Đảm bảo chất lượng phầm mềm (nguồn PTIT)

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  • M BO CHT LNG PHN MM

    Bi ging cho sinh vin ngnh Cng ngh thng tin

    Phan Th Hoi Phng

    H Ni - 2010

    PTIT

  • 2

    Gii thiu

    Trc nhng thch thc trong qu trnh pht trin phn mm, vic m bo cht lng phn mm (Software Quality Assurance-SQA) l ht sc quan trng, i hi phi nghin cu mt cch nghim tc thc thi hiu qu. Ti liu ny cung cp nhng kin thc c bn v cht lng phn mm, m bo cht lng trong mt d n pht trin phn mm. Qui trnh xy dng h thng m bo cht lng phn mm cng c trnh by trong ni dung bi ging. Qua , sinh vin hiu c cch thc xy dng mt h thng m bo cht lng phn mm v vai tr ca nhng thnh vin trong h thng. Mt s chun m bo cht lng cng c gii thiu trong nhng chng cui. Thng qua ni dung bi ging sinh vin cng s nm c k nng r sot v kim th phn mm.

    Ti liu c son phn ln da trn cun sch Software Quality Assurance From Theory to Implementation ca Daniel Galin v mt s ti liu v k ngh phn mm, nhm h tr cho sinh vin gp kh khn khi c cc ti liu nguyn gc ting Anh.

    Ni dung bi ging c xy dng trong by chng:

    Chng 1. Khi nim v cht lng phn mm v cc yu t cht lng phn mm

    Nhng khi nim m u ca ti liu c gii thiu trong chng 1. Bt u vi khi nim phn mm, cht lng phn mm v m bo cht lng phn mm, phn tip theo phn tch cc yu t cht lng phn mm.

    Chng 2. Cc thnh phn cht lng phn mm tin d n

    Chng ny trnh by nhng ni dung lin quan n nhng thnh phn m bo cht lng phn mm tin d n bao gm vic r sot hp ng, k hoch pht trin d n phn mm v k hoch cht lng phn mm.

    Chng 3. Cc thnh phn SQA trong vng i d n

    Chng 3 cp n cc thnh phn m bo cht lng phn mm trong vng i d n phn mm. Nhng ni dung c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm : phn tch mt s m hnh pht trin phn mm ph bin, cc phng php r sot, bo tr phn mm v cc cng c CASE. Ring kim th phn mm l bc quan trng s c trnh by ring chng 4.

    Chng 4. Kim th phn mm

    Chng 4 cp n kim th phn mm. Nhng ni dung c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm : khi nim c bn, cc mc kim th, cc k thut kim th, v qu trnh kim th.

    PTIT

  • 3

    Chng 5. Phn loi cc phn mm phc v kim

    Chng 5 cp n cc loi thnh phn c dng trong kim th phn mm. Nhng ni dung c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm : cc phn mm phc v kim th v th vin JUnit c s dng rng ri trong kim th n v cho ngn ng lp trnh Java.

    Chng 6. Cc thnh phn c bn ca cht lng phn mm

    Cc thnh phn c bn ca cht lng phn mm bao gm cc th tc (procedure), ch dn (instruction), khun mu (templates), checklists (danh mc kim tra). chnh l ni dung c trnh by trong phn u ca chng 6. Phn tip theo s trnh by cc hot ng m bo cht lng phn mm khc nh : o to v cp chng ch, ngn nga v sa li, qun l cu hnh v kim sot ti liu.

    Chng 7. Cc thnh phn qun l cht lng phn mm

    Ngoi yu t k thut, trong cc d n pht trin phn mm hin i, yu t qun l ng vai tr ht sc quan trng. Chng 7 trnh by cc vn lin quan n qun l cht lng phn mm nh : iu khin tin d n, o cht lng phn mm, chi ph cht lng phn mm.

    Chng 8. Cc chun, chng ch v hot ng nh gi

    Chng ny cp ti cc chun qun l cht lng nh ISO 9001 v ISO 9000-3, CMM v CMMI v cc chun tin trnh d n nh IEEE/EIA Std 12207, IEEE Std 1012, IEEE Std 1028.

    Chng 9. T chc m bo cht lng

    Trong nhng t chc ln, qun l ngun nhn lc l mt yu t quyt nh s thnh cng. Chng 9 cp n cc tc nhn tham gia vo h thng m bo cht lng phn mm, vai tr, trch nhim ca mi tc nhn c phn tch c th trong tng mc ca chng. Ph lc Trnh by v cc li thng gp khi vit chng trnh.

