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PRESENTED BY KATHRYN L. PASCALE MICROBIOLOGIST AND PRESIDENT OF C.H.M.M. INC. ENVIRONMENTAL INSPECTIONS AND IAQ LABORATORY NEW REGULATIONS FOR LEAD PAINT, MOLD INSPECTIONS & CHINESE DRYWALL

Loth 09-2010-pp

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Guest Speaker: Kathryn L. Pascale, CHMMTopic: “Learn How the New Federal and State Regulations for Lead Paint, Mold and Chinese Drywall Will Effect Your Business”

Text of Loth 09-2010-pp

CHINESE DRYWALL AND OTHER INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) ISSUES

PRESENTED BY

KATHRYN L. PASCALE

MICROBIOLOGIST AND PRESIDENT OF

C.H.M.M. INC.

ENVIRONMENTAL INSPECTIONS AND IAQ LABORATORY

NEW REGULATIONS FOR LEAD PAINT, MOLD INSPECTIONS & CHINESE DRYWALL

EPA RENOVATION, REPAIR AND PAINTING (RRP) RULE

HUD/CPSC INTERIM GUIDANCE FOR CHINESE DRYWALL INSPECTIONS

FLORIDAS MOLD INSPECTION AND REMEDIATION LAWS

NEW REGS FOR 2010(Already in Effect)

FEDERAL LAW

EFFECTIVE APRIL 22, 2010

REQUIRES ALL WORK DONE ON PRE 1978 HOMES THAT DISTURBS PAINTED SURFACES TO BE CONDUCTED BY EPA CERTIFIED RRP CONTRACTORS

EPAS RENOVATION, REPAIR & PAINTING PROGRAM (RRP) RULE

ALL WORK ON PRE 1978 HOMES

which Disturbs PAINTED SURFACES of

>6 SF INTERIOR

>20 SF EXTERIOR

AND ALL WINDOW REPLACEMENT

REGARDLESS OF sf

WHAT IT COVERS

Rule SPECIFICALLY LISTS, but IS not limited to;

REMODELING

REPAIRS

MAINTENANCE work

ELECTRICAL

PLUMBING

CARPENTRY

WINDOW REPLACEMENT

ANY ACTIVITY THAT DISTURBS PAINT IN PRE 1978 HOUSING

All contractors

ANYONE RECEIVING COMPENSATION INCLUDing RENT and MANAGEMENT FEES

PROPERTY MANAGERS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES

Maintenance WORKERS

WHO IT COVERS

WORK DONE BY HOMEOWNERS ON THEIR OWN RESIDENCE

LEAD ABATEMENT PROJECTS

STILL NEED AN EPA CERTIFIED LEAD-BASED PAINT ABATEMENT CONTRACTOR

Much Higher standard of training

DOES NOT APPLY TO.

STILL AN UNACCEPTABLY HIGH NUMBER OF CHILDREN in u.s. WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS (EBLL)

REASON BEHIND RRP LAW

EPA AND HUD EXPECTED TITLE X TO SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE EBLL BY ALERTING PARENTS TO THE PRESENCE OF LEAD-BASED PAINT IN THE HOMES THEY WERE BUYING OR RENTING

REASON BEHIND RRP LAW

EFFECTIVE 1996

SELLER, landlord OR their REPRESENTATIVE MUST PROVIDE PROSPECTIVE BUYER OR Renter WITH EPA PAMPHLET PROTECT YOUR FAMILY FROM LEAD IN THE HOME

MUST PROVIDE 10 DAYS FOR A LEAD INSPECTION

MUST GET WRITTEN CONFIRMATION THAT Buyer/RENTER READ PAMPHLET AND UNDERSTANDS LEAD hazards IF THEY CHOOSE NOT TO OBTAIN INSPECTION

