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  • Feeling Aware: Investigating the Use of a Mobile Variable- Friction Tactile Display for Awareness Information - Mobile HCI 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Jeremy Birnholtz | Northwestern University Evanston, IL USA

    Darren Gergle | Northw estern University Evanston, IL USA

    Noah Liebman | Northwestern University Evanston, IL USA

    Sarah Sinclair | Cornell University Ithaca, NY USA

    (available or not) tactile display vs. visual display information awareness

  • Author

    Jeremy Birnholtz | assistant professor of Northwestern University

    Do you see that I see?: effects of perceived visibility on awareness checking behavior. Proceedings of CHI 2012, ACM Press (2012), 17651774.

    Awareness Beyond the Desktop: Exploring Attention and Distraction with a Projected Peripheral-vision Display. Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2010, Canadian Information Processing Society (2010), 5562.

    Everyone Has to Do It: A joint action approach to managing social inattention. Computers in Human Behavior 29, (2013), 22302238.

    A Framework for Supporting Joint Interpersonal Attention in Distributed Groups. Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT 2011. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, 295312.

    Affiliation history

    University Michigan Ann Arbor University of Michigan University of Toronto Cornell University Northwestern University

    Bibliometrics: publication history

    Publication years 2003-2015 Publication count 59 Citation Count 352 Available for download 47 Downloads (6 Weeks) 435 Downloads (12 Months) 2,725 Downloads (cumulative) 22,549 Average downloads per article 479.77 Average citations per article 5.97

    Publications

  • Author

    Jeremy Birnholtz | assistant professor of Northwestern University

    Do you see that I see?: effects of perceived visibility on awareness checking behavior. Proceedings of CHI 2012, ACM Press (2012), 17651774.

    Awareness Beyond the Desktop: Exploring Attention and Distraction with a Projected Peripheral-vision Display. Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2010, Canadian Information Processing Society (2010), 5562.

    Everyone Has to Do It: A joint action approach to managing social inattention. Computers in Human Behavior 29, (2013), 22302238.

    A Framework for Supporting Joint Interpersonal Attention in Distributed Groups. Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT 2011. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, 295312.

    Affiliation history

    University Michigan Ann Arbor University of Michigan University of Toronto Cornell University Northwestern University

    Bibliometrics: publication history

    Publication years 2003-2015 Publication count 59 Citation Count 352 Available for download 47 Downloads (6 Weeks) 435 Downloads (12 Months) 2,725 Downloads (cumulative) 22,549 Average downloads per article 479.77 Average citations per article 5.97

    Publications

    - joint interaction - awareness beyond the device

  • Abstract

    Awareness displays; availability; interruption; tactile; variable friction; CSCW

    always-connected world ( ) Interruption information awareness -> , , interrupt load

    1) 2) Visual Display vs. Tactile Display

    1),2) information awareness

    1) 2 2) TPad variable-friction display 3) (Sorting game , Shuffleboard game, Catching game), (Low vs. High), (Tactile vs. Visual) 4) 3*2*2 12 -> notification -> , interruption, , (10 )

    1) notification tactile display 2) notification visual display tactile display

  • Introduction

    availiability , , availability interruption

    availability information awareness

    T pad: tactile feedback

    information awareness 1) 2) (, ) , tactile -> T pad

  • Related Work

    Awareness Display | ,

    3

    1. availability , ? - available busy - , availability

    2. ? - ,

    3. ? - peripheral visual display

  • Non-Visual Displays

    audible awareness information - , - , audible awareness

    haptic or tactile - tactile - tactile

    Related Work

  • Variable Friction Display

    variable friction display - vibrotactile ( ) - variable friction display -

    Related Work

    information awareness interruptions =

    -> variable-friction tactile notification input

    - : - :

  • Study

    : 3 dimensions (//) RQ1: , , game score & interruption timing ? RQ2: , , reaction time ? RQ3: variable friction tactile display experience ? (10 )

    - - variable friction tactile notification visual notification - - 1) primary task: - 2) secondary task: tactile visual notification

    TPad variale friction display

    - n = 56 (: 26, : 30, :23) - Midwestern US university , - (:$15)

  • Study

    - 56 2 28 - display type (2), task type (3), task workload(2) 2*3*2=12 - , partner notification

    noti (x):smooth / noti (o): friction

    noti (x):not glow / noti (o): glow

    shapes workload

  • Task Type

    Study

    1)

    2)

    3)

    - catching game -

    - shuffleboard game - -

    - sorting game - : - :

    Primary Task: Secondary Task:

    - Tactile: texture : key : key

    - Visual: edge glow : key : key

    | tactile visual notification key | Key , | key

    3.5mins

  • Task Type

    Study

    1)

    2)

    3)

    - catching game -

    - shuffleboard game - -

    - sorting game - : - :

    Primary Task: Secondary Task:

    - Tactile: texture : key : key

    - Visual: edge glow : key : key

    | tactile visual notification key | Key , | key

    - tactile texture pilot

    variable - friction - 1 3 practice round

    - 12

    randomize

  • Measures

    - 1) game score: 12 - 2) interrruption timing: partner availability state (good or bad)

    - 1) reaction time: tactile vs. visual notification key

    - 1) workload:

    - NASA Task Load Index(TLX) very low(0) very high(10) - NASA-TLX perceived mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, performance, effort and frustration

    - 2) partner connection: - - - 7

  • Games Scores

    Result

    tactile > visual

    - tactile notification

    -

    tactile display (M=1.85, SE=.04) visual display (M = 1.80, SE = .04), F(1, 59.35) = 3.06, p = .09.

  • Number of Presses

    Result

    Visual Display

    Tactile ,

    good: available key bad: not available key missed: available key

  • Reaction Time

    Result

    visual tactile

    (758 milliseconds)

    high workload

    tactile -> tactile

    visual display (M = .317 seconds (ln), SE = .029) tactile display (M = .757 seconds (ln), SE = .029) F(1, 57.5) = 176.29, p < .0001.

  • Experience with the Tactile Display (7 )

    Result

    Visual display

    visual > tactile

    , , : visual > tactile

  • 1) variable friction tactile display availability ?

    -> , Primary task availability secondary task -> High Workload variable friction tactile display -> , availability

    Conclusion& Discussion

    Two Major Questions

    2) availability , tactile friction display vs. visual display ?

    -> : availability tactile friction display

  • ? , ->

    + ,

    - ( ) , -> availity variable friction tactile ? : variable friction tactile : drawing

  • thank you!