История программного обеспечения

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.. . - , 2002

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  • ..

    3.

  • 3.1.

  • 3.1. . , ,

  • 3.2. - ( 1940- ), Plancalcul ( ). Plancalcul , , , Plancalcul. Plancalcul

  • - .. (1954-1956 )3.2.

  • 3.2. 1960- . , , , XXI , Fotran, Basic, Algol, Cobol, Simula, Lisp . : -, 1960-

  • 3.2.

  • 3.2. Fortran Fortran = FORmula TRANslator Fortran IBM (Backus, John; . 1924). 1954 ., IBM 704 1957 .

  • Fortran CMAIN PROGRAM101FORMAT(208)102FORMAT(//N=,15, 5X, R=, 151//6X, M, 5X, PROB)103 FORMAT(18, F14.10)201READ(1,101) N, IRWRITE(3,102) N, IRIF(N) 202, 202, 203202STOP203IF(IR) 202, 202, 204204M=OP=COMBF(N,M)*COMBF(IR-1,N-M-1)1/COMBF(N+IR-1,IR)...3.2. Fortran

  • 3.2. Basic BASIC = Beginners All-purpuse Symbolic Instruction Code Basic 1964 . . (Darmouth College, Hanover), -

  • 3.2. Basic Basic. (Kemeny, John G.; 1926-1993), (Kurtz, Thomas E.; . 1928)10 dim A(5)20 for i=1 to 530 input A(i)40 next i50 if i=5 then goto 14060 if A(i)
  • Microsoft (Allen, Paul; . 1954) (Gates, William; . 1955) , ( 1968 .)3.2. Basic

  • , Microsoft , 3.2. Basic - Microsoft ( )

  • Visual Basic Microsoft. 1990- 3.2. Basic

  • 3.2. Cobol COBOL = COmmon Business-Oriented Language : Cobol , , .

  • Cobol: ; ; ; , .3.2. Cobol

  • ()1010 IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.1020 PROGRAM-ID EXAMPLE.1030 ENVIROMENT DIVISION.1040 INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION.1050 FILE-CONTROL.1060 SELECT CD ASSIGN TO SYS010 UNIT-RECORD 2540R.1070 SELECT TT ASSIGN TO SYS009 UTILITY 2400. 1080 DATA DIVISION.1090 FILE SECTION.1100 FDCDDATA RECORD IS C1110LABEL RECORDS ARE OMITTED.1120 01C.1130 02 C1 PICTURE 9(4).1140 02 C2 PICTURE 9.1150 02 C3 PICTURE X(70)....3.2. Cobol

  • ()1290 PROCEDURE DIVISION.1300 P1.OPEN INPUT CD, OUTPUT TT.1310 P2.READ CD, AT END GO TO P3.1320MOVE C1 TO D1.1330MONE C2 TO D2.1340MOVE C3 TO D3.1350ADD C1, C2, GIVING D4.1360WRITE T FROM D.1370GO TO P2.1380 P3.CLOSE SD, TT.1390STOP RUN. 3.2. Cobol

  • 3.2. Algol ALGOL = ALGOritmic Language 1958 () , Algol-58. 1960 Algol-60. : -60.

  • Algol-60: ; ; ;

    - ()::= 1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|0::= | 3.2. Algol

  • begininteger i, n; real s; real array x[1:n]; s:=0;for i:=1 step 1 to n do s:=s+x[i]; s:=s/n end -60, n . -60 3.2. Algol

  • -60 IFIP -68 ( . . (A. van Wijngaarden) . 1975 .) 3.2. Algol

  • 3.2. Pascal -68 (Wirth, Niklaus; . 1934) . 1971 . , . .

  • , n var i, n: integer; s: float;x: array[1..n] of real;begins:=0;for i:=1 to n do s:=s+x[i];s:=s/nend.3.2. Pascal

  • Pascal (Kahn, Philippe; . 1938) Turbo Pascal IBM PC Borland (1984 .) 3.2. Pascal

  • Delphi Borland : Pascal, - , . 3.2. Pascal , Modula-2, ,

  • 1975 . , 15 . 1979 C.I.I., (Ichbiah, Jean). II , 1993 .3.2. Pascal

  • 3.2. PL/1 EXAMPLE: PROCEDURE OPTIONS (MAIN);ON ENDFILE (SYSIN) GO TO ENDING;P1:GET LIST (A, B, C);D = B*B 4*A*C;E = B/(A+A);IF D
  • 3.2. Simula Smalltalk Simula = SIMULAlation Simula (Nygaard, Kristen; 1926-2002), , - (Dahl, Ole-Johan; 1931-2002)

  • |a|a := Array new: 5.1 to: 5 do: [:i | a at: i put: (Prompter prompt: ) asNumber].a := a asSortedCollection.a do: [:i | Transcript putAll: i printString].

    Smalltalk, 3.2. Simula Smalltalk

  • 3.2. () (Ritchie, Dennis M.; . 1941) 1973 Bell Labs UNIX. (B), BCPL ( Basic Combined Programming Language), -60

  • float A[5]; for(int i=0;i
  • (Stroustrup, Bjarne; . 1950) ++3.2.

  • 3.2. Java 1995 . Sun Microsystems Java . Oak (), . (Gosling, James) Java.