TITLE X REFRESHER

Significant non-compliance with title x EVEN THOUGH THERE ARE $10,000 FINES

EPA NEVER Had the PERSONNEL TO ENFORCE THE LAW

REASON BEHIND LAW

SINCE THEY CANT FORCE PEOPLE TO HAVE AN INSPECTION WHEN PURCHASING or leasing

..THEY ARE NOW SIMPLY TREATING ALL PAINTED SURFACES AS IF THEY CONTAIN LEAD

REASON BEHIND LAW

FINES FOR NON-COMPLIANCE UP TO $32,500 PER DAY PER VIOLATION

WILL EVENTUALLY BE ENFORCED THROUGH LOCAL BUILDING DEPARTMENTS

ENFORCEMENT

FIRMS AND WORKERS MUST BE EPA CERTIFIED TO CONDUCT ANY RRP WORK

Workers MUST BE TRAINED IN LEAD SAFE PRACTICES BY AN EPA CERTIFIED TRAINING PROVIDER

Must recertify every 5 years

WHAT MUST BE DONE ?

Notification of occupants

MUST USE LEAD-SAFE WORK PRACTICES THAT MINIMIZE OCCUPANTS EXPOSURE TO LEAD DUST

PROPERLY Clean & POST RRP verification

WHAT MUST BE DONE ?

PROVIDE Epa PAMPHLET renovate right TO OCCUPANT (HOMEOWNER, TENANT, Etc.) before starting work

WRITTEN CONFIRMATION THAT OCCUPANT RECEIEVD PAMPHLET

RETAIN RECORDS FOR 3 YEARS

POST SIGNS DESCRIBING THE NATURE, LOCATION AND DATES OF WORK

NOTIFICATION

Containment TO PREVENT DUST FROM LEAVING WORK AREA

PROHIBITION OF METHODS THAT PRODUCE LEAD DUST OR FUMES (DRY SANDING, SCRAPING, HEAT GUNS, BURNING)

POWER TOOLS MUST HAVE HEPA EXHAUST CONTROLS

Worker PPE (RESPIRATORS, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING)

WORKPLACE CLEANING AND VERIFICATION

PROPER DISPOSAL of waste

LEAD-SAFE WORK PRACTICES

WILL ADD SUBSTANTIAL COSTS TO ALL PRE-1978 RENOVATION, REPAIR, PAINTING AND MAINTENANCE JOBS

Fewer contractors available for work on pre 1978 homes

MANY CONTRACTORS ARE CHOOSING TO AVOID OLDER HOMES rather than assuming the costs of maintaining epa certified workers

COSTS

ZERO-BEDROOM DWELLINGS

HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY OR DISABLED (UNLESS CHILDREN UNDER 6 RESIDE OR ARE EXPECTED TO RESIDE THERE)

HOUSING OR COMPONENTS DECLARED LEAD-FREE BY AN EPA CERTIFIED LEAD BASED PAINT INSPECTOR OR RISK ASSESSOR

(Not the RRP contractor

AND NOT homeowners WITH TEST KITS)

EXEMPTIONS

Advantages:

HOME MAY NOT HAVE ANY LEAD

Rrp COMPONENTS MAY NOT HAVE ANY LEAD

EITHER WAY, DONT NEED TO PAY FOR AN EPA CERTIFIED CONTRACTOR

CAN USE ANY CONTRACTOR AS LONG AS YOU CAN PROVIDE LEAD-FREE REPORT

LBP INSPECTION EXEMPTION

UNLIKE OTHER HOME INSPECTIONS, Lbp INSPECTION reports ARE GOOD FOREVER

ALL FUTURE RRP WORK WILL BE EXEMPT

CAN INCREASE VALUE OF PROPERTY

CAN BE USED LATER TO MEET TITLE X DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS WHEN SELLING OR LEASING the property

OTHER ADVANTAGES OF LBP INSPECTION REPORT

LEAD-BASED PAINT LIABILITY

Lately seen an increase in banks requiring LBP inspections on non-government backed loans

ALREADY REQUIRED ON FHA AND VA LOANS, ETC.

