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  • 1. H NI - 2009 VN PHNG QUC HITRUNG TM THNG TIN, TH VIN V NGHIN CU KHOA HC*TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIITUYN TPHIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GII*NH XUT BN THNG K NH XUT BN THNG KH NI - 2009

2. VN PHNG QUC HI TRUNG TM THNG TIN, TH VINV NGHIN CU KHOA HCCILRES TUYN TPHIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GII NH XUT BN THNG KH NI - 2009 3. 2 4. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIILI GII THIUTrong qu trnh xy dng nh nc php quyn x hich ngha nc ta, vic nghin cu, tm hiu hin php cacc nc trn th gii c ngha rt quan trng. Hin phpthng l vn bn thit yu, cha ng nhng quy phm cbn nht ca h thng php lut v t chc b my nh nc vcc quyn c bn ca cng dn. Bn thn cc bn vn hin phpcng cha ng trong nhng gi tr v ngha php l,chnh tr, vn ha, lch s su sc ca tng quc gia. V vy, c nhng bn vn hin php tr nn ph bin, c gi tr thamkho trn phm vi ton cu. p ng nhu cu tm hiu, nghin cu v hin phpcc nc trn th gii ca cc i biu Quc hi cng nh cang o cc chuyn gia, cc nh nghin cu, Trung tm Thngtin, Th vin v Nghin cu Khoa hc, Vn phng Quc hi t chc bin son cun sch: Tuyn tp Hin php ca mt snc trn th gii.Trong nhng n lc u tin, chng ti mnh dn bindch v gii thiu 5 bn Hin php ca cc quc gia: Hp chngquc Hoa K, Lin bang Nga, Nht Bn, Cng ha Php vCng ha nhn dn Trung Hoa. Cc bn hin php ny c lachn trn c s xem xt n yu t a dng v m hnh nhnc, kiu h thng php lut, v tr a l v c mi quan hca cc quc gia ny vi Vit Nam. Ngoi bn vn hin phpca mi quc gia, cun sch ny cng gii thiu cc thng tinc bn v cc quc gia gip cc c gi c iu kin tmhiu thm v bi cnh tn ti ca cc bn hin php. Chng ti hy vng rng cun sch ny s l ti liu thamkho b ch cho cc c gi, nht l cc i biu Quc hi phcv cho qu trnh thc hin cc nhim v ca mnh. 3 5. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIQu trnh bin dch v bin son khng trnh khi nhngthiu st, Trung tm Thng tin, Th vin v Nghin cu Khoahc rt mong nhn c s gp ca cc v i biu Quc hiv cc c gi. Nhng gp qu bu s l c s nhngtuyn tp tip theo hon thin hn, phc v hu hiu hn nhucu ca cc v i biu Quc hi v cc c gi. TRUNG TM THNG TIN, TH VINV NGHIN CU KHOA HC4 6. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GII MC LCLI GII THIU......................................................................3HP CHNG QUC HOA K................................................7I. Khi qut v Hp chng quc Hoa K...................................9II. Hin php Hp chng quc Hoa K....................................14III. Cc Tu chnh n trong Hin php Hp chng qucHoa K...................................................................................32LIN BANG NGA.................................................................47I. Khi qut v Lin bang Nga...............................................49II. Hin php nc Cng ha Lin bang Nga .......................54NHT BN............................................................................111Khi qut v t nc Nht Bn.............................................113II. Hin php Nht Bn...........................................................116CNG HA PHP................................................................139Khi qut v Cng ha Php...................................................141II. Hin php ca Cng ho Php........................................144CNG HA NHN DN TRUNG HOA............................183I. Khi qut v Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa...................185II. Hin php nc Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa............189III. Cc ln sa i ca Hin php nc Cng hoNhn dn Trung Hoa............................................................240 5 7. 