  • Java - 3.2. Java

  • class test{ int i, n; float s; float x[n]; public static void main( String args[] ) { n = 10; s = 0; for( i=1; i
  • Lisp = LISt Processing Lisp 1960 (McCarthy, John; . 1927 ) - -, - 1930 .3.2. Lisp . .. 1975 .

  • Lisp - . Lots of Infuriating & Silly Parenthesis - (setq L `(8 5 13 11 10))(defun sum (L) (cond ((null L) '0) (t (add (car L) (sum (cdr L)))) )) (div (sum L) '5) : cond , null ;add ;car ;cdr ( ).3.2. Lisp

  • 3.2. Prolog V Prolog = PROgramming for LOGic (Kowalski, Robert) () 1960- (Colmerauer, Alain ) () 1972 .

  • : (), (), (), (), (), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ). : (X, Y) : (X, Y) (X, Y) : (X, Y) (X, Y) : (X, Z), (Z, Y) (X, Y) : (Y), (X, Z), (Y, Z), XY :GOAL> (, X) ?X = GOAL> (, X) ?X = Prolog3.2. Prolog V

  • V , 1980- 3.2. Prolog V

  • V : , , ; ( -); - ; (, . .) ; .3.2. Prolog V

  • V 3.2. Prolog V

  • V Prolog 3.2. Prolog V

  • 3.2. Logo Logo, 1967 . MIT (Papert, Seymour; . 1928). 1958-1963 (Piaget, Jean), . Logo Lisp : (1999 .)

  • Logo , . : :_ :_ [ : 10]

    : : < 1 [] : 18 : / 23.2. Logo

  • Logo , Logo - . , 9 , . : . .. (2002 .)3.2. Logo

  • 3.2. : (Fortran, Basic, Cobol, Algol, Pascal, Ada, , Logo, FoxPro);- (Simula, Smalltalk, Object Pascal, C++, Java, C#);- (Visual Basic, Delphi, Visual C++, Visual Java, Visual FoxPro); (Lisp); (Prolog).

  • 3.3. 50- : - (1950- ) . .

  • 3.3. 60- : , 1960- , . , , . , (Job Control Language - JCL)

  • . 3.3. 60- :

  • 3.3. 60- :

  • (Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT), 3.3. 70- :

  • 1959 3.3. 70- :

  • CTSS (Compartible Time Sharing System). 1961 . - (Corbato, Fernando; . 1926)) IBM-70903.3. 70- :

  • CTSS 1962-1970 MAC (Multiplexed Access Computer), Multics Multics , , General Electric GE-6453.3. 70- :

  • 3.3. Bell Labs (Thompson, Kenneth; . 1943), Multics, Unix PDP-7 (1969 .)3.3. 70- :

  • ( ), , Unix PDP-11 (1971-1973 )3.3. 70- :

  • 1970-80- Unix3.3. 70- :

  • 8- CP/M, 1976 (Kildall, Gary; 1942-1994), Digital Research.3.3. 80-90- :

  • 3.3. MS DOS, 1981 . Microsoft IBM PC, Q-DOS (Quick and Dirty ), (Tim Patterson) Seattle Computer Products3.3. 80-90- :

  • s DOS - , Norton Commander, Semantec (Norton, Peter), 3.3. 80-90- :

  • Mac OS 1.0, 1984 . Apple Macintosh, - (GUI), - Xerox PARC . , . Ma OS 15 .3.3. 80-90- :

  • Mac OS - NeXTSTEP NeXT (1987 .) 3.3. 80-90- :

  • Windows 1.0, Microsoft 1985 ., . DOS 3.3. 80-90- :

  • 3.0 (1990 .) Windows 3.3. 80-90- :

  • 1990- Microsoft Windows OS/2 IBM3.3. 80-90- :

  • 32- Windows-95 . Microsoft 486- 3.3. 80-90- :

  • Windows XP (2001 .) Microsoft 3.3. 80-90- :

  • , , , .3.3.

  • 1990- : NetWare, Unix, OS/2 Windows NT3.3.

  • 1991 , Unix. (Torvalds, Linus; . 1971) - Unix, Linux3.3.

  • Linux . , (RedHat, BlackCat, Caldera .), , Linux3.3.

  • 1990- Windows NT NetWare OS/2 Linux3.3.

  • 3.3.

  • 3.3. : , ; , ;

  • 3.3. : , ; ; ; ; .

  • .3.3.

  • , CODASYL (1971 .), . 3.3.

  • 1970 IBM (Codd, Edgar F.; . 1923). . 3.3.

  • 1976 IBM Journal of Research and Development System/R, SQL. System/R IBM 1979 ., 1983 . DB2.3.3. , , (Chamberlin, Donald) (Boyce, Ray) 1974 SEQUEL, SQL Structured Query Language.

  • 1976 . System/R, (Ellison, Lawrence; . 1944) 1977 Relation Software Incorporated. Oracle v.2 PDP-11 1979. , Oracle, .3.3. , . $

  • 3.3. 10 . . . 85% Oracle, IBM DB2, MS SQL Server ( 2002 ).

  • 3.4. 1980-

  • 1978 (Rubenstein, Seymour) IMSAI. , , .3.4. (Barnaby, Rob) .

  • WordStar , 3.4.

  • 3.4. DOS , 1985 . .

  • 3.4.

  • 3.4.

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