Possibly to limit their liability in a foreclosure

Dont want to own properties with liabilities

Insurers also requiring more LBP inspections on multi-family units

MUST HAVE A SURFACE BY SURFACE INSPECTION CONDUCTED BY EPA CERTIFIED INPECTOR OR RISK ASSESSOR (NOT RRP CONTRACTOR)

THESE INSPECTIONS ARE CONDUCTED USING AN X-RAY FLUORESCENT SPECTROMETER (xrf) WHICH IS DIRECT READING AND DOES NOT HARM PAINTED SURFACES

TO MEET HUD AND EPA GUDELINES EVERY PAINTED SURFACE MUST BE TESTED

RESULTS IN HUNDREDS OF READINGS PER HOME

TO QUALIFY FOR LEAD-FREE EXEMPTION

PAINT CHIP SAMPLES

Can use paint chip samples, but;

Every sample must be 2X 2 and include all layers of paint down to the bare substrate

Still must sample all surfaces required by EPA and HUD protocol

Means a hundred or more holes all over house

No seller will allow that

Laboratory fees prohibitive

PAINT CHIP SAMPLES

Taking a few paint chip samples from hidden areas like closets is not a LBP inspection

This is not an EPA /HUD approved LBP inspection

Not legal to claim its a LBP Inspection

Not acceptable for Title X Disclosure Rule or to obtain RRP Rule Exemption

LEAD PAINT, ESPECIALLY ON FRICTION SURFACES (WINDOWS, DOORS, STAIRS, ETC.) CONTRIBUTE lead particles TO HOUSEHOLD DUST;

Rrp ACTIVITIES CAUSE even more DUST

DUST IS INGESTED BY HAND TO MOUTH ACTIVITIES ON TOYS, hands AND FOOD

PURPOSE; LIMIT EXPOSURE TO LEAD DUST

HEALTH EFFECTS

Neurological damage

Developmental

Lower IQ

Behavioral problems

ADD

Stunted growth

Lead deposits at bone ends where growth occurs

Adults

Kidney damage

High blood pressure

Elevated BLL in osteoporosis patients

Lead deposited in childhood leaches out and causes lead poisoning

MYTHS

#1

Lead poisoning only caused by chewing paint chips

Most exposure occurs through household dust

LBP on wear surfaces settle in household dust

Hand to mouth ingestion

Children pick up dust from floors on hands and toys

MYTHS

#2

Only found in low income housing

Lead-based paint high quality and expensive

Long lasting

Resistant to elements

Designed to slough off and always look fresh

In South Florida

More prevalent in Palm Beach mansions than PHA

QUESTIONS?

LBP

HUD/CPSC INTERIM GUIDANCE FOR INSPECTIONS

LAWSUIT rulings SETTING PRECEDENTS FOR REMEDIATION

CHINESE DRYWALL 2010 DEVELOPMENTS

CHINESE DRYWALL BASICS

Drywall is made from gypsum

Naturally mined or synthetic

Synthetic gypsum is made from the byproduct of power plant air scrubbers

Original theory was that the problem drywall was made from synthetic gypsum contaminated by power plant fly ash

Actually made from naturally mined gypsum

Several mines in one area in the Shandong Province

These mines have now been shut down

SCOPE

Between 2005 and 2007 approximately 320 Million Ft2 of drywall was imported into the U.S. from China

Most of it was used in Florida, Texas, Louisiana, Alabama and Mississippi

But reported as far as Canada and Guam

Enough to be in tens of thousands of homes

MANUFACTUERERS

Knauf Plasterboard (Tianjin) Co. Ltd.

Taian Taishan Plasterboard Co. Ltd.Shandong Taihe Dongxin Co.Shandong Chenxiang GBM Co. Ltd. (C&K Gypsum Board)Beijing New Building Materials (BNBM)

SYMPTOMS

Off-gassing volatile sulfur compounds

Can produce rotten egg odor

Corrosive to bare copper

Components like A/C coils, refrigeration lines, copper ground wires, plumbing and electronics have been failing

at a higher than normal rate

This is the most common symptom of the problem, and the only one that has been scientifically linked to the drywall

Copper corrosion on A/C coils

A/C coil

corrosion

HEALTH EFFECTS

No data linking off-gassing to health effects

Air sampling to date has shown levels of H2S and CS2 to be well below OSHA standards

EPA and Florida DOH both currently conducting additional air sampling

To determine if anything else in the drywall can be causing the health issues people are claiming

CURRENT DATA

FDOH and several drywall manufacturers have all done comparison testing on Chinese and domestic drywall

Environmental Chamber Testing

High heat & relative humidity

Chinese drywall produced 2 volatile sulfur gases which the domestic samples did not

hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide.

