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Reported speech Introductory verbs

Reported speech and introductory verbs

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Text of Reported speech and introductory verbs

  • 1. Reported speech Introductory verbs

2. Reported speech

  • Reported speechi ehk Kaudset knet kasutatakse kellegi poolt eldu, meldu, kirjutatu vi ksitu edasiandmiseks, ilma selle isiku snu tpselt kordamata.

3. Reported speech

  • Kaudse kne sissejuhatamiseks kasutatakse mitmeid tlemist, arvamist, mtlemist, ksimist vi totamist vljendavaid verbe.
  • Thtsaimad neist on:say, tell, think, ask, want to know, dream, promise, add.

4.

  • DIRECT SPEECH
  • (otsene kne)
  • (saatelause) He says, I`m not a bully.
  • Tom says, The weatehr
  • has been awful.
  • REPORTED SPEECH
  • (kaudne kne )
  • Hesays (that) heis not
  • a bully.
  • Tom says (that) the
  • weather has been
  • awful.

5.

  • Otsese kne muutmisel kaudseks toimuvad
  • mningad muudatused, niteksmuutuvad
  • vastavalt lause mtteleasesnadja mnel
  • juhul kaverbi prdevormid.
  • NB! Pange thele, et sageli jetakse that
  • ra, eriti say ja tell jrel.

6. VITLAUSED(jaatavad laused)

  • Kuisaatelause verb
  • on minevikus(said, asked),
  • siis toimub kaudknes
  • krvallauses rida muutusi:
  • Muudame asesna(asesnu) - ( ka siis, Kui
  • saatelause on
  • olevikus )
  • muudame aega toimub nn. aegade nihe
  • present simplewrite(s) - past simplewrote
  • present continuousam/is/are writing -past continuouswas/ were writing
  • present perfecthave/has written -past perfecthad written
  • past simplewrote -past perfecthad written
  • future simple will write-future in the pastwould write

7.

  • kui saatelause verb on minevikus, asendatakse kaudses knes mned lhedust vljendavad snad kaugust vljendavate snadega:
  • that this now then
  • these those today that day
  • here there tomorrow-. thenext day
  • ago- before yesterday- theday before
  • last night the previous night soon- later
  • next week/year the following week/year

8.

  • me muudame oleviku modaalverbe
  • can- could
  • will- would
  • may- might
  • shall- should
  • must- had to / must
  • me ei muuda minevikus olevaid modaalverbe
  • ought to / might/ could/would

9. KSILAUSED

  • *kaudsetesldksimusteson- siduvaks snaksifviwhether(kas)
  • - snajrjestus on otsene, s.o.alus + eldis+ ...
  • - abiverbid jvad ra
  • - saatelausesayvisaidasendatakse ksimust vljendava verbigaask/asked, wonder/wondered, want to know/wanted to know
  • Kaudse ksimuse snade jrjekord on sama, mis jutustaval lausel ehk alus on enne abitegusna ja tegusna!!!
  • ks tpilisemaid vigu suulise eksami rollimngus.
  • *kaudseteseriksimusteson siduvaks snaksksisna /what, where, when, who, how, why ...)
  • - snajrjestus on otsene s.o.alus + eldis +.....

10. KSUD JA PALVED

  • *sltuvalt sellest, mida tahetakse vljendada, kasutatakse verbetell, order, ask, invite, recommendjne., millele jrgnebsihitis (kellele) + to- infinitiiv
  • The teacher said, Open the door.
  • The teachertold us toopen the door.
  • *eitavaksu, palve jne. puhul onto-infinitiiviees not:
  • She said, Don`t be late.
  • Shetold me not tobe late.

11. TERVITUSED, NNITLUSED, SOOVID, TNU

  • DIRECT SPEECH
  • Hello, Tom.
  • Hello, Tim.
  • He said, Congratulations.
  • REPORTED SPEECH
  • Tom and Tim greeted each other.
  • He congratulated me.

12. Introductory verbs

  • +to inf agree claim demandoffer promise refuse threaten
  • Example: verb offer direct speech Would you like me to help you? reported speechHe offered to help me.
  • Grammarway p.109 vaata tabelit!

13. Introductory verbs

  • +sb +to inf advise allow ask, beg command forbid invite order remind
  • Example: verb forbid direct speechYou mustnt stay out late! reported speech He forbade me to stay out late.

14. Introductory verbs

  • + -ing form accuse sb of admit (to) apologise for boast about/of complain to sb of deny insist on suggest
  • Example: verb suggest direct speech Lets go out to dinner. reported speech He suggested going out to dinner.

15. Introductory verbs

  • explain to sb + how Example: direch speech Thats how it works! reported speech He explained to us how it worked.

16. Introductory verbs

  • +that clause explain inform sb exclaim/remark
  • Example: verb exclaim/remark direct speech What a glorious day! reported speech He exclaimed/remarked that it was a glorious day.

17. The verbs marked with asterisk can also be followedby a that clause in reported speech.

  • Heclaimed thathe had won a price.
  • Hepromised thathe would call.
  • Headmitted thathe was wrong.
  • Heboasted thathe was very rich.
  • Hedenied thathe had taked the money.
  • Heinsisted thatI (should) work on Saturday.
  • Hesuggested thatwe (should) take out a loan.