    PTIT

  • 4

    MC LC Gii thiu ............................................................................................................................ 2 Chng 1. Khi nim v cht lng phn mm v cc yu t cht lng phn mm .... 8

    1.1. c im ca phn mm v mi trng pht trin phn mm ............................. 8 1.2. Khi nim phn mm .......................................................................................... 11 1.3. Li phn mm v phn loi nguyn nhn gy ra li phn mm ......................... 12

    1.3.1. Li phn mm .............................................................................................. 12 1.3.2. Nguyn nhn gy ra li phn mm .............................................................. 12

    1.4. nh ngha cht lng phn mm v m bo cht lng phn mm ................ 15 1.5. Nhng mc tiu m bo cht lng phn mm ................................................ 15 1.6. Phn loi yu cu phn mm ng vi cc yu t cht lng phn mm ............ 16

    Chng 2. Cc thnh phn cht lng phn mm tin d n ........................................ 20 2.1. R sot hp ng ................................................................................................ 20

    2.1.1. Tin trnh r sot hp ng v cc bc thc hin ...................................... 20 2.1.2. Cc mc tiu r sot hp ng ..................................................................... 21 2.1.3. Thc thi r sot hp ng ............................................................................ 24 2.1.4. Nhng kh khn ca thc hin xem li hp ng cho cc xut chnh .... 25 2.1.5. Khuyn co cho vic thc hin duyt li nhng hp ng chnh ................ 26 2.1.6. Cc i tng r sot hp ng ................................................................... 27 2.1.7. R sot hp ng cho cc d n ni b ....................................................... 27

    2.2. Cc k hoch pht trin v k hoch cht lng ................................................. 30 2.2.1. Nhng mc tiu ca k hoch pht trin v k hoch cht lng ............... 31 2.2.2. Cc thnh phn ca k hoch pht trin ....................................................... 31 2.2.3. Cc thnh phn ca k hoch cht lng ..................................................... 35 2.2.4. Cc k hoch pht trin v k hoch cht lng cho cc d n nh v cc d n ni b .................................................................................................................... 38

    Chng 3. Cc thnh phn SQA trong vng i d n ................................................. 41 3.1. Tch hp cc hot ng cht lng trong vng i d n .................................. 41

    3.1.1. Phng php pht trin phn mm truyn thng v cc phng php khc 41 3.1.2. Cc yu t nh hng hot ng m bo cht lng phn mm ............... 51 3.1.3. Xc minh, thm nh v nh gi cht lng .............................................. 52

    3.2. R sot ................................................................................................................. 53 3.2.1. Mc tiu r sot ............................................................................................ 53 3.2.2. Nhng r sot thit k hnh thc .................................................................. 54 3.2.3. Cc r sot ngang hng (peer review) .......................................................... 56 3.2.4. Cc kin ca chuyn gia ........................................................................... 57

    3.3. m bo cht lng ca cc thnh phn bo tr phn mm ............................... 59 3.3.1. Gii thiu ..................................................................................................... 59 3.3.2. C s cho cht lng bo tr cao ................................................................. 61 3.3.3. Cc thnh phn cht lng phn mm tin bo tr ...................................... 64 3.3.4. Cc cng c m bo cht lng bo tr phn mm .................................... 68

    3.4. Cc CASE tool v nh hng ca n ln cht lng phn mm ........................ 77 3.4.1. Khi nim CASE tool .................................................................................. 77 3.4.2. ng gp ca CASE tool cho cht lng sn phm phn mm .................. 79 3.4.3. ng gp ca CASE tool cho cht lng bo tr phn mm ....................... 81 3.4.4. ng gp ca CASE tool cho qun l d n ............................................... 82

    PTIT

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    3.5. m bo cht lng phn mm ca cc yu t bn ngoi cng tham gia .......... 82 3.5.1. Nhng thnh phn bn ngoi ng gp vo d n phn mm ..................... 82 3.5.2. Ri ro v li ch ca gii thiu ngi tham d ngoi. ................................. 83 3.5.3. Nhng mc tiu m bo cht lng v s ng gp ngi tham gia bn ngoi 84 3.5.4. Cc cng c m bo cht lng nhng ng gp ca cc thnh vin ng gp bn ngoi. ........................................................................................................... 85

    Chng 4. Kim th phn mm ..................................................................................... 86 4.1. Mt s khi nim c bn ..................................................................................... 86

    4.1.1. V d v li phn mm ................................................................................. 86 4.1.2. c t v li phn mm: .............................................................................. 87 4.1.3. Kim th v tin trnh kim th ................................................................... 88 4.1.4. Cc mc kim th ........................................................................................ 90 4.1.5. Mt s thut ng .......................................................................................... 91

    4.2. Cc cp kim th .......................................................................................... 94 4.2.1. Kim th n v - Unit Testing .................................................................... 95 4.2.2. Kim th tch hp - Integration Testing ...................................................... 95 4.2.3. Kim th h thng - System Testing ......................................................... 100 4.2.4. Kim th chp nhn - Acceptance Testing ................................................ 101

    4.3. Cc k thut kim th ....................................................................................... 102 4.3.1. Kim th hp en - Black-box Testing ...................................................... 102 4.3.2. Kim th hp trng - White-box Testing (WBT) ...................................... 108 4.3.3. Kim th gia tng - Incremental Testing ................................................... 116 4.3.