Also contains compounds not present or present in much lower levels in the domestic samples

iron disulfide, strontium sulfide and five organic compounds

CAUSE OF OFF-GASSING UNKNOWN

None of these tests has determined what the actual component(s) is that is causing the off-gassing

Speculation

Might be coming from the iron disulfide or strontium disulfide

Fumigation materials may be reacting with the organic compounds

No one knows right now

INTERIM GUIDANCE

THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HUD), AND

THE U.S. CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION (CPSC) HAVE ISSUED A JOINT GUIDANCE DOCUMENT for conducting Chinese drywall inspections

INTERIM GUIDANCE

TWO PART IDENTICATION METHOD

STEP 1: THRESHOLD INSPECTION

STEP 2: CORROBORATING EVIDENCE

Visual inspection reveals Blackening of copper electrical wiring and/or a/c coils; and

drywall installation date between 2001 and 2008

If both criteria are met than go to step 2

STEP 1:THRESHOLD INSPECTION

BECAUSE CORROSION CAN BE CAUSED For reasons other than the presence of chinese drywall CORROBORATING EVIDENCE IS REQUIRED

FOR HOMES BUILT BETWEEN 2005 AND 2008 NEED TO HAVE 2 OF THE FOLLOWING 6 INDICATORS

FOR HOMES BUILT BETWEEN 2001 AND 2004 NEED TO HAVE 4 OF THE FOLLOWING 6 INDICATORS

STEP 2: CORROBORATING EVIDENCE

1. PRESENCE OF COPPER SULFIDE IN CORROSION RESIDUE SAMPLE

2. Confirmed markings of chinese origin

STEP 2: CORROBORATING EVIDENCE

3. Strontium levels >1200PPM in drywall samples

4. Elemental sulfur levels >10PPM in drywall samples

STEP 2: CORROBORATING EVIDENCE

5. Elevated levels of hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide and/or carbon disulfide GASES

6. Corrosion of copper to form copper sulfide when placed in test chamber with drywall sample

STEP 2: CORROBORATING EVIDENCE

The following procedure is based on thE HUD/CPSC guidelines

COMPREHENSIVE INSPECTION

DRYWALL INSPECTIONS

CONFIRM DRYWALL INSTALLATION WAS BETWEEN 2001 AND 2008

NEW CONSTRUCTION

RENOVATION

INSPECT ALL OF THE FOLLOWING FOR CORROSION:

COILS OF ALL A/C UNITS

ALL COPPER PLUMBING COMPONENTS

COPPER GROUNDWIRES IN EVERY ROOM

Important to check all rooms.. weve found homes with contaminated drywall in just one room and sometimes just one walland those rooms will have copper corrosion while the rest of the house might not

DRYWALL INSPECTIONS

COLLECT COPPER CORROSION SAMPLES FOR LABORATORY ANALYSIS

COPPER SULFIDE

Or

OXIDATION

DRYWALL INSPECTIONS

AIR SAMPLE ANALYSIS FOR PRESENCE OF hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide and/or carbon disulfide GASES

DRYWALL INSPECTIONS

PREFER:

