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Physiographic Features of Afghanistan

Discover Afghanistan

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Page 1: Discover Afghanistan

Physiographic Features of Afghanistan

Page 2: Discover Afghanistan

Where Afghanistan is located

• Asia- Southwest Asia

• Neighbors:- Pakistan (to the southeast)- Iran (west)- Turkmenistan (northwest)- Uzbekistan (north)- Tajikistan (north)- China (northeast)

Page 3: Discover Afghanistan

Geographic Features of Afghanistan• Area:• total: 652,230 sq km• land: 652,230 sq km• water: 0 sq km• country comparison to the world: 41

• Land boundaries:• total: 5,987 km• border countries (6): China 91

km, Iran 921 km, Pakistan 2,670 km, Tajikistan 1,357 km, Turkmenistan 804 km, Uzbekistan 144 km

• Natural resources:• natural gas, petroleum, coal,

copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones, arable land

Khyber Pass

Page 4: Discover Afghanistan

History of Afghanistan

Conquered by Alexander the Great

Genghis Khan takes over.

Gains Independence

Soviet Union leaves

Taliban takes over


Taliban Falls

New President

330 BC 1219 ADAugust 19th 1919 AD 1989 AD 1997 AD 1998 AD

2001-2002 AD

October 2004 AD

Alexander the Great conquered Afghanistan and its surrounding regions.

The Mongols, under the rule of Genghis Khan, take over.

Afghanistan gains independence again after the third war against British forces trying to control it.

The last Soviet Union forces leave Afghanistan.

A political group called the Taliban, which follows Islam very strictly, is recognized by Pakistan and Saudi Arabia as the rulers of Afghanistan.

Major earthquakes kill thousands of people.

The Taliban loses control over most of the country.

Hamid Karzai wins the elections to become President.

Page 5: Discover Afghanistan

People and Society• Population:• 33,332,025 (July 2016 est.)• country comparison to the world: 41

• Ethnic groups:• Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers

of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai.

• Religions:• Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3%

(2009 est.)• Languages :• Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic

languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%

Page 6: Discover Afghanistan

Government of Afghanistan• Afghanistan has had almost every type of government system

over the last century.

• It has 34 provinces, each with its own districts. Most provinces are ruled by a governor.

• Afghanistan has a President, a Cabinet of Ministers, a National Assembly, and a Supreme Court.

• The President is elected and enforces laws made by the House of the People.

• The Cabinet of Ministers is made up of the heads of all the government ministries, who are chosen by the President.

• The National Assembly is made up of two houses:- House of the People- House of Elders

• The House of the People makes laws. There are 249 delegates elected by district. At least two from each province must be women, chosen by the President, who also chooses two disabled and/or impaired and two Kuchis.

• The House of the Elders advises the President. One third of it is elected by district councils, one third by provincial councils, and one third by the President. The district and provincial councils elect one representative from each province. From the people the president chooses, half have to be women and two disabled and/or impaired and two Kuchis (a tribe in Afghanistan).

• The Supreme Court has nine justices appointed by the President. They see that the law is being followed and give punishments to those who don’t.

Page 7: Discover Afghanistan

Provinces Of Afghanistan• Kabul• Kandahar• Herat• Mazar-i-Sharif• Kunduz• Jalalabad• Lashkar Gah• Taluqan• Puli Khumri

• Khost• Ghazni• Sheberghan• Sari Pul• Farah

Page 8: Discover Afghanistan

Climate of Afghanistan• Hot summers

• Cold, dry winters

• Steppe climate in most of Afghanistan.- Similar to a desert climate- Has little precipitation but

more than in a desert.

• Highland climate (several climates in one area) in mountainous area in the northeast.- Hot climates at the bottom

of the mountains – cold ones at the top

- Higher mountains have colder temperatures at the top.

Page 9: Discover Afghanistan

Environment of Afghanistan• Plants:

- Camel thorn- Locoweed- Mimosa- Wormwood- Sagebrush- Evergreens (in

mountains)- Oaks (in mountains)- Poplars (in mountains)- Almond trees (in


• Animals:- Sheep- Bear- Wolf- Fox- Bats- Various rodents- Leopard (endangered)- Snow leopard (endangered)- Gazelle (endangered)- Bactrian deer (endangered)- Siberian crane (endangered)

Snow Leopard

Camel Thorn

Page 10: Discover Afghanistan

Customs and Traditions• On August 19th, Afghans celebrate

Afghanistan’s independence day.

• As a Muslim country, Afghanistan celebrates religious holidays according to the Islamic lunar calendar.

• In the holy Islamic month of Ramadan, Muslims fast from dawn to sunset.

• Eid-ul-Fitr is after Ramadan and Muslims wear new clothes, go to special prayer in the morning, and visit friends and family. Children receive money called ‘Eidi’.

• Eid-ul-Adha is on the 12th day of the 10th month of the Islamic calendar. Muslims sacrifice a cow, sheep, goat, or camel and give some of the meat to the poor. They also visit friends and family.

• Mawleed Al-Nabi is on the 12th day of the 3rd month of the Islamic calendar and is the Prophet Muhammad’s birthday. Muslims remember Muhammad and visit friends and family.

Traditional Clothing:Festivals:

Page 11: Discover Afghanistan

Economy of Afghanistan• “The long period of war has damaged

Afghanistan’s industry, trade, and transportation systems. Farming and herding are the most important economic activities now.” (BOOK)

• Afghanistan has had many wars recently and is therefore one of the world’s poorest countries.

• The main industry is based on agriculture.

• Main food crops:- Corn- Rice- Wheat- Fruits- Nuts

• Main exported crops:- Cotton- Tobacco- Madder- Castor beans- Sugar beets

• Sheep farming is also a big industry. The main exported sheep products are:

- Wool- Karakul skins (Karakul being a type of


Page 12: Discover Afghanistan

Tourism in Afghanistan• Afghanistan is at war and is a very dangerous

country to visit. There are bombs so the place you want to visit may be gone tomorrow. Due to this, it has very little tourism.

Page 13: Discover Afghanistan

Currency and Exchange Rate• The Afghan Afghani is the currency of

Afghanistan.• Its exchange value with respect to Indian

rupee is:• 1₹ = 1.29 afghan afghani

Page 14: Discover Afghanistan

Food• Mantu (dumplings). Afghan cuisine is largely

based upon the nation's chief crops, such as wheat, maize, barley and rice.

• Accompanying these staples are native fruits and vegetables as well as dairy products such as milk, yogurt and whey. Kabuli Palaw is the national dish of Afghanistan.

• Shorma,Qourma,kababs and khameerbob are also famous.

Page 15: Discover Afghanistan