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55 陳冠博 62 陳夢蝶 指導老師 : 周淑娥 助教 : 徐永強.  Mental Deterioration/ Dementia  Age related= 10% at age 65, 35% at age 85  Symptoms:  Confusion

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Text of 55 陳冠博 62 陳夢蝶 指導老師 : 周淑娥 助教 : 徐永強.  Mental Deterioration/...

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  • Mental Deterioration/ DementiaAge related= 10% at age 65, 35% at age 85Symptoms:ConfusionMemory loss + cant acquire new memoriesLanguage breakdownUnable to recognize people> Suspicion + HostilityGradual loss of function (motor) > difficulty speaking, swallowing and walking

  • Hippocampus

  • Patients brain tissues have decreased number of neurons and synapse.Plaquesabnormal proteins that form between neuronstanglesirregular proteins that form within the neurons

  • APP andSecretase and SecretaseA40A42Easily dissociatePlaquesDifficult to dissociate

  • Microtubules disintegrate

  • Neuron deaths Shrinkage of tissue Hard to identify while alivePostmortem() finding can identify Alzheimers: 1. Amyloid plaque 2. Neurofibriallary tanglesCURES?No cure. Only drugs to relieve symptoms>anti-acetylcholiesteraseMemantine(Namenda)

  • Age related= 1% at age 65, 5% at age 85Motor DisorderSymptomsResting tremorBradykinesiaRigidity +Flexed posture-> postural instabilityShuffling gaitForward-flexed posture when walkingMask-like face, small handwriting

  • Cause:Neurons in the midbrain that normally release dopamine at synapse of basal nuclei and substantia nigra diedDetailed versionalpha-synuclein (SNCA) + ubiquitin= lewy bodies= accumulate

    Cure?No cure. Attempts= brain surgery, deep-brain stimulation, L-dopa, and dopamine-secreting neuron implantation.

  • L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)naturally-occurring dietary supplement and psychoactive drug found in certain kinds of food and herbssynthesized from L-tyrosine in the mammalian body and brain> enter CNS> converted to dopamineL-DOPA can cross blood-brain barrier, but dopamine cannot


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    APP -alpha, beta, and gamma-SecretaseAPP -- APP -40A40 APP -- APP -42A42Plaques

    Tau TauopathyTau Microtubule Tau Tau Neurofibrillary Tangles () *Diagnoses:Alzheimers diseaseCT/PET/MRI/fMRI scan/ X-ray () Alzheimers DiseaseAlzheimers disease,

    - Memantine(Namenda) ,, * (rigidity):(resting tremor):(postural instability): *(basal ganglia)(substantial nigra)dopamine Dopamine> acetylcholine>

    Cause detail: parkinsons ()SNCA gene alpha-synuclein protein Lewy bodies((abnormal aggregates of protein that develop inside nerve cells). alpha-synucleinubiquitin.

    parkinsons diseaseparkinsons? 15% of individuals with PD PD

    dopamine-secreting neuron implantation= potential cure= midbrain or basal nuclei()> motor control recoverL-dopa, 'levodopa'L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)() L-tyrosine

    Dopamine blood-brain barrier, dopamineprecursor L-dopaL-dopa(CNS), DOPA decarboxylase(DDC)dopaminedopamineviatmin B6pyridoxine (viatmine B6)**

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