CORROSION SAMPLING

AIR SAMPLING

BOROSCOPE INSPECTION FOR LABELS

DRYWALL INSPECTIONS

RATHER THAN DRYWALL LAB SAMPLES

BECAUSE

NEGATIVE RESULT ON 1 DRYWALL SAMPLE NOT SUFFICIENT TO SAY HOUSE IS FREE OF CHINESE DRYWALL

ONLY MEANS THAT 1 SHEET IS

DRYWALL INSPECTIONS

WHEREAS CORROSION SAMPLES CAN BE COLLECTED FROM ALL PROBLEM AREAS

AIR SAMPLES CAN BE COLLECTED FROM ALL ROOMS THAT HAVE CORROSION

BOROSCOPE READINGS CAN BE DONE ANYWHERE

THIS COMBINATION GIVES THE MOST CONCLUSIVE RESULTS

DRYWALL INSPECTIONS

COMPREHENSIVE INSPECTION

Air samples

For volatile sulfur compounds H2S and CS2

Collected from inside wall cavity in those rooms with copper corrosion

Gases more concentrated

Worse case scenario of the health threats present in that particular home

Origin LABEls

Must inspect both ceiling and walls

Different specifications for ceiling drywall, Vs 5/8

rarely find Chinese drywall in ceilings even in homes with chinese brands in the walls

DRYWALL INSPECTIONS

COMPREHENSIVE INSPECTION

LABELS:

Visual inspection of attic drywall

Boroscopic inspection of wall cavities

Check walls in all rooms that have copper corrosion

Drywall sometimes clustered by manufacturer as it came off pallets

Other times totally random

Found every possible scenario

From whole house

To one sheet in one room

LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF DRYWALL

Sending a piece of drywall for analysis

Strontium and elemental sulfur

Costs prohibitive, so usually only one sample taken

Results are only for the one piece of drywall sampled

Like calling a house lead-free after testing one wall

Drywall is a commodity

Builder calls supplier and orders by size, thickness, fire rating, etc.

Warehouse sends whatever pallets of that spec on hand

CHMM Inc. encountered five different brands in one house

1ST JURY CASE awarded $2.46 MILLION to Florida couple AGAINST BANNER SUPPLY IN MIAMI

The lawsuit alleged that Banner knowingly sold defective drywall to builders

BANNER 55% LIABLE KNAUF AND 2 OTHERS have MAUFACTURERS HAVE remainder of liability

HOMEOWNERS LAWSUITS

2010-Federal Judge awards $164,000 to a Louisiana family that filed a Chinese drywall suit against Knauf

Knauf is a German Company that imported Chinese drywall

Since that ruling, Knauf has begun settling with U.S. builders who bought their drywall

HOMEOWNERS LAWSUITS

A FEDRERAL Judge also awarded $2.6 million to 7 Virginia families who filed a suit against Taishan Gypsum Co.

company is Chinese;

refused to respond to U.S. Courts

collecting the settlement is doubtful

HOMEOWMERS LAWSUITS

MANY BUILDERS hesitating to REMEDIATe due to lack of STANDARDs

SOME ARE REMOVING & REPLACING DRYWALL only

SOME ALSO REMOVING CORRODED PLUMBING AND WIRING

REMEDIATION

SINCE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HAS NOT DEVELOPED REMEDIATION STANDARDS THE STANDARD SET BY one JUDGES RULING WILL essentially BE THE STANDARD

It basically says that a home built with tainted drywall must be gutted and rebuilt

JUDGE SETS REMEDIATION STANDARD

Drywall

INSULATION

Electrical wiring

Plumbing

Molding

Cabinets

CARPETS

MUST REMOVE

FINANCIAL RELIEF

Congress requested IRS to allow casualty loss deduction

IRS says EPA and CPSC must first determine that Chinese drywall causes extreme and unusual damage

Congress asked HUD and Treasury for mortgage relief for families who moved out and are also paying rent

Nothing done yet

Congress asked SBA for disaster relief loans

Nothing done yet

FINANCIAL RELIEF

South Florida Property Appraisers Offices lowering assessed values of affected homes

Documented by an insurance claim, letter from builder, lawsuit or inspection report

Broward County reduced value of about 400 homes in four subdivisions in Parkland by about 20 percent

INSURANCE

Homeowners insurance does not cover environmental defects

Asbestos

Lead-based paint

Mold, if not a result of another covered loss like a flood

Builders are suing their liability insurers

Builders did nothing wrong

Drywall meets ASTM Standards

Claiming Latent Defects under their liability insurance

Insurers wont pay

Have to wait for Judges to decide

Communities and Builders Affected by Stigma(not all confirmed to have used Chinese Drywall)

Builders

Lennar Homes

WCI

Centerline Homes

GL Homes

Taylor Morrison Homes

North Star Homes

Albanese Popkin Development Group

South Kendall Construction Corp.

