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  • References May 2002 page 2 of 28


    Cyanide Chemistry Page 3 Technical References Informational References Cyanide Toxicology Page 4 Technical References Informational References Effects on Wildlife Page 16 Technical References Informational References Cyanide in the Environment Page 20 Technical References Informational References Cyanide Analysis Page 26 Technical References Informational References

    The references provided have been separated into categories for the convenience of those seeking more detailed information regarding cyanide, however there is a significant overlap of subjects in many of the information sources. Two types of references are listed in each category. Technical references include standard texts and articles that have been published in peer reviewed technical and professional journals or in government documents. Informational references consist of papers published in the proceedings of conferences and workshops and other papers that have not undergone a technical peer review process.

  • References May 2002 page 3 of 28

    CCYYAANNIIDDEE CCHHEEMMIISSTTRRYY Technical References Adamson, R.J., The Chemistry of the Extraction of Gold from its Ores, Gold Metallurgy in South

    Africa, Cape and Transvaal Printers, Ltd., Cape Town, South Africa 1972. American Cyanimid Co., Chemistry of Cyanidation, Stamford, Connecticut 1963. Brickell, R.H., Chemistry of Cyanide Solutions, C-I-L Inc., January 1981. Dorr, J. and Bosqui, F., Cyanidation and Concentration of Gold and Silver Ores, McGraw Hill,

    2nd Edition, 1950. Caruso, S.C., The Chemistry of Cyanide Compounds and Their Behavior in the Aquatic

    Environment, Carnegie Mellon Institute of Research, June 1975. Flynn, C.M. and McGill, S.L., Cyanide Chemistry-Precious Metals Processing and Waste

    Treatment, U.S. Bureau of Mines, NTIS Publication PB96-117841, 1995. Heinen, H.J., Peterson, D.G., and Lindstrom, R.E., Processing Gold Ores Using Heap Leach-

    Carbon Adsorption Methods, U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 8770, 1978. Hendrickson T.N. and Daignault, L.G., Treatment of Complex Cyanides for Reuse and Disposal,

    Report No. EPA-R2-73-269, USEPA, 1973. Marsden, J. and House, I., The Chemistry of Gold Extraction, Ellis Horwood Limited,

    Hertfordshire, United Kingdom 1993. Moggi, L., Bolleta, F., Balzani, V., and Scandola, F., Photochemistry of Coordination

    Compounds - XIV, Cyanide Complexes, Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 28, 1966, pg.2597.

    Scott, J. and Ingles, J., State-of-the-Art Processes for the Treatment of Gold Mill Effluents,

    Mining, Mineral, and Metallurgical Processes Division, Industrial Programs Branch, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, March 1987.

    Sharpe, A.G., The Chemistry of Cyano Complexes of the Transition Metals, Academic Press,

    1976. Tchobanoglous, G. and Burton, F.L., Water Engineering, Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse,

    Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York 1991.

  • References May 2002 page 4 of 28

    Informational References Brickell, R.H., Chemistry of Cyanide Solutions, Proceedings from Cyanide and the Gold Mining

    Industry Seminar, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Jan. 22-23, 1981. Finklestein, N.P., in Gold Metallurgy in South Africa, Chapter 10: The Chemistry of the

    Extraction of Gold from its Ores, Adamson R.J. (ed.), Chamber of Mines of South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1972.

    Huiatt, J., Kerrigan, J., Olson, F., and Potter, G., Proceedings of a Cyanide Workshop, Cyanide

    from Mineral Processing, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 2-3, 1982.

    International Environmental Consultants Ltd., Factors Affecting Natural Degradation of Free

    and Metal-Complexed Cyanides from Gold Milling Effluents, International Environmental Consultants Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, 1979.

    Young, C.A., Cyanide: Just The Facts, in Proceedings of Cyanide: Social, Industrial and

    Economic Aspects, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 12-15, 2001.

    CCYYAANNIIDDEE TTOOXXIICCOOLLOOGGYY Technical References Adams, J.B. Inhibition of Green Bean Lipoxygenase by Cyanide, Food Chemistry,

    vol. 31, 1989, pp.243-250. Alabaster, J.S., Shurben, D.G. and Mallett, M.J., The Acute Lethal Toxicity of Mixtures of

    Cyanide and Ammonia to Smelts of Salmon, Salmo salar at Low Concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen, Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 22, 1983, pp.215-222.

    Aletor, V.A., and Fetuga, B.L., The Interactive Effects Of Lima Bean (Phaseolus Lunatus)

    Trypsin Inhibitor, Hemagglutinin And Cyanide On Some Hepatic Dehydrogenases, Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase And Intestinal Disaccharidases In Weanling Rats. Vet. Hum. Toxicology, vol. 30, 1988, pp.540-544.

