Principles of Economics TestBank Chapter曼昆《经济学原理》(微观)第五版测试题库 (20)

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Chapter 20

1366 ( Chapter 20/Income Inequality and Poverty

Chapter 20/Income Inequality and Poverty ( 1365

Chapter 20

Income Inequality and PovertyTRUE/FALSE1.The poverty line is set by the government so that 10 percent of all families fall below that line and are thereby classified as poor.ANS:FDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The study of economics, and definitions of economics

TOP:Poverty lineMSC:Definitional2.The United States has more income inequality than Japan, Germany, and Canada.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The study of economics, and definitions of economics

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Definitional3.The United States has more income inequality than Brazil and South Africa.ANS:FDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The study of economics, and definitions of economics

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Definitional4.Standard measurements of the degree of income inequality take both money income and in-kind transfers into account.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The study of economics, and definitions of economics

TOP:In-kind transfers | Income inequality

MSC:Definitional5.John Rawls, who developed the way of thinking called liberalism, argued that government policies should be aimed at maximizing the sum of utility of everyone in society.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-2

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The role of governmentTOP:Utility

MSC:Interpretive6.One existing government program that works much like a negative income tax is the Earned Income Tax Credit.ANS:TDIF:2REF:20-3

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The role of governmentTOP:Negative income tax

MSC:Interpretive7.One existing government program that works much like a negative income tax is Medicaid.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-3

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The role of governmentTOP:Negative income tax

MSC:Interpretive8.The invisible hand of the marketplace acts to allocate resources efficiently, but it does not necessarily ensure that resources are allocated fairly.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-0

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Applicative9.When the government enacts policies to make the distribution of income more equitable, it distorts incentives, alters behavior, and makes the allocation of resources less efficient.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-0

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The role of governmentTOP:Income inequality

MSC:Applicative10.In the United States in 2005, the bottom fifth of the income distribution had incomes below $19,250.ANS:FDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Applicative11.The top 5 percent of U.S. annual family income in 2005 was $184,500 or more.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Applicative12.A U.S. family earning $80,000 would be in the top 20 percent of income distribution in 2005.ANS:FDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Applicative13.Free trade and economic growth have reduced poverty worldwide.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Poverty

MSC:Applicative14.Although globalization has reduced income inequality, the number of people living in extreme poverty has remained unchanged.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Poverty

MSC:Interpretive15.The measured poverty rate may not reflect the true extent of economic deprivation because it does not include some forms of government assistance.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Poverty rate

MSC:Applicative16.The poverty line is an absolute standard and is based on the cost of providing an adequate diet.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Poverty line

MSC:Definitional17.The poverty line is based on the percentage of people who cannot afford an adequate diet.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Poverty line

MSC:Interpretive18.The poverty rate is a measure of people unable to meet the governments poverty line.ANS:TDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Poverty line

MSC:Interpretive19.The elderly represent the largest demographic group in poverty.ANS:FDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Poverty

MSC:Applicative20.About half of black and Hispanic children in female-headed households live in poverty.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Poverty

MSC:Applicative21.The economic life cycle describes how young people usually have higher savings rates than middle-aged people.ANS:FDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Economic life cycle

MSC:Applicative22.Many economists believe that a family bases its spending decisions on its permanent, or average, income rather than on transitory income.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Economic life cycle

MSC:Applicative23.About four out of five millionaires in the United States earned their money rather than inherited it.ANS:TDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Economic mobility

MSC:Applicative24.Fewer than three percent of families are poor for eight or more years.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Economic mobility

MSC:Applicative25.Utilitarians believe that the proper goal of the government is to maximize the sum of the utilities of everyone in society.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-2

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The role of governmentTOP:Utilitarianism

MSC:Interpretive26.The utilitarian justification for redistributing income is based on the assumption of diminishing marginal utility.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-2

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The role of governmentTOP:Utilitarianism

MSC:Interpretive27.If a government could successfully achieve the maximin criterion, each member of society would have an equal income.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-2

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The role of governmentTOP:Liberalism

MSC:Interpretive28.According to libertarians, the government should redistribute income from rich individuals to poor individuals to achieve a more equal distribution of income.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-2

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The role of governmentTOP:Libertarianism

MSC:Interpretive29.Libertarians believe that the government should enforce individual rights to ensure that all people have the same opportunities to use their talents to achieve success.ANS:TDIF:1REF:20-2

NAT:AnalyticLOC:The role of governmentTOP:Libertarianism

MSC:Interpretive30.The poverty rate is an absolute level of income set by the federal government for each family size below which a family is deemed to be in poverty.ANS:FDIF:1REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Poverty rate, Poverty line

MSC:Definitional31.An income distribution may not give an accurate picture of families standards of living because it does not include in-kind transfers.ANS:TDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Interpretive32.A goal of libertarians is to provide citizens with equal opportunities rather than to ensure equal outcomes.ANS:TDIF:2REF:20-2

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Libertarianism

MSC:Interpretive33.Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is an example of a negative income tax program.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-3

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Welfare

MSC:Applicative34.When poor families in developing countries experience an increase in family income, their children supply fewer hours of labor.ANS:TDIF:2REF:20-3

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Child labor

MSC:Applicative35.Education is the most important factor explaining reductions in child labor in Vietnam.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-3

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Labor markets

TOP:Child labor

MSC:Applicative36.Internet access is the most important factor explaining reductions in child labor in Vietnam.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-3

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Labor markets

TOP:Child labor

MSC:Applicative37.Since 1959 the United States income distribution has become more equal.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Applicative38.In 2005 the top fifth of income earners accounted for over 50% of all income received by United States families.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Applicative39.In 2005 the top 5 percent of income earners accounted for over 50% of all income received by United States families.ANS:FDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Applicative40.From 1935 to 2005 the share of total income earned by the bottom fifth of income earners rose and then fell.ANS:TDIF:2REF:20-1

NAT:AnalyticLOC:Efficiency and equity

TOP:Income inequality

MSC:ApplicativeSHORT ANSWER1.Explain the relationship between labor earnings and the distribution of income.ANS:

A person's earnings depend on the supply and demand for that person's labor, which in turn depends on natural ability, human capital, compensating differentials, discrimination, and so on. Because labor earnings make up about three-fourths of the total income in the U.S. economy, the factors that determine wages are also largely responsible for determining how the economy's total income is distributed among the various members of society.DIF:1REF:20-0TOP:Income inequality

MSC:Interpretive2.W