Communities

Parkland Golf & Country Club

Parkland

Canyon Isles

The Sanctuary

The Oaks

Heron Bay

Sabal Point

Vizcaya

Banyan Isles

Cobblestone Creek

Promenade at Tradition-PSL

Mariner Villages Townhouses-Stuart

Briella Townhomes of Boynton Beach

Pine Iles (Keys Gate) Kendall

Copper ground wire

Heavy corrosion

Water heater plumbing

No corrosion

Laundry plumbing

No corrosion

Bathroom plumbing

Heavy corrosion, but laboratory analysis proved it was oxidation

Electric panel ground wires

Light corrosion, but laboratory analysis showed heavy sulfur concentration

Knauf Tianjin, aka Knauf Plasterboard Tianjin or KPT

Knauf is a German manufacturer that has acknowledged importing drywall made in China

Photo taken with boroscope

ID by company name: National Gypsum

Member of the Gypsum Association

Photo taken with Boroscope

ID by trademark; GridMar is one trademark of National Gypsum Company

Member of the Gypsum Association

Made in China label

No manufacturer

ToughRock; Trademark of Georgia Pacific Gypsum

Member of the Gypsum Association

Questions?

EFFECTIVE JULY 1, 2010

MOLD INPECTORS AND REMEDIATORS MUST BE LICENSED BY STATE

Must meet educational and experience criteria and Pass an exam

Continuing education

BIENNIAL LICENSE RENEWAL

NEW FLORIDA MOLD REGULATIONS

MUST CARRY at least $1 MILLION IN E&O AND LIABILITY INSURANCE

Remediation companies can no longer do their own inspections or clearances

FINES UP TO $5000 FOR NOn-COMPLIANCE

NEW FLORIDA MOLD REGULATIONS

Dpr WAS charged with developing the licensing criteria BEFORE JULY 2010

Didnt HAPPEN.

..so legislature passed hb713 which postpones enforcement of only the licensing requirement UNTIL 2011

ALL OTHER PARTS OF LAW EFFECTIVE 7/1/10

HB 713

REMEDIATORS CAN NO LONGER DO THEIR OWN INSPECTIONS AND CLEARANCE INSPECTIONS

Inspectors CANNOT ACCEPT ANY COMPENSATION, INDUCEMENTS OR REWARD FROM A REMEDIATION COMPANY and vice- versa

MUST CARRY $1 MILLION IN ERRORS AND EMMISSIONS AND LIABILTY INSURANCE

REMAINDER OF REGULATION WILL BE ENFORCED

SINCE THERE WERE NO FEDERAL OR STATE OF FLORIDA CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS ANYONE, REGARDLESS OF EXPERIENCE OR EDUCATION COULD CALL THEMSELVES CERTIFIED

REASON FOR LAW

NOW, UNLESS STATE LICENSED, CANT CLAIM TITLE OF

CERTIFIED

REGISTERED

LICENSED

PROFESSIONAL

Mold inspector

REASON FOR LAW

INSPECTORS NOT FINDING MOLD PROBLEMS WHERE THERE WERE MOLD PROBLEMS

REMEDIATION CONTRACTORS FINDING MOLD PROBLEMS WHERE THERE WERE NO MOLD PROBLEMS

FALSE POSTIVE RESULTS DUE TO INAPPROPRIATE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

REASON FOR LAW

LICENSED-MORE ACCOUNTABLE

INSURED-RECOURSE FOR ERRORS

LESS CONFLICT OF INTEREST

IMPROVEMENTS

STILL UNDER DEVELOPMENT

SO THERE WILL CONTINUE TO BE HUGE DISPARITIES IN INSPECTIONS

AND CONTINUED PROBLEMS SUCH AS.