6 8. HP CHNG QUC HOA K7 9. 8 10. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIII. KHI QUT V HP CHNG QUC HOA K1 1 - Tn nc: Hp chng quc Hoa k, tn thng gi lHoa K hoc M (United States of America). 2 - Th : Washington D.C. 3 - Quc khnh: Ngy 04 thng 07.4 - Quc k: Quc k Hoa K c hai phn: Mt phn nh gc tri trn cng c hnh nh ca 50 ngi sao trn nn muxanh dng, tng trng cho 50 tiu bang hin ti. Phn chnhgm 7 sc v 6 sc trng, tng trng cho 13 tiu bang skhai. 5- Din tch: 9,631,418 km. 6 - Dn s: 302,782.000 (2007). 7 - Kiu nh nc: Cng ha lp hin.8 - Phn chia hnh chnh: Hp chng quc Hoa K c 50tiu bang v mt qun lin bang gm: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Col-orado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho,Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine,Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi,Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, NewJersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota,Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, SouthCarolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Vir-ginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming vQun Columbia.1. Nhng thng tin trong phn ny c tng hp t Richard C. Schroeder, Khiqut v chnh quyn Hp chng quc Hoa K, (bn ting Vit do Trn Th Thi Hdch), (NXB Chnh tr quc gia, 1999) v trang thng tin the World Factbook caCentre Intelligence Agency. 9 11. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GII9 - ng chnh trH thng hai ng tn ti lu di trong lch s nc Ml ng Cng ha v ng Dn ch. Ngoi hai ng ln ny,cc ng phi khc cng c hot ng tch cc cp lin bangv a phng nh ng t do, ng xanh.10- tui tham gia bu c: t trn18 tui. 11- H thng php lut: H thng php lut Anh M,hay cn gi h thng thng lut.12- B my nh nci) C quan lp php Ngh vin Hoa K l gm hai vin l Thng ngh vinv H ngh vin.Thng ngh vin c 100 ngh s, c bu t cc bang,mi bang c bu 2 ngh s. Mt phn ba s Thng ngh sc bu li c 2 nm mt ln. Nhim k ca Thng ngh sl 6 nm. Ph Tng thng ng nhin l Ch tch Thngngh vin. Nhng ngi c bu lm thng ngh s phi tui t 30 tr ln v c 9 nm l cng dn Hoa K, ngthi khi c bu phi l c dn ca bang m ngi ctuyn chn.H ngh vin gm 435 ngh s c nhim k 2 nm. SH ngh s c bu theo t l s dn mi bang nhng t nhtmi bang phi c 1 ngh s. Ch tch H vin do H vin bura. Nhng ngi c th c bu lm h ngh s phi t 25 tuitr ln v phi l cng dn ca Hoa K t nht 7 nm v vothi im c bu phi l c dn bang m ngi cla chn.ii) C quan hnh phpng u c quan hnh php l Tng thng. Tng thng10 12. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIHp chng quc Hoa K do nhn dn bu ra thng qua i ctri on vi nhim k 4 nm nhng khng c ti chc quhai nhim k. iu kin ng c tng thng bao gm: i) phil cng dn Hoa K sinh ra Hoa K; ii) t nht l 35 tui vc tr t nht 14 nm ti Hoa K. Tng thng c nhng quyn hn rng ln iu hnhcng vic quc gia v cc hot ng ca chnh quyn lin bang.Tng thng c th ban hnh cc quy nh, quy ch v ch th,c gi l nhng ch ti hnh php, c hiu lc bt buc ivi cc c quan lin bang m khng cn c s tn thnh caNgh vin. Tng thng c th ph quyt bt k mt d lut no c Ngh vin thng qua v d lut s khng tr thnhlut tr khi c hai phn ba thnh vin trong mi vin ph quyt gt b s ph quyt ca Tng thng. Tng thng l tng chhuy cc lc lng v trang Hp chng quc Hoa K; c thhuy ng cc n v cn v quc gia ca bang phc v cho linbang. Trong thi gian chin tranh hay