CensusBureau, and National Center for Health 1930 1940 1950 1960 19701980 19902000 2010Statistics. Chart 2 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 4. In South Carolina, Marriage Drops the Probability of Child Povertyby 82 PercentThe rapid rise in out-of-wedlock PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN THAT ARE POORchildbearing is a major cause of50%high levels of child poverty inSouth Carolina. 40.9% Some 40.9 percent of single40%mothers with children are poorcompared to 7.2 percent of mar-ried couples with children. Single-parent families with30%children are nearly six times morelikely to be poor than families inwhich the parents are married.20%The higher poverty rate amongsingle-mother families is due bothto the lower education levels of10% 7.2%the mothers and the lower incomedue to the absence of the father. 0%Single-Parent,Married,Two-ParentSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Female-HeadedFamiliesCommunity Survey, 20072009 data.Families Chart 3 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 5. Nearly Four in Ten of All Families with Children in South CarolinaAre Not MarriedOverall, married couples headabout six in ten families withchildren in South Carolina. Over39 percent are single-parentfamilies.Unmarried Families39.1% Married Families60.9%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 20072009 data. Chart 4 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 6. In South Carolina, 77 Percent of Poor Families with ChildrenAre Not MarriedAmong poor families withchildren in South Carolina, morethan three-quarters are notmarried. By contrast, only 23.3percent of poor families with Marriedchildren are headed by marriedFamiliescouples. 23.3%Unmarried Families76.7%Source: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 20072009 data. Chart 5 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 7. In South Carolina Few Unwed Births Occur to TeenagersOut-of-wedlock births are PERCENTAGE OF OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHSoften confused erroneously with BY AGE OF MOTHERteen births, but only 8.3 percentof out-of-wedlock births inUnderSouth Carolina occur to girlsAge 18:under age 18. 8.3%By contrast, some 78 percentAgeof out-of-wedlock births occur 3054:to young adult women between 13.3%the ages of 18 and 29. Age1819:16.7%Age 2529: 21.9%Age 2024: 39.8%Note: Figures have been rounded.Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata.Chart 6 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 8. Less Educated Women Are More Likely to Give BirthOutside of Marriage Unwed childbearing occurs PERCENTAGE OF BIRTHS THAT ARE MARITALmost frequently among theOR OUT OF WEDLOCKwomen who will have the greatest 100%9.7%Unmarrieddifculty supporting children byMothersthemselves: those with low levels 90%of education. 43.6%80% In South Carolina, among62.1%women who are high school drop- 70%outs, about 73.8 percent of all 73.8%births occur outside marriage.60%Among women who have only a 50%high school diploma, over 62Married 90.3%percent of all births occur outside 40% Mothersmarriage. By contrast, among56.4%women with at least a college 30%37.9%degree, only 9.7 percent of births20%are out of wedlock. 26.2%10% 0%High School High School Some CollegeMothers Dropout GraduateCollege Graduate educationSource: U.S. Department of Health and(011(12(1315(16+ levelHuman Services, Centers for DiseaseYears)Years) Years)Years)Control and Prevention, 2008 NHS data. Chart 7 Marriage and Poverty in South 9. Both Marriage and Education Are Highly Effective in ReducingChild Poverty in South CarolinaThe poverty rate of marriedPERCENTAGE OF FAMILIESPoverty Rate of Families bycouples with children is dramati-WITH CHILDREN THATSingleEducation and Marital Statuscally lower than the rate for house- ARE POORMarried of the Head of Householdholds headed by single parents.80%This is true even when the marriedcouple is compared to single par-70%67.1%ents with the same education level. 60%For example, in South Carolina,the poverty rate for a single50%mother who has only a high 42.7%school diploma is 42.7 percent,40%but the poverty rate for a married31.6%couple family headed by an indi- 30%vidual who, similarly, has only a 23.5%high school degree is far lower at 20%9.4 percent.12.4% 10% 9.4%On average, marriage drops the4.7% 1.7%poverty rate by about 79 percent0%among families with the sameHigh SchoolHigh School Some Collegeeducation level. DropoutGraduateCollege GraduateSource: U.S. Census Bureau, American Note: Virtually none of the heads of families in the chart who are high schoolCommunity Survey, 20052009 data.dropouts are minor teenagers.Chart 8 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 10. Unwed Birth Rates Vary Strongly by Race in South CarolinaOut-of-wedlock childbearing PERCENT OF BIRTHS THAT ARE OUT OF WEDLOCKvaries considerably by race.80% 78.0%In 2008, 47.8 percent of birthsin South Carolina occurred out- 8.3%side marriage. The rate was lowest70%among non-Hispanic whites atabout three in ten births (30.1 60%percent). Among Hispanics, abouthalf of births were out of wedlock.49.8%50%47.8%Among blacks, almost eight in tenbirths were to unmarried women(78 percent). 40% 30.1%30%20%10% 0%Source: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Centers for Disease All RacesWhite Hispanic BlackControl and Prevention, 2008 NHS Non- Non-data. Hispanic Hispanic Chart 9 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 11. Growth of Unwed Childbearing by Race in South Carolina, 19342008Historically, out-of-wedlock PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCKchildbearing has been somewhat 80% Black Non-more frequent among blacks thanHispanicamong whites. However, prior to78.0%the onset of the federal 70%governments War on Poverty in1964, the rates for both whites andblacks were comparatively low. 60%In 1964, around one in forty Hispanic(2.4 percent) white children were50% 49.8%born outside marriage. By 2008,the number had risen to over three 40%in ten (30.1 percent).In 1964, about one in four black White Non- 30%children (27.4 percent) were bornHispanic 30.1%outside marriage. By 2008, the 20%number had risen to over three infour (78 percent). 10% 0%Sources: U.S. Government, U.S. Census1930 19401950 19601970 19801990 2000 2008Bureau, and National Center for HealthStatistics. Chart 10 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 12. Racial Composition of All Births and Out-of-Wedlock Birthsin South Carolina In South Carolina in 2008, someALL BIRTHSOUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHS55 percent of all births occurred tonon-Hispanic whites, 32.7 percentoccurred to non-Hispanic blacks,and 9.9 percent occurred to His-panics. 55%White Non-34.6% Because blacks and Hispanics Hispanicare more likely to have childrenwithout being married, theyaccount for disproportionatelylarger shares of all out-of-wedlockbirths. In South Carolina in 2008, 34.6percent of all non-marital births53.4%were to non-Hispanic whites, 53.4percent were to black non- 32.7% Black Non-Hispanic women, and 10.3 percent Hispanicwere to Hispanics. 9.9% Hispanic 10.3%Source: U.S. Department of Health andAsian/OtherHuman Services, Centers for Disease2.4%1.7%Control and Prevention, 2008 NHSdata. Note: Figures have been rounded.Chart 11 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 13. Non-Married White Families Are Six Times More Likely to Be Poorin South CarolinaMarriage leads to lower povertyPERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORrates for whites, blacks, and His-panics.24%25%For example, in 2009, thepoverty rate for married whitefamilies in South Carolina was 3.8percent. But the poverty rate for 20%non-married white families wasmore than six times higher at 24percent.15%10% 5% 3.8% 0%Married Families Non-Married FamiliesSource: U.S. Census Bureau, AmericanCommunity Survey, 20072009 data.Chart 12 Marriage and Poverty in South Carolina 14. Non-Married Black Families Are Four Times More Likely to Be Poorin South CarolinaIn 2009, the poverty rate forPERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES THAT ARE POORmarried black couples in SouthCarolina was 9 percent, while the 38.6%40%po