NO STANDARDS OF PRACTICE

FALSE POSITIVE MOLD REPORTS

This continually happens

Because most mold inspections are nothing more than air sample inspections

Air samples cannot distinguish between

Mold sporeswhich are NOT the problem

And mold growth... which is the problem

MOLD SPORES Vs MOLD GROWTH

Mold spores are everywhere

In every home

Perfectly normal

Should be expected

Mold growth is the problem

Mold growth is a symptom of a moisture problem

MOLD SPORES

Think of a mold spore like a seed

When you add water it sprouts like a seed

These sprouts are called hyphae

The only way to distinguish between spores with and without hyphae is by direct microscopic examination of samples taken from suspect areas in the home

Air samples can not do this

MISCELLANEOUS SPORES

Typical of an air sample

Alternaria sp.

Spores and hyphae on tape slide

Aspergillus sp.

Spores and hyphae on tape slide

Stachybotrys sp.

Spores and hyphae on tape slide

Stachybotrys sp.

Spores and hyphae in interstitial wall cavity sample

AIR SAMPLE INSPECTIONS

Simply compares the indoor spore count with outdoor spore count

Inspector takes a few samples indoors and one outdoors

Sends samples to a laboratory

If indoor spore count is < outdoor spore count

Lab report says you passed

If indoor spore count > outdoor spore count

Lab report says you failed

AIR SAMPLE INSPECTIONS

The problem with this technique is the spore count outside is tremendously variable;

Changes with the season

Changes with the weather

Even the time of day

Example:

Monday

Tuesday

Take indoor sample and outdoor sample

Indoor spore count=500

Outdoor spore count=700

Lab report says PASSED

Take same two samples

After it rained Monday night

Indoor spore count=500

Outdoor spore count=200

Lab report says FAILED

AIR SAMPLE INSPECTIONS

THERE IS NO MOLD PROBLEM

But now the buyer has a report that says there is

AIR SAMPLE INSPECTIONS

Another problem with air sample inspections:

Even if you have a legitimate mold growth problem;

Air samples dont tell you

Where the mold is growing

The extent of the problem

Buyer has no idea what it will take to fix the problem

Which is exactly what all buyers want to know

All they have is a lab report that states a mold problem exits in the house

GROWTH can be present WITHOUT ELEVATED AIR SAMPLE RESULTS

Path to lawsuit:

PASSED AIR SAMPLE INSPECTION-Typically called a mold screen or limited mold inspection

(read fine print)

Buyer Moves into new home

AIR SAMPLE INSPECTIONSFALSE NEGATIVES

START RENOVATING

FIND MOLD IN WALL CAVITIES, BEHIND BASEBOARDS, BEHIND WALLPAPER

SPORES THAT ARE CONTAINED in this way DONT typically SHOW UP IN AIR SAMPLES

Must do moisture mapping and surface sampling to find it

AIR SAMPLE INSPECTIONSFALSE NEGATIVES

MORE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR FALSE POSITIVE MOLD REPORTS

Swab Samples

Inspector swabs a surface in the home

Inserts swab into a vial of growth media

Sends vial to laboratory

What happens to a spore in growth media?

It grows

Whether or not it was growing in the home

Again the buyer gets a report stating there is a mold problem where none exists

COMPREHENSIVE MOLD INSPECTION

A mold inspection should include all of the following:

Surface samples from all areas of visible mold or water stains

Moisture mapping around all doors windows, plumbing and anywhere else water leaks could occur

Interstitial samples from those areas where moisture is found

Samples from all A/C units

Air samples

Temperature and Relative Humidity measurements

COMPREHENSIVE INSPECTION

The report is just as important as the inspection

Should include not only the lab results, but also;

Conclusions

What was found and where

Recommendations

What needs to be done

QUESTIONS?

Percentage of Homes Containing

Lead-Based Paint in the U.S.

by Year Built

24%

69%

87%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

1960-19781940-1960Pre-1940