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Emission calculation

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Basic calculation of emissions from road transport.

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  • 1. 1Emission calcula,on in road transportPer Olof ArnsIns2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2onCC-BY Per Olof ArnsAvdelningen fr logis2k och transport

2. Some clarica,onsHaulage companies own vehicles that are used by 2transport companies that service1 4customers that own 3 ows that are controlled by5logis,cs principles Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2onCC-BY Per Olof Arns Avdelningen fr logis2k och transport 3. This mechanism is The customer pays for transport work. fundamental Measured in tonne x km. to all transport opera1ons!The The transport company wants to maximise the amount of Transport transport work and minimise the amount of trac workEqua,onThe hauliers costs are driven by tonne kmCustomer trac work. Measured in vehicle tonne kmTraccapacity x km (also tonne km). MAX Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2onCC-BY Per Olof Arns Avdelningen fr logis2k och transport 4. Revenues (=increase ) tonne kmCustomertonne kmTracMAXCost (=decrease) Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2onCC-BY Per Olof Arns Avdelningen fr logis2k och transport 5. EmissionsCO2 Depends on fuel SOx Depends on fuel NOx Depends on fuel + engine HC Depends on fuel + engineCO Depends on fuel + enginePM Depends on fuel + engine Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2onCC-BY Per Olof Arns Avdelningen fr logis2k och transport 6. 1 litre diesel = 2.4 kg CO2 c t??? e corre his bcan tHowIns2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2onCC-BY Per Olof ArnsAvdelningen fr logis2k och transport 6 7. Carbon dioxide1 litre diesel = 2.4 kg CO2c t???e correhis b can t How rk WoH C H+ OO=OC O O ,16 kg C 212 kg +16 kg 16 kg = 44 kg 44/( 12+2)=3l per kg fueIns2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2on 7CC-BY Per Olof ArnsAvdelningen fr logis2k och transport 8. on ic, Wh, fr 6 kat ,5He : 5 etc1 litre diesel= 9,77 kWh The engine eciency is:To driveshaT: 4,2/9,77 = 0,43 = 43% 4,2 kWh Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2onCC-BY Per Olof Arns Avdelningen fr logis2k och transport 8 9. Emission unitsChoi ce of g/kWhtech nolog y fuel g/litre ic e of Cho g/km g/,me unit C ost t.ex. g/h g/transported load t.ex. g/tonne g/transport workRevenue t.ex. g/tonnekm Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2on 9CC-BY Per Olof Arns Avdelningen fr logis2k och transport 10. Difficult to measur e tonne kmCustomertonne kmTracMAXEasy t o measure Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2onCC-BY Per Olof Arns Avdelningen fr logis2k och transport 11. The most important formula - gram emissions per litre fuel Engine EngineFuelGramGram kWhoutkWhMJ= * * *Litre fuel kWhEnginekWhinMJLitreCer,ca,on value.Emissions in grams per kWh engine work The engine eciencyResult: Gram per kWh energy put into the engine Conversion to MJ (this is a phjysical constant = 3,6 MJ/kWh)Result: Gram per MJ fuel put into engine The heat value of the fuel in MJ per litre.Result: Gram per litre fuel put into engine.Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2on11CC-BY Per Olof ArnsAvdelningen fr logis2k och transport 12. Emissions per assignmentEngine FuelDriverAssignment Assignment Gram Gram Litre km # of assmts.=* * *1me unitLitre kmassignment 1me unitBased on engine cer,ca,on and eciency together with the heat value of the fuel.Fuel consump,onResult: gram emissions per kmDistance driven during assignmentResult: gram emissions per assignmentNumber of assignemnt per ,me unit (e.g. 2 per week)Result: gram per assignment and ,me unit (e.g. per assignement and week)Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2on12CC-BY Per Olof ArnsAvdelningen fr logis2k och transport 13. Emissions per tonne alt. tonnekmAssignmentEngine Fuel Driver Assignment VehicleGram Gram Liter 1=** * Distancetonne Liter km lastBased on engine cer,ca,on and eciency together with the heat value of the fuel. Fuel consump,on Result: gram emissions per km Transported amount (e.g. 15 tonnes) Can also be calculated as max load * ll rateResult: grams per tonnekm Distance driven Result: grams per transported amount (e.g. gram/tonne)Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2on 13CC-BY Per Olof ArnsAvdelningen fr logis2k och transport 14. FTL and LTL(Full Truck Load and Less than Truck Load)Image: Kenth Lumsden, ChalmersIns2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2on 14CC-BY Per Olof ArnsAvdelningen fr logis2k och transport 15. Alloca1on A truck transports cargo belonging to 3 customers in a loop B C Should customer A pay for the Aemissions caused by B and C?Terminal Ins2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2on 15CC-BY Per Olof Arns Avdelningen fr logis2k och transport 16. Line based, exampleIns2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2on 16CC-BY Per Olof ArnsAvdelningen fr logis2k och transport 17. Pallets, exampleIns2tu2onen fr Teknikens ekonomi och organisa2on 17CC-BY Per Olof ArnsAvdelningen fr logis2k och transport