[DISC2013] Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?

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Presented at 2013/12/12 (DISC 2013)

Text of [DISC2013] Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?

Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?Kunwoo Park1, Seonggyu Lee1, Eunae Kim1, Minjee Park2, Juyong Park3, Meeyoung Cha3Division of Web Science and Technology1, Department of Computer Science2, Graduate School of Culture Technology3Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)

2013. 12. 12.DISC 20131

Hello, everyone.

Im happy to get an opportunity to present my work in this great conference.

My works title is Mood and Weather: feeling the heat?

and, I am Kunwoo Park from KAIST, south korea.

Probably some of you from other country are not familiar with my university, so let me start with simple introduction of my university and department.

1Who are we?2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?2

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyLocated in Daejeon (not Daegu)Natural Science and Engineering orientedMIT in Korea

We are hereWho are we?

Im2Who are we?

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?3

Division of Web Science and TechnologyUnderstanding and Developing the Webhuman-centered web exploration

Graduate School of Culture TechnologySocial Computing LabUnderstanding online social networks and social media from diverse perspectives

3Background2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?4

THIS is American Idol!!!!A mixed of raining and sunshine. Just replaced the wheels on my 2nd car :-)Back to work!Holla at yall later!Okay. Let me start the real talk with background.There is no doubt that social media become famous, and numerous people are enjoying that.

Over billions of people use online social mediaPeople post their daily lives and feelings globally

4Research PotentialsWe can observe peoples actions and words on a significant scale [Lazer et al. Science 2009]It can function as one giant laboratory

Potentials of social mediareading peoples mind and thinkingex> predicting election [Tumasjan et al. ICWSM 2010]understanding how social mechanism worksex> how social convention emerges [Kooti et al. ICWSM 2013]

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?5In social media, we can observe peoples actions and words on a significant scale.

52013. 12. 12.6Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?Theory on Social ScienceData-DrivenComputational Social ScienceBig data generated by humanUnderstanding human behaviors and social networksBig data generated by human helps to understand human behaviors and social networks by using theory on social science.

6How to get data??Most of services provide ways to get dataCan use enormous size of data by writing a programming codeHelp computer scientist start to work on computational social science2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?7

Then, how to get those valuable data?

Those things show background of this kind of work.In sum, social media help to see real world through online data.72013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?8

Lets get back to the real world.

How do you feel in sunny days?How about in rainy days?

Pause

Usually, people feel more happier in sunny days,and feel more sad feelings in rainy days.

8Previous works: weather and moodCorrelation of weather and mood [Howarth and Hoffman 1984; Preti 1998]There are individual differences in how weather affects mood [Klimsta et al. 2011]Some of us cannot stand rainWhen we feel happy with sunny weather, others are not happy

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?9

source: http://iconpng.com http://iconarchive.comEfforts to understand the relationship between weather and mood have been done for decades ago in social sciences, especially psychology.Some researchers successfully found that weather is correlated with mood from individual scale.Beyond theses finding, more recent work found there exist individual differences in how weather affects mood.That is, it was found that each people can feel weather differently.

9Limitations on existing worksUsing small number of samplesAnalysis limited to specific regionsRelying on questionnaire surveys or interviews

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?10Involving sampling biases andhard to capture differences by regionEven though they show clear relationship, existing works on weather and mood has limitations.102013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?11

To overcome this limitation, we utilize Twitter data.How do people express their sentiments on Twitter?11Previous works using TwitterHow weather affects changes in tweeting rates [Kiciman, ICWSM 2012]Mood is indeed affected by weather [Hannak et al. ICWSM 2012]Limited to twenty metropolitan areas

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?12

source: http://goo.gl/ZksQ4d

source: http://goo.gl/gn6ENMThe relationship between weather and mood in Twitter has been rarely studied.

One study aims to see how weather affects changes in tweeting rates.In other words, they show which kind of weather makes people writes more tweets.Another work firstly attempt to see relationship between weather and mood pm Twotter.However, their analysis is limited to twenty metropolitan areas.

Therefore, in this work, we aim to investigate the relationship between weather and mood in Twitter.

12Twitter datasetPeriod: April, 2009Entire tweets of U.S.Location of usersSize38.1 million tweets3 million users

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?13

To know the relationship between mood and weather, we first gathered Twitter data.The dataset cover one month of Twitter, April 2009, composed of 38 million tweets written by 3 million users.It include entire tweets of United States, and we could get location information of each user.13Twitter crawlingCrawling (or called spidering) using Twitter APITwitter provides API (Application Programming Interface)anyone in Twitter can useit indicates all of you can gather Twitter data2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?14

To gather Twitter data, we used the way called crawlingCrawling is a technical term indicating the process of gathering data.

As Twitter provides API, anyone in Twitter can use.It indicates all of you can gather Twitter data four your research14Make a program gathering data2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?15from twitter import *

user = disc2013"

twitter = Twitter()

results = twitter.statuses.user_timeline(screen_name = user)

for status in results:print "(%s) %s" % (status["created_at"], status["text"])With a very few line of codes,you can get Twitter data for your research! Here is a sample code to get Twitter data.15Sentiment AnalysisSentiment analysis (or opinion mining) aims to determine the attitude of a speaker or a writer with respect to some topic or the overall contextual polarity of a document(source: Wikipedia)

Categoriesmeasuring polarityex> I am very happy to attend DISC 2013 !!!! positivemeasuring polarity scale of sentiment across different sentiment dimensionsex> I am very happy to attend DISC 2013 !!!! positive: 4, negative: 0in this task, we utilized this way2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?16After that, we analyze sentiment contained in tweets by using sentiment analysis.

16Sentiment analysis using LIWCLIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count)http://www.liwc.net32 behavioral and psychological dimensionsWe can conduct sentiment analysis using 2 of them (positive / negative)

MethodInput: aggregated tweet written in a state of a dayOutput: value of positive and negative affect

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?17

Positive score: 4.59Negative score: 2.23We analyze sentiment of tweets by prevalently used tool, LIWC.17Example: sentiment analysis of 4/1 in NY2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?18

NY_1.txtFilenamehumansaffectposemonegemo..NY_1.txt0.76.774.592.23NY_1.xlsLet us see this example to know how the sentiment analysis works.18Weather datasetPeriod: April, 2009Source: http://www.wunderground.comUsing web crawlingGathering weather information of each day across states

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?19

Not only Twitter dataset, we also crawled weather dataset from a famous web site for providing weather information, wunderground.com.They provide lots of weather variables, such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and so on.It also covers April, 2009. In Unitied States, there are multiple weather station in a state.Therefore, we averaged multiple weather stations information as one per state.

19Web crawlingRead HTML codes and pick information that we want

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?20

Web crawling is a way to gather data without API.20See the relationshipCorrelations between sentiment and weather variables

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?21

Twitter sentimentsWeather variablesNow we have two data, Twitter sentiments of each day across states, and Weather variables.21Correlation of temperature and positive affects Generally, there is correlation between positive affect and temperature across states (average of r =0.14)Some states are showing negative correlations

2013. 12. 12.Mood and Weather: Feeling the Heat?22

Result in previous slide shows that people shows different patterns of sentiments across region.However, it does not show exact relationship between positive affect and temperature.Therefore, we investigate correlation of positive affect and temperature of each day.And since the temperature is different across states, we analyzed correlation independently for all states.

This graph shows Pearsons correlation of all state.Each bar represents correlation of