РУКОВОДСТВО ПО РЕКТИФИКАЦИИ СПИРТА

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. , . . , , , , ( 200 96% 300 ), . , - .

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..............................................................................1 ..............................................................................................................................................2 ................................................3 ....................................................................................................................................................4 1. ............................................................................5 2. - ..............................................................6 ..........................................................................................................................6 - ...............................................................................6 .....................................................................................................................................7 -.........................................................................................9 - .........................................9 .................................................................................10 3.1. ............................................................................................................10 3.2. ....................................................................................10 3.3. ........................................................................................10 4. .......................................................................................................................13 4.1. ....................................................................................................................13 4.2. ............................................................................................13 4.3. ........................................................................................14 4.4. .....................................................15 4.5. ..............................................16 4.6. .......................................................................16 4.8. . ...............................................17 4.9. ........................................................18 4.10. .................................................................18 4.11. .............................................................19 4.12. , , .....................................20 5. ......................................................................................................21 5.1. ..................................................................................................21 5.2. ........................................................................................................21 5.3. ..............................................................................................................22 ) ....................................................................................................................................23 ) .................................................................................................................................23 ) ............................................................................................................24 ) ...............................................................................................24 ) ().........................................................................................25 5.4. ..........................................................................................................25 -...............................................................................27 ....................................................................................................................28

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. . . , . , . . , , , , . , ( , ), , . , , , .

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, , , . , , , . : ( ) ( , ). 1 1997 . , . , , : (, , , , ., , ); , , ; ; ; - , , . ( - ) , ( ) 100/ 3/, , . , . , , .

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1. (, ) - C2H5OH . , - . . , -, . . . . : C6H12O6 = 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + . .. , . : =1, =12 =16: (126+112+166) = 2(122+15+16+1) + 2(12+ 162), 180 = 92 + 88;

, 180 92 88 . , 0.511/, ( = 0,8/), 0,64/. , (, , ..), , , . , , 12% , ( 70%) 54/: 1 () =>0.7 () => 0.084 () => 0.054 (). (, ..). () (C6H10O5)n + nH2O + = nC6 H12O6, . , 1 1,11 . . , , 60% , 0,426/: 1 () => 0,6 () => 0,666 () => 0,426 (). 1015% . , , : , , ; , , ; , , .

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2. - . 100% () (t=78,3C 760..., =790/3). , () + , -. . , (), . - . , . - ( % . , /, /). ( % . , 3/3 , / , /). - (=790/3=0,79/) (=1000/3=1/). , . - (X) : -3 040%, -3 4070%, 3 70100%, 95105%, -2 96101%, 60100%. , - , ( ). 20C, . 40% - 96,4%. , 712%, - , , , . Y, .. ( ) 760... (. ). - . , - (t=100C 760..) (t=78,3C 760..) . - () Y .1. , 96,4% 100%- . 6

.1 - - ( 760 ..) . ( ) , . , : . , . .. , . - . ( .2) - X , Y. , ( ), , Y X . - , . + .2.

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.2 - ( 760 ..) , , , . , X=10% Y=42%, (, ) . , - , . - 40%- 60%- . , Y=X. , , - , . - , X=Y=96,4%. . , , , , (X=Y). , . . - (). , , - (t=78,15C 760... . .1).

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- 5962-67, - 96% 96,4% . - ( 20)... ( 760 ...)... ( 760 ..) . 812 /3 (0.8/) 1,601 /3 78,15 C 925 /

. . - . , . (. .3), , , , , , .

.3 - , , . , , , . , , , , . 77,0C, 78,0C, , : - 730..., 755... 9

. () , . 3.1. 6 12%. , , - , , - (), . . (. ). , 8085% - . , , 40%. , , . , , 40%- . 3.2. .4. 1 - 2, 3. 4, 5. - ( ). 6, . 3.3. . . . 4 -, . 7 8. , , (.2). , ( 1012%), , , (4245%). , , - . - , , 9094, (, , , 10

.) , 6575C. ( ) , . , , . , - . . 6 .1, Y, . , , 6. 100, , . , (.2) 8 , 9798C. , . ( ), , 40%. .5.

.5 40%- 60% (. .2). 9094%. , , . , 40% , . , . 11

! , , , () 96%- -, , . ( ) .

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4. , (, ). . , . , (), . , . , . , , , . 4.1. . - 40%- 96% . . - , . -. 4.2. . 85%- 40%- - 94C (. .1). , , . . , . , . .6. 1 , . 4, 5. 13

9 10. 11, 12 13. 3 : 6, 2, 14 15. 16 . 14 2 . 4.3. . . . 9 2, . () , 14 7 8. 15. . ( ) , ( ) . , . 15 . 6. , , . . (20), (30), (50) (100). 200. 7. 120, () 80. .7. (t=const)

, . 760..., : 1 2 3 4 78,1 t, C 56,2 64,7 50 100 -, -, % 20 16,7 30 25,0 41,7 20+80 16,7

. ,

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8, , .

.7 4- 4.4. . - , .2. , 10%- 40%- . 40%- 60%- . 10-40; 40-60; 60-70; 70-75; .. , , 96%, 910 . - (). , 96%- 10%- . ( ) (). ( ). , - . ( ) . 70 , -. , . , 2530 , , - 2530 . , 35 , , -3, 40 ( !). 15

4.5. . . , , (). , , - . . , . , . . () . 50-60%. .. , , . 40 80 . , 100%. -3 -3 , 40 , 40 . 4.6.