trong tnh trng khn cp,Ngh vin c th trao cho tng thng nhng quyn thm chcn rng hn na iu hnh nn kinh t quc dn v bo van ninh quc gia.Tng thng b nhim (v Thng vin ph chun) nging u cc b v cc c quan hnh php, b nhim cc vinchc khc gip Tng thng qun tr v thi hnh chnh sch cngnh php lut lin bang.iii) H thng t phpGm c Ta n ti cao (trong cc thm phn cTng thng b nhim vi s chp thun ca Thng vin), 13ta phc thm, 94 ta cc qun v 2 ta xt x c bit.Ta n Ti cao l ta n cp cao nht ca Hp chngquc Hoa K v l ta n duy nht do Hin php c bit lpra. Quyt nh ca Ta n Ti cao th khng th c chuyn 11 13. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIln phc thm bt k ta n no khc. Ngh vin c quyn nnh s thm phn trong Ta n Ti cao v vi nhng gii hnc t ra, quyt nh loi v vic no Ta n Ti cao c thxt x, nhng Ngh vin khng th thay i cc quyn m chnhHin php trao cho Ta n Ti cao.Cp cao th hai trong vic xt x lin bang l cc taphc thm, c thit lp t nm 1891 to iu kin thunli cho vic sp xp cc v xt x v gim bt gnh nng choTa n Ti cao. Ngh vin lp ra 12 ta phc thm cho cckhu vc v Ta Phc thm Hp chng quc cho lin bang. Cc ta n phc thm xem xt li cc quyt nh ca tan qun (cc ta xt x vi quyn ti phn lin bang) trongphm vi khu vc ca mnh. Cc ta phc thm cng c quynxem xt li cc lnh ca cc c quan qun l c lp, trongnhng trng hp cc c ch r sot ni b ca cc c quan c s dng ht v vn cn s bt ng ng k i vi nhngquan im php l. Ngoi ra, Ta Phc thm lin bang cquyn ti phn trong c nc - xt x phc thm nhng v cbit, nh nhng v lin quan n lut cp bng sng ch vnhng v c quyt nh bi nhng ta c quyn ti phnc bit, bi Ta Thng mi quc t v Ta n v Cc yusch lin bang.Di cc ta phc thm l cc ta n qun. Nm mibang v lnh th ca Hp chng quc c chia thnh 94qun sao cho nhng ngi lin quan ti vic kin co c thc hng s xt x mt cch d dng. Mi ta n qun ct nht 2 thm phn, nhiu ta c vi thm phn, v nhngqun ng dn nht c hn 2 t thm phn. Tu thuc vocc v th l, mt thm phn ca qun ny c th tm thilm thm phn ca mt qun khc. Ngh vin n nh ngranh gii ca cc qun theo dn s, din tch v khi lngcng vic. Mt s bang nh to thnh mt qun, trong khi12 14. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIcc bang ln nh New York, California v Texas, mi bangc bn qun.Hu ht cc v kin tng v tranh chp do nhng ta nqun xt x u lin quan ti nhng sai phm cp lin bangnh lm dng th t, trm cp ti sn lin bang, vi phm cclut v v sinh thc phm, hot ng ngn hng v cc hnh vilm tin gi. y l nhng ta n lin bang duy nht ni cc hithm on ln s kt ti nhng k b buc ti, v cc hithm on nh s quyt nh v no a ra x. Ngoi cc ta n lin bang thuc quyn ti phn chung,i khi Quc hi cng c th thit lp cc ta n cho nhngmc ch c bit. Cc thm phn ca nhng ta n ny, cngging nh ng nghip ca h cc ta n lin bang khc, cnhim k c i, do s b nhim ca tng thng v c sph chun ca Thng vin. Hin nay, c 2 ta n c bit cquyn ti phn trong c nc i vi mt s loi nht nh ccv n. Ta Thng mi Quc t s x nhng v lin quan nthng mi v thu quan quc t. Ta n v Cc yu sch linbang c quyn ti phn i vi hu ht cc yu sch v thit hitin bc i vi Hp chng quc, nhng tranh chp v cc hpng lin bang, nhng vic chnh quyn lin bang chim giti sn ring mt cch khng hp php, v nhiu loi yu schkhc i vi Hp chng quc. 13 15. TUYN TP HIN PHP MT S NC TRN TH GIIII. HIN PHP HP CHNG QUC HOA K2LI M UChng ti, nhn dn Hp chng quc Hoa K, vi mcch xy dng mt Lin Bang hon ho hn na, thit lp cngl, duy tr an ninh trong nc, to dng phng th chung, thcy s thnh vng chung, gi vng nn t do cho bn thn vcon chu chng ta, quyt nh thit lp Hin php ny cho Hpchng quc Hoa K.IU I Khon 1 Ton b quyn lc lp php c tha nhn ti bn Hinphp ny s c trao