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  • 1. RESEARCH PORTFOLIO DELTA ACADEMY APPLIED RESEARCH CENTRE ASSIGNMENTS SEPTEMBER 2014 JANUARY 2015 DA APPLIED RESEARCH CENTRE JUNE 2014

2. RESEARCH PORTFOLIO ASSIGNMENTS SEPTEMBER 2014 JANUARY 2015 DA APPLIED RESEARCH CENTRE JUNE 2014 3. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS DELTA APPLIED RESEARCH CENTRE ... 4 RESEARCH GROUP AQUACULTURE IN DELTA AREAS...............................................................................................6 Storage of Algae.............................................................................................................................................................6 Influencing algal quality by means of cultivation parameters.......................................................................................7 Cultivating red mosquito larvae ....................................................................................................................................7 Feeding experiments shellfish .......................................................................................................................................7 Bioremediationin aquaculture wastewater using ragworms (nereis diversicolor) .......................................................8 Live feed for fish larvae: copepods................................................................................................................................8 Reproduction of seaweed..............................................................................................................................................9 Case study of productivity factor of a longline mussel culturein the eastern Scheldt estuary .....................................9 A comparison of oyster quality between oysters from different production methods and origin .............................10 Environmental effects of off-bottom oyster production.............................................................................................10 Shellfish production parameters in off-bottom and in-bottom cultures in the Dutch delta.......................................10 Relation between survival and small scale spatial organization of mussels at different densities and food levels............................................................................................................................................................11 Miscellaneous..............................................................................................................................................................11 RESEARCH GROUP BUILDING WITH NATURE..........................................................................................................12 Building for nature rich revetments .........................................................................................................................12 Kick-starting biodiversity .............................................................................................................................................13 Exotic invaders.............................................................................................................................................................13 Artificial oyster reefs on the Oesterdam safety buffer project location .....................................................................14 Governance and the implementation of Building with Nature solutions: stakeholder involvement..........................14 Sediment dynamics of the Oesterdam sand nourishment..........................................................................................15 How to value ecological designs in the tender phase?................................................................................................15 Effects of predation on artificial oyster reefs ..............................................................................................................16 Effects of water retention on biodiversity in oyster reefs...........................................................................................16 Abiotic influences on establishing oyster reefs ...........................................................................................................16 Periwinkles on dikes ....................................................................................................................................................17 Writing study cases on integrated coastal zone management for the delta expertise-site........................................17 INTERNSHIPS AND GRADUATION PROJECT OUTSIDE HZ.............................................................................................18 Identifying the relation between the traits of intertidal-organism and the ecosystem services they provide: carbon storage, coastal protection and biodiversity...................................................................................................18 4. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 2 Developing knowledge to preserve and restore valuable coastal ecosystems: a global study on seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes........................................................................................18 Biogeomorphic landscape formation by ecosystem engineers: generalizing across species by understanding the role of organism traits (plants, algae and benthos) .....................19 Providing a mechanistic understanding how to maximize combined nature and coastal protection goals ...............19 Analysis of the suspended materials measurements ..................................................................................................20 Analysis and evaluation of the monitoring of the galgeplaat sediment suppletion 2013...........................................20 RESEARCH GROUP WATER TECHNOLOGY . 21 Reuse of greenhouse wastewater ...............................................................................................................................21 Enhancing the biodegradability of cooling tower blowdown using advanced oxidation processes ...........................21 Reuse of process water and water contents from potato industry.............................................................................22 Operational characteristics of ultrafiltration processes ..............................................................................................22 INTERNSHIPS AND GRADUATION PROJECTS OUTSIDE HZ...........................................................................................22 Pilot plant Harnaschpolder ( Delft, The Hague), Evides & Veolia & Rossmark ............................................................22 Determining the optimum process conditions for pretreatment and NF for mild desalination (Dow Benelux, Evides) .................................................................................................................................................22 Dow Benelux BV ..........................................................................................................................................................23 Wetsus.........................................................................................................................................................................23 Centre of Expertise Water Technology in Leeuwarden...............................................................................................23 Waterschap Scheldestromen.......................................................................................................................................24 Waterhouderij Walcheren...........................................................................................................................................24 RESEARCH GROUP WATERSAFETY & AREA DEVELOPMENT..................................................................................25 Assignments Levers of Resilience ................................................................................................................................26 Community Resilience and Vital Infrastructure...........................................................................................................26 Community Resilience and Health-care ......................................................................................................................26 Community Resilience and Economic drivers..............................................................................................................27 Community Resilience and social networks in local communities ..............................................................................27 Assignment Professionals and Self-reliant Citizens (CoE project 2014-2015) .............................................................28 Assignments Waterpoort.............................................................................................................................................28 Extended atlas of Waterpoort .....................................................................................................................................28 (Economic) consequences for the Waterpoort area, by the salinization and the return of tides at lake Volkerak- Zoom............................................................................................................................................................................29 Ecological approach for the toxic algae problem in lake Volkerak-Zoom with a (continued) fresh water situation ..29 Experience of the inundation areas of the south-western water line.........................................................................30 Multifunctional dike use around lake volkerak-zoom .................................................................................................30 5. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 3 Reservoir near DOW Oesterdam Safety Buffer Project Oyster cultivation in SEA Lab 6. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 4 DELTA APPLIED RESEARCH CENTRE De Delta Academy, haar onderwijs en haar onderzoek richten zich primair op hbo en hbo+ niveau. Hierbinnen bestaat het Delta Academy Applied Research Centre (DA-ARC). Hier werken meer dan 30 docent/onderzoekers aan heel verschillend onderzoek in vier onderzoekgroepen op het gebied van Watertechnologie, Veiligheid en Gebiedsinrichting, Aquacultuur in Deltagebieden en Bouwen met Natuur. Het type onderzoek dat in de Delta Academy wordt uitgevoerd is praktijkgericht onderzoek. Daaronder wordt onderzoek verstaan dat uitgevoerd wordt voor en samen met bedrijven, overheden en kennisinstituten in de regio en daarbuiten. Het onderzoek vindt plaats door het genereren van nieuwe kennis en inzichten, maar ook door het leveren van praktisch toepasbare producten en concrete oplossingen voor praktijkproblemen. Het onderzoek kent een nauwe relatie met het onderwijs via de bijdrage aan onderwijsactiviteiten, via cursussen, veldwerk en laboratorium onderzoek. Veel studenten zijn via de onderzoekgroepen bij bedrijven aan de slag in stages, minoren en afstudeerprojecten. Het onderzoek in de Delta Academy maakt bijvoorbeeld door universiteiten ontwikkelde kennis toepasbaar maken voor bedrijven. Veel ontwikkelde kennis is niet zomaar geschikt voor directe toepassing in de praktijk; door het toegepaste onderzoek van de hogescholen komt de kennis ter beschikking van bedrijven in de vorm van bijvoorbeeld producten en ontwerpen. De Delta Academy sluit aan bij de ambitie en de beleidsmatige ruimte van de Provincie Zeeland om het deltagebied ook als laboratorium te benutten. Studenten die genteresseerd zijn in een stage of onderzoeksminor kunnen hun belangstelling kenbaar maken aan de hand van een motivatiebrief. Motivatiebrieven graag voor 14 juli 2014 indienen bij de contactpersoon van de onderzoeksgroep van uw keuze: Aquacultuur in Deltagebieden: Jouke Heringa [email protected] Building with Nature: Carla Pesch [email protected] Water Technologie: Hans Cappon [email protected] Waterveiligheid en ruimtelijke ordening: Jean-Marie Buijs [email protected] Leading Lector: Mindert de Vries ([email protected]) Zie ook http://hz.nl/nl/werkenleren/Kennisdeling%20en%20samenwerking/Applied%20Research%20Center/Pages/Applie d-Research-Center.aspx op de HZ website voor verdere informatie over de onderzoekgroepen. Zie https://nl-nl.facebook.com/HZDeltaAcademy voor actuele informatie van onderzoek en onderwijs 7. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 5 ******* ENGLISH TEXT **************************************************************** The Delta Academy, her education and research are focused on Bachelor level. The Delta Academy Applied Research Centre (DA-ARC) is part of the Delta Academy. Within the DA-ARC four research groups exist, focusing on (1) Water Technology, (2) Aquaculture in Delta Areas, (3) Safety and Spatial Development and (4) Building with Nature. Within the DA-ARC at least 30 part time researchers are involved in research. Within the Delta Academy three international bachelor studies are working together with the research groups. The research that is executed in the DA-ARC is so called applied research. It means that we carry out research in intense cooperation with various clients, such as commercial firms (SME) and public institutes in the Netherlands , sometimes in international consortia. The research produces new knowledge and insights and delivers practical solutions and products to the clients. The research is linked to education programs in the Delta Academy through courses, fieldwork and work in our laboratory facility SEA Lab. Many students that work in our research groups are linked with our clients through internships, minors and research-assignments. Students that are interested in an internship, research minor or final thesis can apply by sending a motivation letter. Motivation letters are te be sent preferably before July 14th 2014. Please send your letter to the contact person for the research group of your interest: Aquaculture in Delta Areas: Jouke Heringa [email protected] Building with Nature: Carla Pesch [email protected] Water Technology: Hans Cappon [email protected] Water safety and Spatial Planning: Jean-Marie Buijs [email protected] Leading Lector of DA-ARC: Mindert de Vries ([email protected]) Also check http://hz.nl/nl/werkenleren/Kennisdeling%20en%20samenwerking/Applied%20Research%20Center/Pages/Applie d-Research-Center.aspx for further information on the research groups. See https://nl- nl.facebook.com/HZDeltaAcademy for our actual status of our research and education. 8. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 6 RESEARCH GROUP AQUACULTURE IN DELTA AREAS Research group Aquaculture in Delta Areas of the Delta Academy has its focus on sustainable saline aquaculture in and outside the region Zeeland. Aquaculture is the controlled production of saline crops, algae, seaweed, ragworms, shellfish and fish. Cultivation of these organisms can take place in several (intensive and extensive) ways. The research group Aquaculture has built up an extensive network of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME), consultancies and knowledge institutes involved in aquaculture in and outside the Netherlands. The main research topics are; Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA), new species to the Dutch situation (such as lobster and abalone), improvement of cultivation environments, groundwater suitability, quality aspects in shellfish cultivation and algae cultivation. The research group Aquaculture uses a full-fledged research facility SEA Lab, in which many applied research (experiments) is carried out. More information about research possibilities of this group: Jouke Heringa: [email protected] Please send your application and motivation letters to Jouke Heringa. Motivation letters are to be handed in preferably before July 14th 2014. STORAGE OF ALGAE At this different locations in the Province of Zeeland, companies farm shellfish (mussels, oysters and clams) in ponds. These shellfish species are fed with cultured algae. The best feed for shellfish are living algae. Algae production in ponds and bioreactors is in most cases significantly lower in winter then in summer. Therefor in some periods there is a surplus of algae, in other periods there is not enough feed (algae) for the standing stock of shellfish in the ponds. Companies (farming both algae and shellfish on land) are interested how to store a surplus of algae in such a way that the quality of the algae as feed for shellfish is maintained and the algae can be used in periods of a deficit of algae. The first step in order to store algae is to dewater the algal suspension as much (and gently) as possible. Earlier research by students revealed a promising technique for this essential first step, namely flocculation. By means of flocculation the total volume to be stored can be reduced enormously. However the effects of different storage methods and storage times of these flocculated algae have not been assessed so far. For this topic two possible research possibilities are therefore open: new storage methods and their effect on the quality of flocculated algae the effect of storage time on the quality of flocculated algae The aim in both research possibilities is to remain a decent quality of algae for shellfish production. The quality of the algae could be tested in two ways: chemically (analytical measurements) and biologically (feeding trails with shellfish). Research type: literature study, experiments (HZ, Vlissingen) Research level: minor/ internship/final thesis (both BSc. and MSc. level) Prerequisite: good understanding of biology/chemistry; good analytical skills; communicative Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Wessel Bakhuizen and Jasper van Houcke) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 9. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 7 INFLUENCING ALGAL QUALITY BY MEANS OF CULTIVATION PARAMETERS The market price of algae is determined by their use and their biochemical composition. Algae used for the production of certain pigments can therefore be rather expensive. Also the quality of algae as feed source in aquaculture is mainly determined by the fatty acid profile and the amount of (specific) fatty acids. In literature is has been shown that in some cases the biochemical composition of algae could be related to the cultivation parameters (such as light, nutrient concentrations, etc.). In other words by influencing the cultivation parameters the profit to be gained on the algae production could be influenced. In this research a literature study should lead to algal quality parameters and ways to influence these parameters. Based on this literature research an experimental set-up should be designed. Experimental work should lead to different (wanted) algal qualities. Analytical measurement could be done in combination with chemistry students. Research type: literature study, experiments (HZ, Vlissingen) Research level: minor/ internship/final thesis (BSc. and MSc. level) Prerequisite: good understanding of biology/chemistry; good analytical skills; communicative Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Wessel Bakhuizen and Jasper van Houcke) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 CULTIVATING RED MOSQUITO LARVAE The demand for locally produced Red Mosquito larvae in the aquaria sector is, because of sustainability issues, increasing. Nowadays most of the Red Mosquito larvae are imported from either Eastern Europe or (on a larger level) China. This means that larvae are transported over large distances. Furthermore since water quality in the earlier mentioned regions are also improving , there might be a shortage in the future. From a sustainability issue it would be beneficial to use effluent (or other waste products) from the local industries as a feed source for the mosquito larvae. Previously experience was gained with the culture cycle of the mosquito larvae in freshwater. However the region of Zeeland has many brackish or saltwater waste streams which could be utilized in the production of saltwater Red Mosquito species. First trails will be conducted with the solid waste fraction from a local Turbot farm. Research type: literature study, experiments (HZ, Vlissingen) Research level: minor/ internship/final thesis (BSc. level) Prerequisite: good understanding of biology; good analytical skills; communicative Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Wessel Bakhuizen and Jasper van Houcke) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 FEEDING EXPERIMENTS SHELLFISH At this different locations in the Province of Zeeland, companies farm shellfish (mussels, oysters and clams) in ponds. These shellfish species are fed with cultured algae. There are thousands of algae species known in the world, all with a different biochemical composition. Currently only a few of these algae species are commonly used in shellfish cultivation(Skeletonema, Chaetoceros, Isochrysis, Tetraselmis and Pavlova). The quality of the algae biomass is an important factor for the growth and production of shellfish. The quality of algal biomass is usually defined by the fatty acid composition of the algae. However in other feed sources in aquaculture other factors play a role in feed quality as well (for instance protein content and amino acid profile). This could also be the case for 10. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 8 the use of algae as a feed source for shellfish. The aim of this study is to evaluated different algal diets (with different compositions) for shellfish production. During this study the algal diets will be formulated (based on analysis of biochemical composition) and the production of shellfish on these diets will be monitored (growth, mortality, feeding conversion rate). Research type: literature study, experiments (HZ, Vlissingen) Research level: minor/ internship/final thesis (BSc. level) Prerequisite: good understanding of biology/chemistry; good analytical skills; communicative Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Wessel Bakhuizen and Jasper van Houcke) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 BIOREMEDIATION IN AQUACULTURE WASTEWATER USING RAGWORMS (NEREIS DIVERSICOLOR) Several marine fish farms are located in the region of Zeeland. Besides the production of fish also waste is produced in the form of a solid and dissolved fraction. The waste water usually contains a substantial amount of fish waste and uneaten food in the form of total suspended solids (TSS). The fish farms have to pay a fee for the effluent material to be discharged. In order to not only save but also earn money, these fish farms are interested to see if their waste streams can be utilized. Previous research has shown the capability of a polychaete species (Nereis Diversicolor) to remove the TSS from the water. However further practical research is needed in order to analyze the efficiency of this waste water treatment. For the determination of economical feasibility of such a waste water treatment the growth and production of the worms should also be determined. Research type: literature study, experiments (HZ, Vlissingen) Research level: minor/ internship/final thesis (BSc. and MSc. level) Prerequisite: good understanding of biology/chemistry; good analytical skills; communicative Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Wessel Bakhuizen and Jasper van Houcke) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 LIVE FEED FOR FISH LARVAE: COPEPODS In many cases live feeds are used in the first feeding phase of fish larvae. Research showed that use of copepods has several advantages over the use of Artemia or rotifers: 1. Early life stages of copepods are smaller than Artemia or rotifers and therefore more suitable for small fish larvae; 2 The swimming motions of copepods seem to be more attractive to fish larvae; 3 the nutritional value of copepods is higher than for the other live feed sources. However the production of copepods is still problematic and labor-intensive. Since the use of copepods in aquaculture seems to be promising the research group Aquaculture in Delta areas want to set-up a copepod cultivation system. Research type: literature study, experiments (HZ, Vlissingen) Research level: internship Prerequisite: good understanding of biology/chemistry; good analytical skills; communicative Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Wessel Bakhuizen and Jasper van Houcke) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 11. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 9 REPRODUCTION OF SEAWEED The company Seaweed Harvest Holland is in the startup phase to farm seaweed in pond systems for human consumption. At the moment they grow seaweed on a pilot scale level in a pond system in Colijnsplaat. For different species of seaweed it is possible to buy starting material in the form of seaweed spores on lines. Under the right circumstances the spores will grow out to harvestable seaweed. For one of the seaweed species that Seaweed Harvest Holland wants to produce, a red seaweed species (Ceramium rubrum), it is not possible to obtain the starting material at seaweed hatcheries. Seaweed Harvest Holland wants to know how to reproduce Ceramium rubrum in a controlled environment to produce lines with spores. This research involves literature research to obtain information about Ceramium rubrum and its reproduction cycle. Based on literature and a general reproduction protocol for seaweed, explorative lab experiments to reproduce Ceramium rubrum will be caries out in the SEA Lab. The aim of this research is to obtain practical knowledge about controlled reproduction of Ceramium rubrum. Research type: lab experiments and literature study (HZ, Vlissingen) Research level: minor/ internship/final thesis (both BSc. and MSc. level) Prerequisite: good understanding of biology; good practical skills; good analytical skills; communicative Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Jorik Creemers and Jouke Heringa) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 CASE STUDY OF PRODUCTIVITY FACTOR OF A LONGLINE MUSSEL CULTURE IN THE EASTERN SCHELDT ESTUARY The largest longline mussel culture in the Eastern Scheldt is in a former harbor at Neeltje Jans, build during the construction of the storm surge barrier. In longline culture mussels are attached to ropes, (longlines) and socked in, from where they grow to consumption mussels in one or two years time. The culture area is semi-enclosed, water exchange within this harbor is provided by only one connection to the Eastern Scheldt. Mussel production on the longlines is dependent on environmental conditions, like food concentration in the water column, current through the system and effects at culture systems scale, like mussel density, rope density and rope depth. Within the framework of the PROFMOS project, research is done in close collaboration with the mussel growing company on by what factors yield is determined and how production can be optimized. In order to address these questions, mussels will be monitored throughout the system and food and nutrient budgets need to be calculated. This requires a lot of onshore and offshore fieldwork and good communication skills in order to communicate with the mussel farmer at the culture site, where a substantial amount of time will be spend. Research type: fieldwork including mussel and nutrient sampling (at Neeltje Jans), labwork including nutrient analysis and (optional) modelling Research level: internship/final thesis (both BSc. and MSc. level) Perquisite: good understanding of biology, analytical skills, car license, good planning skills, communication skills Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Eva Hartog and Jacob Capelle) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 12. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 10 A COMPARISON OF OYSTER QUALITY BETWEEN OYSTERS FROM DIFFERENT PRODUCTION METHODS AND ORIGIN Market demands for high quality oysters is higher current production in the Dutch delta. A group of oyster growers are starting with a new initiative to culture oysters off-bottom, in baskets and bags (on tables). Whether this method is successful and allows up-scaling, is dependent on the growth and quality of the oyster from these production methods and the cost-price per oyster. Growth and quality should be better than for oysters from on- bottom plots, which is the traditional oyster culture in The Netherlands and at least comparable to oysters important from France. The objective of this assignment is to test differences in oyster quality and to quantify cost- price per oyster for the different oysters under study. Research type: combination of field work and lab work Research level: minor/internship/final thesis (BSc. level) Prerequisite: driving license, exactitude, good communication skills Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Jacob Capelle) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OFF-BOTTOM OYSTER PRODUCTION Market demands for high quality oysters is higher than current production in the Dutch delta. A group of oyster growers are starting with a new initiative to culture oysters off-bottom, in baskets and bags (on tables). Structure of culture systems and activities around them will have an impact on the local environment. This impact needs to be quantified. Impacts will be estimated by effects on bird disturbance, by quantifying effects of culture activities on foraging bird species. Research type: field work Research level: minor/internship/final thesis (BSc. level) Prerequisite: driving license, bird identification skills Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Jacob Capelle) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 SHELLFISH PRODUCTION PARAMETERS IN OFF-BOTTOM AND IN-BOTTOM CULTURES IN THE DUTCH DELTA This assignment falls within the framework of a project (Saline Production), in which optimization of shellfish production by different innovative methods in the Dutch delta is investigated. Production is determined by growth and survival of starting material, which are often juvenile shellfish. Culture systems and species under research include: longline mussel culture, oysters (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis) in baskets, bags and flupsies, carpet shells and cockles in-bottom on culture plots. We are looking for a student to take and process samples from the different culture systems and analyze results on growth, mortality and quality (meat weight, shell shape and fouling) as function of shellfish density, location within the culture system for different culture systems and different culture areas. Research type: combination of field work and lab work Research level: internship (BSc.level) Prerequisite: understanding of basic ecological principles, driving license, innovative Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Jouke Heringa and Jacob Capelle) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 13. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 11 RELATION BETWEEN SURVIVAL AND SMALL SCALE SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF MUSSELS AT DIFFERENT DENSITIES AND FOOD LEVELS When mussels are equally spread, they will redistribute in structures like clumps or net-like structures. Relaying of mussels is common practice in the aquaculture of mussels. An effect of this relaying process is a very large mussel mortality. There are indications, from field observations, that this mussel mortality is related to the redistribution process through competition, either for food or space. This hypothesis needs testing under controlled conditions. Therefore, two experiments will be performed, one under equal and one under unequal per capita food levels, with mussels in a range of densities. Spatial organization, survival and mussel condition index will be compared between treatments. Research type: controlled experiment Research level: internship/final thesis (both BSc. and MSc. level) Perquisite: good understanding of biology, analytical skills, dedicated Researcher involved: research group aquaculture (Jacob Capelle) Period: 1st semester 2014-15 MISCELLANEOUS The Applied Research Group Aquaculture in Delta Areas is closely involved with aquaculture initiatives from stakeholders in the region. Regularly research questions and topics pop up during the semester. These researches are different level and can be different types. It is worthwhile to contact the coordinator Jouke Heringa ([email protected]) for further research possibilities. 14. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 12 RESEARCH GROUP BUILDING WITH NATURE Introduction As a result of changes in societal demand and technical developments, water management and engineering are moving from hard traditional structures like dikes and dams, to designs in which natural structures and processes are incorporated. One of the underlying factors in this development is the increasing awareness of the impacts of climate change and its effect on water levels and extreme events. Furthermore, water managers are expected to create more safety, opportunities for recreation, and other benefits, with increasingly smaller budgets. This requires infrastructure that combines multiple functions. In our research group we work on application of the Building with Nature concept. Building with Nature focusses on solutions that use abiotic forces of nature (e.g. wind and currents that transport sand) and ecosystem services delivered by organisms (e.g. reefs and vegetation that catch and stabilize sand). The research group also focusses on Building for Nature: creating additional nature values in and on monofunctional structures such as dikes. Current research themes include 1) Optimizing the design of Building with Living Nature structures such as oyster reefs or salt marshes, used for coastal protection and nature development 2) Design and implementation of Building with Nature solutions for flood protection, including safety assessments for the specific building blocks and the acquisition of permits 3) Research on structures and processes in coastal water systems. This generates knowledge that is needed for the design of Building with Nature solutions 4) Transfer of knowledge by means of an expertise management method Identification of the effects of Building with Living Nature solutions in the Eastern Scheldt on the functioning (other ecosystem functions) of the Eastern Scheldt More information on research possibilities of this group: Carla Pesch: [email protected] Please send application and motivation letters for assignments within the HZ to Carla Pesch. Motivation letters are to be handed in preferably before July 14 2014 BUILDING FOR NATURE RICH REVETMENTS Currently, dikes and foreshores are primarily designed from a civil engineering perspective. The main focus is on flood protection and water management. The Building for Nature approach aims at innovating the design of coastal protection structures in order to increase their nature values. Dikes with this type of design are called rich dikes, or rich revetments. These revetments can be of more interest for other use such as diving, fishing or aquaculture. In Spring 2014 concrete blocks with different surface roughness were designed and placed at a field location in the in the intertidal in the Eastern Scheldt. In this research you will compare the changes in biodiversity on these blocks and you will assess which one performs better and why. Based on your analysis you provide advice on the design of new revetments. You will be also be responsible for the production of concrete blocks with new designs. 15. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 13 Research type: Desk and field research Research level: AET students and/or Civil engineering students; minor or internship. Prerequisite: interest in design and aquatic ecology; experience with Autocad is an asset Customer: Tim van Oijen, Joo Paiva Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 KICK-STARTING BIODIVERSITY The artificial placement of oyster shells in a reef form introduces a new large habitat available for other species to exploit in a much more sudden manner than would be observed with the more gradual formation of natural oyster reefs and their associated communities. The development of a community on an oyster reef is dependent not only on the available habitat, but also on available food source and presence of moisture to avoid desiccation. The possibility of providing a kick-start for the development of biodiversity, or increasing the speed of development of biodiversity will be investigated by adding mussels (attached to rope or carpet) to gabions of oyster shells and monitoring the development of the associated biodiversity over time. As a comparison you will also investigate the biodiversity of natural oyster reefs in the area as a comparison and research the literature. Research type: field research, desk research. Research level: Minor, Internship (2 students) Prerequisite: interest in ecology. Customer: Anneke van den Brink Period: semester 1, 2014-2012 EXOTIC INVADERS The Oosterschelde has a high number of exotic species that arrived (among others) via the shellfish aquaculture industry. The introduction of new hard substrates in the form of dykes and oyster reefs at the Oesterdam is intended to help the developing ecosystem by providing new habitats to colonise. As these new habitats begin completely empty, they also provide an equal starting line for both exotic and native species. It is likely that the exotic and native species will compete for the new habitat and for food. Who will win? In this project you will conduct a monitoring investigation of the hard substrates around the Oesterdam including the artificially placed and possibly natural oyster reefs as well as the dyke to determine the ratio of exotic and native species of similar ecological niches, thereby creating an indication of how the ecosystem is developing and of what species are likely to benefit from the further addition of artificial oyster reefs to the Oosterschelde. Furthermore you will conduct behaviour experiments in the lab to determine the competition for shelter and for food between the native crab Carcinus maenas and the exotic Hemigrapsus takanoi. POSITION ALREADY FILLED. Research type: field research, lab research, desk research. Research level: Final thesis Prerequisite: interest in ecology. Customer: Anneke van den Brink Period: semester 1, 2014-2012 16. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 14 ARTIFICIAL OYSTER REEFS ON THE OESTERDAM SAFETY BUFFER PROJECT LOCATION An Oyster is an ecosystem engineer which is able to change waves, currents and sedimentation patterns in their vicinity. Nowadays we want to use these abilities in our advantage by building artificial oyster reefs. This innovative solution can be used not only to protect dikes against wave action but also stabilize sand on sand banks. Recently 4 new oyster reefs were constructed at the Oesterdam safety-buffer project and it is going to be your task to monitor not only the reef development but also their effects in the morphology of their surroundings. For that you will evaluate the existing data and be responsible to collect new data. You will also compare your results with similar researches. As the oyster reef Technology is still in the beginning your results/work can be very important for improving the design of artificial oyster reefs. Research type: field research, desk analysis with GIS or Matlab Research level: Water management students and/or Civil engineering students; minor, internship or graduation bachelor thesis project. Prerequisite: Drivers License; interest in ecology, morphology, and fluid dynamics Customer: Matthijs Boersema and Joo Paiva; partner in RaakPro BwLN Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 GOVERNANCE AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BUILDING WITH NATURE SOLUTIONS: STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT Building with Nature solutions purposely combine multiple functions. In this way, they differ from traditional engineering solutions, and this can have important implications for their implementation and management, because Building with Nature solutions cross multiple institutional boundaries. Vegetated foreshores, for instance, combine a contribution to flood risk reduction with a contribution to nature. Traditionally, flood defence is the established domain of actors like water boards and Rijkswaterstaat in the Netherlands. However, vegetated foreshores connecting dikes to wetlands are often managed by other parties such as nature organizations. Including these parties in safety issues requires new institutional arrangements. As the first experiences with BwN solutions become available, the need for, and importance of, designing new appropriate governance arrangements for their implementation is highlighted, and this is especially the case for stakeholder involvement. In this assignment, you will analyse the implementation of the participation process of the tidal restoration projects Rammegors and Perkpolder. As a comparison, you will also study Building with Nature applications such as the Oesterdam project and the Noordwaard. Other cases that can be studied are the successful implementation strategies for Room for the River in the Netherlands (where the position of Rijkswaterstaat as the leading partner in the planning, design and implementation of river works has been broken, and where assigned planning responsibility shifted (partly) to local and regional parties). You will identify lessons learned, best practices and critical success factors for stakeholder involvement in the participation process, with special attention to tidal restoration projects mentioned above. Research type: desk research, interviews Research level: Delta Management students, minor, internship Prerequisite: ability to read Dutch (in the case of a minor, at least half of the group should be able to read Dutch), interest in Building with Nature approaches, good communications skills, good analytical skills Researcher(s) involved: Carla Pesch Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 17. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 15 SEDIMENT DYNAMICS OF THE OESTERDAM SAND NOURISHMENT The Eastern Scheldt is an important part of the Dutch delta for nature development, recreation and aquaculture. Since the finalization of the storm surge barrier (1986), however, the Eastern Scheldt is suffering from a sand deficit problem. This causes the plates to erode, which in its turn, has an effect on foraging space and time for birds. Secondly the lower intertidal plates are less effective in buffering wave energy, causing more wave exposure on the dykes. Rijkswaterstaat (Dutch state authority for infrastructure) is looking for approaches to diminish the negative effects of the sand deficit, described above. One of the solutions are sand nourishments. The Oesterdam safety-buffer project is a large sand nourishment (300.000 m) at the Oesterdam. It combines a sand nourishment with artificial oyster reefs. Implementation in the field has been realized at the end of 2013. In this assignment, you will monitor morphological changes in the most dynamic parts of the sand nourishments and you will look at the forcing hydrodynamic components (waves, wind, water level, current). Secondly you will determine the sediment transport directions at the nourishment. This information will give us a better understanding of the morphological behaviour and helps Rijkswaterstaat with designing future nourishments at other locations. Research type: Desk and field research, data processing Research level: Civil engineering students or related fields; minor or internship. Prerequisite: Interest in morphology and fluid dynamics, interest in data processing Customer: Matthijs Boersema, Joo Salvador de Paiva HOW TO VALUE ECOLOGICAL DESIGNS IN THE TENDER PHASE? Traditionally competition between competitors is based on doing the job for the lowest price. Contractors which are in the run for public tenders will focus on the minimum requirements written down by the client. This focus on price has his problems, because delivering quality or doing something extra is putting the contractor out of competition. On the other hand the client, in this case the Ministry of Infrastructure (Rijkswaterstaat) has more interest than price alone, for example the natural values of an infrastructural design. Rijkswaterstaat is looking for alternatives to judge this other values like ecological values or stakeholder usage in revetment or foreshore designs. A promising and proven method is the EMVI-approach (Economische Meest Voordelige Inschrijving). In this approach other values are correcting the offered price by a contractor. If for example, a foreshore design is taking ecological values into account the total price is reduced, so competition is not only based on price. In this assignment you will develop a method how to value for example ecology or public appreciation in the tender phase. You will also look if there is missing knowledge for putting this approach into practice. Research type: Desk research, interviews Research level: Civil engineering students or Water Management students; minor or internship. Prerequisite: Interest in contracts, Water Management Customer: Rijkswaterstaat Zee en Delta, Matthijs Boersema 18. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 16 EFFECTS OF PREDATION ON ARTIFICIAL OYSTER REEFS The artificial placement of oyster shells in a reef form introduces a new large habitat available for other species to exploit in a much more sudden manner than would be observed with the more gradual formation of natural oyster reefs and their associated communities. You will investigate the effects of different sizes and types of predators like fish and crabs on the developing biodiversity on the oyster reefs by monitoring a predator exclusion experiment. Research type: field research, desk research. Research level: Study project (2 students) Prerequisite: interest in ecology. Customer: Anneke van den Brink Period: semester 1, 2014-2012 EFFECTS OF WATER RETENTION ON BIODIVERSITY IN OYSTER REEFS The artificial placement of oyster shells in a reef form introduces a new large habitat available for other species to exploit in a much more sudden manner than would be observed with the more gradual formation of natural oyster reefs and their associated communities. The presence of moisture within the oyster reef may play an important role in the speed and type of species that colonize the oyster reef. Two of you will monitor an experiment to investigate the effects of extra water retention in gabions filled with oyster shells on the developing biodiversity. Research type: field research, desk research. Research level: Study project (2 students) Prerequisite: interest in ecology. Customer: Anneke van den Brink Period: semester 1, 2014-2012 ABIOTIC INFLUENCES ON ESTABLISHING OYSTER REEFS The artificially placed oyster shell reefs around the Oesterdam sand suppletion are primarily intended to prevent sediment erosion and secondarily to develop into natural oyster reefs and thereby increase the biodiversity of the local ecosystem. For the successful establishment of a persisting living oyster reef both settlement and survival of the oysters are required. These two conditions are dependent on various abiotic factors including inundation time, scouring through wave action and the presence of retained water to avoid desiccation. These abiotic factors limiting the establishment of oyster reef at the Oesterdam will be tested experimentally using gabions filled with oyster shells and placed at different exposures. Furthermore an experiment will be monitored to investigate the effects of extra water retention in the gabions on the settling oyster spat. Research type: field research, desk research. Research level: Study project (2 students) Prerequisite: interest in ecology, interest in physical processes. Customer: Anneke van den Brink Period: semester 1, 2014-2012 19. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 17 PERIWINKLES ON DIKES The common periwinkle (Littorina spec., Dutch: alikruiken or krukels) is an abundant species on rocky coasts in many parts of the world. In The Netherlands this small edible snail is common on our dikes. Periwinkles have gills to extract oxygen from the water but they can survive some time above water in the intertidal zone. Algae are their main food source. During this research you will study the relation between periwinkle density and morphometry and inundation time. Periwinkles will be counted and collected at several vertical positions on dikes in the Eastern and Western Scheldt. In the laboratory the collected periwinkles will be measured and the dry weight will be determined of both the shells and the body. The periwinkles will be studied at several dikes which vary in type of revetment (type of stone) and in if they are exposed to waves or not. The results will provide more insight into how new types of revetments can be designed to increase both the nature value and the commercial value. Research type: Desk, laboratory and field research Research level: study project, 2nd year AET students.(four students) Prerequisite: interest in aquatic ecology; prepared to do field work in variable weather conditions Customer: Tim van Oijen Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 WRITING STUDY CASES ON INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT FOR THE DELTA EXPERTISE-SITE One of the tasks of the research group Building with Nature is to record all expertise and knowledge in the so called Delta Expertise site (Wiki). At this moment the first information is being put in the Wiki and the following years this Wiki will serve as a major information system that stores the results of the experiments and literature studies of all the research groups of the HZ. The Wiki will also function as a source for education. The expertise and knowledge offers excellent material to train future Delta-specialists. At this moment we are looking for a motivated student to analyze the knowledge that was generated in projects like ComCoast, Safecoast and Stormrisk. The aim of this desk research is to identify the best practices of these projects in such a way that they can be used in educational cases. Editing the pages of the Wiki itself will be part of the assignment. Research type: desk and literature research, interviews Research level: bachelor internship, minor Prerequisite: interest in modelling processes, writing and editing, Researcher involved: Paul Vader Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 20. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 18 INTERNSHIPS AND GRADUATION PROJECT OUTSIDE HZ NIOZ ASSIGNMENTS: NIOZ prefers graduation over internships IDENTIFYING THE RELATION BETWEEN THE TRAITS OF INTERTIDAL-ORGANISM AND THE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES THEY PROVIDE: CARBON STORAGE, COASTAL PROTECTION AND BIODIVERSITY Intertidal landscapes are a harsh environment for both plants and animals. These organisms have to withstand tidal flow, wind waves, anoxic soil conditions, flooding/drought-cycles, and many more stresses. Despite these harsh environmental conditions, a wide range of organisms (plants, algae and benthic animals) inhabits the tidal landscapes, each with their own specific adaptations that enable them to survive. Some of the organisms are even able to modify their physical environment via their structures or activities, which is often referred to as ecosystem engineering. Although the importance of ecosystem engineering for providing ecosystem services is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms explaining how it works are still poorly understood, as it requires an interdisciplinary approach. We aim to understand which organism traits are most important for i) the ecosystem resilience and long-term survival, ii) their ecosystem engineering effect on the intertidal landscape development and iii) ultimately the ecosystem services they provide (carbon storage, coastal protection and biodiversity). To answer this question, we combine field and laboratory studies, using state of the art techniques including (wave) flumes, instruments to manipulate and measure mechanical properties of the organisms, various chemical analyses, and many other techniques Within this research theme we offer several topics, each with the opportunity to tune it towards your specific interest. The possible topics will however strongly depend on the timing of the research. Contact person: Tjeerd Bouma ([email protected]) DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE TO PRESERVE AND RESTORE VALUABLE COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS: A GLOBAL STUDY ON SEAGRASSES, MANGROVES AND SALT MARSHES Coastal waters with healthy seagrass meadows, mangrove forests and salt marshes belong to the most productive ecosystems in the world, and also have a high economical value. They provide food and shelter for various organisms, including young life stages of various commercially important fish species. They contribute to coastal protection and store considerable amounts of carbon. At this moment, seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes are rapidly disappearing on a global scale. Proper management requires a mixture of measures aimed at maintaining existing ecosystems, restoring lost ecsoystems and mitigation measures for threatened ecosystems. Experience has learned that such management measures will only be successful when based on fundamental insight in the processes affecting these ecosystems. We want to contribute to preserving seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes, by dedicated research around the globe (i.e., the Netherlands, Mediterranean, and tropical regions). We specifically aim at understanding basic mechanisms affecting the establishment, growth and disappearance of these vegetation types, and to derive indicators and critical threshold values that can be translated in management objectives. The research is done by a combination of techniques, including field studies in exotic places, as well as studies in the flume where we can control all environmental conditions, including current and flow. Within this research theme we offer several topics, each with the opportunity to tune it towards your specific interest. The possible topics will however strongly depend on the timing of the research. Contact person: Tjeerd Bouma ([email protected]) 21. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 19 BIOGEOMORPHIC LANDSCAPE FORMATION BY ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS: GENERALIZING ACROSS SPECIES BY UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF ORGANISM TRAITS (PLANTS, ALGAE AND BENTHOS) Interactions between organisms and hydrodynamic forces from waves and currents determine where sediment will erode, and where sediment will accumulate. Hence, these bio-physical interactions are a main determinant of landscape formation (i.e., geomorphology) at intertidal areas. Especially large (vascular) plants and macro algae have striking effects on intertidal geomorphology. In the intertidal zones, a broad range of different types of plant and algae co-occur, that strongly differ in their appearance (i.e., morphology) Such differences will affect how plants affect the currents and waves, and thereby thus the sediment transport. Besides plants, there is also a large group of benthic animals (i.e., macro benthos) that affect the landscape formation. Some are highly visible in that they create large reefs, such as oysters and mussels (i.e., epi-benthos). Others are invisible, as they are hidden in the sediment (i.e., endo-benthos). Although hidden, these organisms also have major impact on the sediment dynamics and grain-size distribution by affecting both the critical threshold for erosion to occur and mixing different depth layers. We are working on developing a general understanding how traits of individual organisms affect processes at the level of populations and thereby affect the large-scale long-term intertidal landscape development. Within this research theme we offer several topics, each with the opportunity to tune it towards your specific interest. The possible topics will however strongly depend on the timing of the research. Contact person: Tjeerd Bouma ([email protected]) PROVIDING A MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING HOW TO MAXIMIZE COMBINED NATURE AND COASTAL PROTECTION GOALS Ongoing accelerated sea-level rise, increased storm frequency and altered sediment dynamics, threaten coastlines and estuarine ecosystems around the globe, imposing the need for new, cost effective defense schemes. At the same time, many coastal ecosystems are currently threatened and declining, imposing the need for nature conservation and restoration of coastal ecosystems. Restoration or creation of coastal ecosystems offers promising opportunities for building cost-effective coastal defense schemes that enhance nature goals. It is however unclear to which extent nature and efense goals are compatible or opposing. We aim to unravel i) how to use intertidal ecosystems for coastal defense schemes, ii) how to maximize nature goals and iii) how to integrate both aspects. We study this for coastal vegetation as well tidal flats with benthic communities. Our studies integrate different scales, by combining both the local-scale (i.e., within an ecosystem) and the landscape-scale (i.e., the connectivity between ecosystems and ecosystem compartments). We aim at developing fundamental insights in the physical and biological drivers and interactions that can be widely applied. Within this research theme we offer several topics, each with the opportunity to tune it towards your specific interest. The possible topics will however strongly depend on the timing of the research. Contact person: Tjeerd Bouma ([email protected]) 22. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 20 ASSIGNMENTS AT RIJKSWATERSTAAT ANALYSIS OF THE SUSPENDED MATERIALS MEASUREMENTS During the construction of the Oesterdam safety-buffer, the suppletions at Schelphoek and the Galgeplaat, the concentration of suspended materials has been monitored every 10 minutes. The aim was, to avoid sedimentation of the suspended materials on shellfish plots. This has worked well. RWS is interested in a further analysis of the results of these datasets. So far, is has been assumed that the appearance of suspended materials in the waters of the Eastern Scheldt is related to wave action in windy conditions. Is this correct? And, if so, what would be the windforce at which this starts to happen? And is there maybe also a tidal influence? Or an effect of ships? In this assignment, you are identifying the factors that control the appearance and the amount of suspended materials. Contact person: Eric van Zanten,( [email protected]) ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE MONITORING OF THE GALGEPLAAT SEDIMENT SUPPLETION 2013 Over the period 2008-2012, Deltares has written a report on the sand suppletions on the Galgeplaat. Data collection has been continued, and it is time to write an update. The idea is update the results by using the additional data, and to also update the evaluation. How well is the suppletion working now? The evaluation will use the same method as envisaged to be used for the evaluation of the Oesterdam sand suppletion. Contact person: Eric van Zanten, ([email protected]) 23. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 21 RESEARCH GROUP WATER TECHNOLOGY Introduction The research group water technology aims at development of applicable technologies for sustainable water (re)use in a combined fresh/saline delta. Current research themes include 1) Recycling of surface and process water for industry, agriculture and aquaculture. Examples are reuse of cooling tower water, rainwater runoff and industrial wastewater. 2) Recovery of valuable content in waste water. Examples are acoustic particle filtering and nutrient recovery. 3) Monitoring and control. Examples are monitoring and control of water filtration systems and control of biofouling in water systems with ultrasound. More information on research possibilities in this group can be obtained from Hans Cappon: [email protected] Please send your application and motivation letters to Hans Cappon. Motivation letters are to send preferably before July 14th 2014 REUSE OF GREENHOUSE WASTEWATER Greenhouses have a high water recycling rate, which means that small amounts of minerals and additives tend to accumulate during recycling. At a certain point, water with highly concentrated compounds needs to be discharged or treated. One of the accumulated compounds are nutrients and pesticides. The aim is to find adequate solutions to pesticide removal and nutrient reuse from wastewater and possibly determine whether degraded pesticides remain toxic. Research type: literature study and experiments Research level: internship or graduation Prerequisite: interest in chemistry and biology Customer: Lans, Tuinbouwschap, Waterboard, municipalities Contact: Eva Koper, Niels Groot Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 ENHANCING THE BIODEGRADABILITY OF COOLING TOWER BLOWDOWN USING ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES. Reuse of industrial water is becoming increasingly important in order to reduce the water footprint. Cooling tower blowdown is a tough, but interesting source of water, because it is widely available from process industry and power companies. Blowdown contains various persistent, yet organic substances, which can hardly be treated with biological wastewater processes. The aim is to study a combination of advanced oxidation processes (ozone, UV, ultrasound) and biological treatment before reuse. Research type: experiments Research level: graduation Prerequisite: interest in chemistry and (micro)biology 24. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 22 Customer: Centre of Expertise Delta Technology, Dow Benelux, AWWS Contact: Tessa Steenbakker, Niels Groot Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 REUSE OF PROCESS WATER AND WATER CONTENTS FROM POTATO INDUSTRY During processing of potatoes various wastewater streams have possibilities for reuse. An inventory has already been made of the various streams and their quality. The next step in this process is the investigation of reuse possibilities and test possible treatment methods. Research type: inventory of possibilities and experiments Research level: internship Prerequisite: interest in chemistry and biology Customer: Centre of Expertise Delta Technology, Lamb-Weston/Meijer Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ULTRAFILTRATION PROCESSES In 2013 we have installed an ultrafiltration unit in the SEALab, which will be used for onsite water purification. The aim is to determine which parameters are of influence to the filtration process. Flush times, air scouring and filtration run times are parameters to be evaluated on different types of feed water. Research type: experiments Research level: internship Prerequisite: good understanding of physics Customer: HZ Water Technology and Evides Water Company Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 INTERNSHIPS AND GRADUATION PROJECTS OUTSIDE HZ PILOT PLANT HARNASCHPOLDER ( DELFT, THE HAGUE), EVIDES & VEOLIA & ROSSMARK In 2009 a pilot plant at the Harnaschpolder WWPT was constructed to explore the possibilities of advanced treatment of WWTP effluent for the suppletion of fresh surface water, aquifer recharge and to provide an alternative source for greenhouse water. Advanced treatment of WWTP effluent is required to reach surface water quality at maximum tolerable risk standard (MTR) level, a guideline for surface water quality of the Dutch government, and to produce greenhouse water. The objective of the pilot research is to demonstrate that surface water and greenhouse water can be produced from WWTP effluent at a reliable and cost effective way. Various technologies are used for water treatment. Contact: Hans Cappon, Sigrid Scherrenberg (Evides) DETERMINING THE OPTIMUM PROCESS CONDITIONS FOR PRETREATMENT AND NF FOR MILD DESALINATION (DOW BENELUX, EVIDES) At the production site DECO a pilot will be built for the partial desalination of 3 different water streams: cooling tower blow down, spuikom water (surface water) and effluent from the waste water plant of Dow. The main aim is to reduce the conductivity to 1 mS/cm. The pilot consists of a pre-treatment (coagulation, lamella sedimentation, ultrafiltration) and 2 different desalination techniques: NF (nanofiltration) and EDR (Electro Dialysis Reversal). This 25. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 23 internship will focus on the pretreatment by UF and one the desalination techniques, i.e. NF. Aspects considered are the Key Performing Indicators to monitor fouling, specific energy use and water quality. Contact: Niels Groot, Wilbert van den Broek (Evides) Period: Semester 2 2014/2015 DOW BENELUX BV Inventory of various water systems with a high sensitivity for contamination with Legionella bacteria. Focus areas are the growth accelerating properties and possibility to select a specific system to define a suitable problem identification and follow-up plan. Contact: Niels Groot (Dow/HZ) (www.careersatdow.com) Period: Semester 1 2014/2015 WETSUS Wetsus Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology in Leeuwarden is the largest research centre in the Netherlands. They have many research assignments in various fields from physics to biology and everything in between. Please consult the Wetsus website (www.wetsus.nl) and click on PhD positions -> Graduation and internships for more information. CENTRE OF EXPERTISE WATER TECHNOLOGY IN LEEUWARDEN Internship and/or graduation possibilities. Contact: prof. Luewton Agostinho ([email protected]) Nitrate removal using microbial fuels cells period: Sept 2014 - Sept 2016 project type: pilot scales tests in Leeuwarden (1,5 year) followed by medium scale tests in so Paulo Brasil (1,5 year) partners: Magneto, SABESP (BR), Arcadis, CEW and USP (BR) Investigating the limits for anamox systems. period: June 2014 to Dec 2014 project type: pilot scale system installed in Leeuwarden. partner: Paques Electrochemical disinfection with special electrodes period: June 2014 to Dec 2014 project type: pilot scale tests in Leeuwarden partner: Magneto special anodes Improving the efficiency of Multieffect distillation systems using electrohydrodynamics period: June 2014 to Dec 2014 project type: pilot scale tests in Leeuwarden partner: HV Water 26. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 24 Studying the Graneau effect. Energy production with water and ehda period: June 2014 to August 2014 project type: small scale tests in Leeuwarden partner: Elstatik GmvB New sanitation methods as a solution for cities without waste water collection network Case study with so Luiz city, Brasil. period: June 2014 - December 2014 project type: theoretical study partner: So Luis city, Crolim engenharia, CEW and Leaf (WUR) WATERSCHAP SCHELDESTROMEN Stage/afstuderen (Nederlands) WATERHOUDERIJ WALCHEREN Stage/afstuderen (Nederlands) 27. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 25 RESEARCH GROUP WATERSAFETY & AREA DEVELOPMENT Introduction Resilient Deltas research programme The research group Watersafety and Area Development is aimed at a multiannual programme Resilient Deltas. In this research programme several opportunities are available for students with interest in issues related to community resilience. We are open to students from a broad range of disciplines who are eager to join us in this endeavour of applied science. We are especially interested in social engaged students with good analytical capabilities and communicative skills, who take responsibility and like to work in a team of fellow students. Below a brief overview of the Resilient Deltas programme is provided, followed by the open assignments for next semester. Bright students with specific interest in the field of community resilience may also submit an open application for a final thesis project. In the Resilient Deltas programme we have the aim to explore the nature of community resilience in relation with multiple interrelated systems (panarchy), facilitating and development of instruments to build community resilience, and to longitudinal monitor community resilience and its effects. Within this field of research we focus on the well-being of people living within delta areas. Resilience is considered as a process focused on: Preventing exposures to happen in the first place; Reducing the vulnerability to exposures leading to less severe damages; Increasing the adaptability to recover. This results in following outline: Exposure Damage Recovery These three activities improve the resilience of communities to bounce back after an exposure (disturbance) and to recover by adapting to new circumstances. Today, communities are affected by a diversity of disturbances, related to for example climate change, demographic developments, the economy and governmental reorganizations. Since there are no single actions that have a direct effect on the vulnerability and adaptability of communities, we have to find levers that set the conditions to enhance the resilience of communities in delta areas. In the resilience programme the 4+1 levers are identified as key activities for the resilience of delta communities: Social Capital; Land Use; Vital Infrastructure; Economic Drivers; and Governance. Current research themes include: - Depth studies about the levers of resilience and their interrelations - Development of a comprehensive resilience model and accompanying strategy for communities in the SW Delta - Organization of co-creation of safety between professionals and local communities - Monitoring resilience in communities - Area development in Waterpoort in relation to resilience Please note: From all students working on projects of the research group water safety and area development we expect good analytical skills, an independent attitude and an outstanding research mentality! Application + motivation for the projects need to be handed in preferably before July 14st 2014. 28. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 26 The research group can accommodate up to 10 students, so a quick and deliberate application is recommended. Please send your application and motivation letters to Jean-Marie Buijs: [email protected] ASSIGNMENTS LEVERS OF RESILIENCE COMMUNITY RESILIENCE AND VITAL INFRASTRUCTURE Vital infrastructure, also referred to as critical infrastructure, are assets essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social wellbeing of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact in a community as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. Critical infrastructure are the businesses and parts of the government, which deliver products and services that are essential to the daily lives of most people in the Netherlands. The critical infrastructure is divided into 12 key sectors with a total of 31 essential products and services. In this assignment the student is asked to autonomously conduct research for a clear understanding of the relation between community resilience and vital infrastructure. Subsequently, the student is assigned to map the structure and networks of vital infrastructure for a local community in the South-western Delta. The student will give recommendations to improve the vital infrastructure for this specific community, based on the insights from resilience. Finally the student provides feedback to the research group about the relations between vital infrastructure and community resilience, the interrelations with other levers, and indicators to monitor community resilience. Assignments: max. 2 assignments for bachelor research minor / internship Student: Delta Management, Civil Engineering, De Ruyter Academy and students from abroad Research type: literature and desk research, case study, field research (interviews, observations) Prerequisite: good analytical skills; specific interest in social sciences, vital infrastructure, crises management Customer: Research group Watersafety and Area Development, Contact: Dick Fundter Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 COMMUNITY RESILIENCE AND HEALTH-CARE Community resilience entails the ongoing and developing capacity of the community to account for its vulnerabilities and develop capabilities that aid that community in preventing withstanding and mitigating the stress of a incident, recovering in a way that restores the community to a state of self-sufficiency and at least the same level of health and social functioning after an incident and using knowledge from a past response to strengthen the communitys ability to withstand the next incident. This definition by Rand Corporation (USA) emphasizes the importance of health and social functioning in relation to community resilience. In this assignment the student is asked to autonomously conduct research for a clear understanding of the relation between community resilience and health-care. Subsequently, the student is assigned to map the health- care structure and networks of a local community in the South-western Delta. The student will give recommendations to improve these for this specific community, based on the insights from resilience. Finally the student provides feedback to the research group about the relations between health-care and community resilience, the interrelations with other levers, and indicators to monitor community resilience. Assignments: max. 2 assignments for bachelor research minor / internship Student: Social work, Health care Delta Management and students from abroad Research type: literature and desk research, case study, field research (interviews, observations) 29. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 27 Research level: bachelor minor/ internship Prerequisite: good analytical skills; specific interest in social sciences, health-care Customer: Research group Watersafety and Area Development Contact: Dick Fundter Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 COMMUNITY RESILIENCE AND ECONOMIC DRIVERS Economic resilience refers to the inherent and adaptive responses to hazards that enable individuals and communities to avoid some potential losses. It can take place at the level of the firm, household, market or macroeconomy. In contrast to the pre event character of mitigation, economic resilience emphasizes ingenuity and resourcefulness applied during and after an event. It focusses on the fact that individuals and organizations do not simply react passively or in a business as usual manner in the face of a disaster. According to OECD economic resilience may be loosely defined as the ability to maintain output close to potential in the aftermath of shocks. Hence, it comprises at least two dimensions; the extent to which shocks are dampened and the speed with which economies revert to normal following a shock. From a community resilience perspective, a certain degree of economic diversification, continue renewing of local economy and fit with the local/regional community are deemed important. In this assignment the student is asked to autonomously conduct research for a clear understanding of the relation between community resilience and economic drivers. Subsequently, the student is assigned to map the structure and networks of economic drivers for a local community in the South-western Delta. The student will give recommendations to improve the economic drivers for this specific community, based on the insights from resilience. Finally the student provides feedback to the research group about the relations between economic drivers and community resilience, the interrelations with other levers, and indicators to monitor community resilience. Assignments: max. 2 assignments for bachelor research minor / internship Student: Delta Management, Economy, International Business and Languages and students from abroad Research type: literature and desk research, case study, field research (interviews, observations) Prerequisite: good analytical skills; specific interest in social sciences, economics and/or land use planning Customer: Research group Watersafety and Area Development Contact: Dick Fundter Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 COMMUNITY RESILIENCE AND SOCIAL NETWORKS IN LOCAL COMMUNITIES Social capital refers to those stocks of social trust, norms and networks that people can draw upon to solve common problems. Networks of civic engagement, such as neighborhood associations, sports clubs, and cooperatives, are an essential form of social capital and the denser these networks the more likely that members of a community will cooperate for mutual benefit. This is even so in the face of persistent problems of collective action. A recent study of prof Aldrich shows that social capital is the cornerstone of the adaptive capacity of a community. In this assignment the student is asked to autonomously conduct research for a clear understanding of the relation between community resilience and social networks. Subsequently, the student is assigned to map the social structure and networks of a local community in the South-western Delta. The student will give recommendations to improve social networks for this specific community, based on the insights from resilience. Finally the student provides feedback to the research group about the relations between social capital and community resilience, the interrelations with other levers, and indicators to monitor community resilience. 30. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 28 Assignments: max. 2 assignments for bachelor research minor / internship Student: Social work, Delta Management and students from abroad Research type: literature and desk research, case study, field research (interviews, observations) Prerequisite: good analytical skills; specific interest in social sciences, social capital Customer: Research group Watersafety and Area Development Contact: Dick Fundter Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 ASSIGNMENT PROFESSIONALS AND SELF-RELIANT CITIZENS (COE PROJECT 2014-2015) The CoE project Professionals and self-reliant citizens is aimed at development of practical knowledge about co- creating safety and to apply this within communities in the south-western delta. This is established by learning safety professionals to deal with self-reliance, by improving alignment between professionals, citizens and other societal actors, and by sustainable consolidation of applied knowledge and capabilities. In this study flood risks are used as a main scenario for disturbances in relation to community resilience. For this project, it is essential to have insight in the basic perception and action strategies of citizens, businesses, professionals and governments in relation to flood risks. The research assignment for 2 students is about this part of the project. The students are asked to conduct a baseline measurement about self-reliance of 4 communities within the municipality of Veere. The students will start with a critical review of questionnaires to measure risk perception (awareness) and self-reliance of local communities. Subsequently, the students will deliver a final questionnaire and are responsible for the implementation in the local communities (in cooperation with other students). Via basic statistics they perform an analysis about the baseline of risk perception and self-reliance. The outcomes of this measurement will be presented to the research group and Veiligheidsregio Zeeland (regional crisis management organization). Furthermore, the study will be embedded in a longitudinal monitor about self-reliance and co-creating safety in the Resilient Deltas programme. Assignments: 2 students for bachelor research minor / internship Students: Students of Delta Management, Water Management, Social Sciences, Economy Research type: questionnaire, statistical analysis, field research Prerequisite: good analytical skills; basic understanding of statistics and ability to apply; specific interest in social sciences and water safety; Dutch language; coordination of activities Customer: Research group Watersafety and Area Development, Veiligheidsregio Zeeland Contact: Dick Fundter Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 ASSIGNMENTS WATERPOORT EXTENDED ATLAS OF WATERPOORT The HZ Delta Academy participates together with 3 provinces, 9 municipalities, 2 research institutes and several other organizations in the Waterpoort programme. Waterpoort is an area development process initiated by the province of Brabant to create new opportunities in the mainly rural area around the Volkerak-Zoom. In this area redevelopment process, involved governments, businesses, ngos and citizens try to find new roles in water related area development. The involved organizations try to stimulate and facilitate citizens and local businesses to innovate, to restore connectivity with the water and to co-create an identity and future of the area. In this project you will continue on previous research. Last semester we created an overview of the different user groups in Waterpoort and their relation with the water as well as an overview of the main historical drivers 31. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 29 resulting in transitions in the Waterpoort region. In this follow-up project you will combine both the results of the user inventory and the historical analysis. You will draw a vision and perspective for the region driven by the debate between a fresh water or salt lake Volkerak-Zoom. Resulting into appealing transition strategy for the region for the coming decades. Assignments: 1 student for bachelor research minor / internship Students: Students of Delta Management, Water Management, Land-use planning Research type: desk research, field research, research-by-design Prerequisite: good analytical skills; communicative; creative, out-of-the-box thinking Interests: Water management, area development, governance Customer: Waterpoort Contact: Research group Water safety and Area Development (Jonas Papenborg) Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 (ECONOMIC) CONSEQUENCES FOR THE WATERPOORT AREA, BY THE SALINIZATION AND THE RETURN OF TIDES AT LAKE VOLKERAK-ZOOM After the construction of the Deltaworks lake Volkerak-Zoom turned into a fresh water lake. This had major consequences for the ecological well-being of the lake since the area is characterized by extensive blooms of toxic algae. To fight the ecological problems in lake Volkerak-Zoom strategies are developed to turn the lake back into a salt state as well to bring back tides. However such an intervention requires major adjustments along the borders of the lake, as, for instance, the closure of (recreational) sluices, modification of the agricultural water system and adaptations to ensure the migration of fish species. In this project you will investigate the (economical) consequences of an salt lake Volkerak-Zoom and the return of tides for the surrounding areas. By the selection of a case study, defined during the research, you will investigate the possibility of a local entrepreneur or institution to mitigate the consequences of adjustments. The results of the study will be integrated in the Extended Atlas of Waterpoort. Assignments: 1-2 student(s) for bachelor research minor / internship Students: Students of Delta Management, Water Management, Land-use planning Research type: desk research, field research, research-by-design Prerequisite: good analytical skills; communicative; creative, out-of-the-box thinking Interests: Water management, area development, economy, ecology, agriculture Customer: Waterpoort Contact: Research group Water safety and Area Development (Jonas Papenborg) Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 ECOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR THE TOXIC ALGAE PROBLEM IN LAKE VOLKERAK-ZOOM WITH A (CONTINUED) FRESH WATER SITUATION After the construction of the Deltaworks lake Volkerak-Zoom turned into a fresh water lake. This had major consequences for the ecological well-being of the lake since the area is characterized by extensive blooms of toxic algae. To fight the ecological problems in lake Volkerak-Zoom strategies are developed to turn the lake back into a salt state as well to bring back tides. As long the national government several times postponed its decision on the salinization of lake Volkerak-Zoom the demand for an fresh approach for the ecological problems is growing. Examples of such a fresh approach are the usage of helophytes or the usages of Zebra mussels to purify the water. Based on literature study, field research (measurements) and interviews with the local community, you will study 32. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 30 the possibility for a fresh approach to solve the problems with toxic Algae in lake Volkerak-Zoom. Through case studies and experiments you will validate the methods as found during the exploratory phase. The results of the study will be integrated in the Extended Atlas of Waterpoort. Assignments: 1-2 student(s) for bachelor research minor / internship Students: Students of Water Management, Ecological sciences Research type: desk research, field research, pilot experiments, research-by-design Prerequisite: good analytical skills; communicative; creative, out-of-the-box thinking Interests: Ecology, water management, area development Customer: Waterpoort Contact: Research group Water safety and Area Development (Jonas Papenborg) Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 EXPERIENCE OF THE INUNDATION AREAS OF THE SOUTH-WESTERN WATER LINE The area Waterpoort has an rich history of fortifications, fortified cities and defense lines. These fortifications are inspiring places for new initiatives. And although each fortification is interesting on its own, the development of the whole fortification system offers new opportunities for the whole area. Therefore the project partners of Waterpoort try to enhance the visibility and experience of the defense line. In this project you will investigate the possibilities to enhance the experience of the former defense line. Base on literature study on comparable projects (Dutch Water Line, Fortification of Amsterdam, The States-Spanish Lines) you will make a strategy to enhance the visibility of the South-Western water line with a special focus on the role of the water and the integration with other forms of land use. The results of the study will be integrated in the Extended Atlas of Waterpoort. Assignments: 1-2 student(s) for bachelor research minor / internship Students: Students of Delta Management, Water Management, Land-use planning, Tourism & Leisure Research type: desk research, field research, research-by-design Prerequisite: good analytical skills; communicative; creative, out-of-the-box thinking Interests: Tourism, cultural history, area development, landscape architecture Customer: Waterpoort Contact: Research group Water safety and Area Development (Jonas Papenborg) Period: semester 1, 2014-2015 MULTIFUNCTIONAL DIKE USE AROUND LAKE VOLKERAK-ZOOM If the closure of the storm surge barriers and extreme high river discharges coincide, the discharge locations lake Hollandsch Diep and Haringvliet will saturate. During such event, the surplus of river water, will be stored at lake Volkerak-Zoom. To ensure a safe storage of the water, the old sea dikes around lake Volkerak-Zoom need to be reinforced. This may lead to negative effects for the adjacent villages but may generate opportunities for the surroundings as well (recreational usage, ecological innovation and sustainability). In this project you will evaluate the consequences and possibilities of the dike enforcements around lake Volkerak- Zoom. This project involves both a regional exploration of the problem as well as a detailed practical case study in your specific field of study (Civil engineering, Ecology, Tourism). The results of the study will be integrated in the Extended Atlas of Waterpoort. Assignments: 1-2 student(s) for bachelor research minor / internship Students: Students of Delta Management, Water Management, Land-use planning, civil engineering 33. Research Portfolio of the DA-Applied Research Centre September 2014 January 2015 31 Research type: Desk research, field research, research-by-design Prerequisite: good analytical skills; communicative; creative, out-of-the-box thinking Interests: Water management, area development, civil engineering, ecology, tourism Customer: Waterpoort Contact: Research group Water safety and Area Development (Jonas Papenborg) Period: semester 1, 2014-2015