    Anderson, P.D. and Weber, L.J., Toxic Response as a Quantitative Function of Body Size,

    Applied Pharmacology, vol. 33, 1975, pp. 471-483. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ASTDR), Toxicological Profile for Cyanide,

    Prepared by Research Triangle Institute for the US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia, August 1995.

  • References May 2002 page 5 of 28

    American Water Works Association (AWWA), Water Quality and Treatment, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990.

    Azcon-Bieto, Murillo, J.J. and Penuelas, J., Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Photosynthetic

    Organs of Freshwater Aquatic Plant, Plant Physiology, vol. 84, 1987, pp. 701-706. Ballantyne, B., Blood, Brain And Cerebrospinal Fluid Cyanide Concentrations In Experimental

    Acute Cyanide Poisoning. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, vol. 15, 1975, pp. 51-56.

    _______, Artifacts In The Definition Of Toxicity By Cyanides And Cyanogens, Fundamentals of

    Applied Toxicology, vol. 3, 1983, pp. 400-408. _______, Clinical and Experimental Toxicology of Cyanides, Chapter 3: Toxicology of Cyanides,

    edited by B. Ballantyne and T.C. Marrs, Wright Publishers, Bristol, England, 1987. _______, Toxicology and Hazard Evaluation of Cyanide Fumigation Powders, Clinical

    Toxicology, vol. 26, 1988, pp.325-335. _______ and Boardman, S.P., Bright, J., Coffee, D. J., Weber, T. D., and Williams, P., Tissue

    Cyanide Concentrations And Cytochrome Oxidase Activities In Experimental Cyanide Poisoning, British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 44(2), 1972, pp.382-383.

    _______ and Bright, J.E., and Williams, P., The Postmortem Rate Of Transformation Of

    Cyanide, Forensic Science, vol. 3, 1974, pp. 71-76. _______ and Marrs, T.C., editors. Clinical and Experimental Toxicology of Cyanides, John

    Wright, Bristol, England, 1987. Bapat, J.A. and Abhyankar, Y.N., Cyanide Poisoning in Cattle Due to Feeding of Sorghum,

    Indian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 54, 1984, pp.577-578. Beilstein, M.A., and Whanger, P.D., Effects Of Cyanide On Selenium Metabolism In Rats,

    Journal of Nutrition, vol. 114, 1984, pp. 929-937. Bello-Reuss, E., Grady, T.P., and Reuss, L., Mechanism of the Effect of Cyanide on Cell

    Membrane Potentials in Necturus Gall-Bladder Epithelium, Journal of Physiology, vol. 314, 1981, pp.343-357.

    Berninger, T.A., Meyer, L.V., Siess, Schon, E.O., and Goebel, F.D., Lebers Hereditary Optic

    Atrophy: Further Evidence For A Defect Of Cyanide Metabolism? British Journal of Opthamology, vol. 73, 1989, pp.314-316.

    Beyer, W.N., Evaluating Soil Contamination, U.S. Fish Wildlife Service Biological Report

    90(2), 1990.

  • References May 2002 page 6 of 28

    Biehl, M., Cyanide Toxicosis, Veterinary Professional Topics, University of Illinois at Urbana Cooperative Extension Service, vol. 10(3), 1984, pp. 5-6.

    Bourdoux, P., Delange, F., Gerard, M., Mafuta, M., Hanson, A., and Ermans A.M., Evidence

    that Cassava Ingestion Increases Thiocyanate Formation: A Possible Etiologic Factor in Endemic Goiter, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Meta., vo l. 46, 1978, pp. 613-621.

    Broderius, S.J., Determination of Molecular Hydrocyanic Acid in Water and Studies on the

    Chemistry and Toxicity to Fish of Metal-Cyanide Complexes, Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 1973.

    _______ and Smith, L.L. Jr., Direct Photolysis of Hexacyanoferrate Complexes. Proposed

    Applications to the Aquatic Environment , USEPA, EPA-600/3-800-003, 1980. _______, Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Binary Mixtures of Cyanide and Hexavalent

    Chromium, Zinc or Ammonia to the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri), Journal of the Fish Res. Board of Canada, vol. 36, 1979.

    _______ and Lind, D.T., Relative Toxicity of Free Cyanide and Dissolved Sulphide Forms to

    the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas), Journal of the Fish Res. Board of Canada, vol. 34, pg.2323.

    Burdick, G.E. and Lipschuetz, M., Toxicity of Ferro- and Ferricyanide Solutions to Fish, and


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