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ALMA Band-1 Receiver

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ALMA Band-1 Receiver. Chau-Ching CHIONG 章朝盛. Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA). Contributions from …. ASIAA Microwave Group: Dr. Y.-J. Hwang, Dr. Y.-F. Kuo, Dr. C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Chuang, C.-T. Ho . Receiver Group: Dr. M.-T. Chen, T.-S. Wei. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of ALMA Band-1 Receiver

  • ALMA Band-1 ReceiverChau-Ching CHIONG Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA)

  • Contributions from ASIAA Microwave Group: Dr. Y.-J. Hwang, Dr. Y.-F. Kuo, Dr. C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Chuang, C.-T. Ho.Receiver Group: Dr. M.-T. Chen, T.-S. Wei.

    National Taiwan University EEProf. H. Wang: Dr. Z.-M. Tsai, Dr. B.-J. Huang, W.-J. Tzeng, Y.-C. Wu, B.-H. Tsai, C.-C. Hung.

    National Central University EEProf. H.-Y. Chang: S.-H. Weng.Prof. Y.-S. Lin: Y.-S. Hsieh.

  • Science of ALMA Band 1 (30-45 GHz)High resolution Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect imagingAnisotropy of cosmic microwave background radiationHigh-redshifted CO lines

    Probing magnetic field strength via Zeeman measurement

  • Band-1 Development PlanInternational cooperation of Taiwan (ASIAA), Canada (HIA) and Chile (Uni. of Chile).ASIAA deliver key components, mostly in MMIC technologies (LNA, mixer, filter, IF amp.), while HIA focuses on optics, LNA (hybrid) and system integration.Proto-type receiver will be assembling in Chile.Main challenges: Longest wavelength, thus largest component size. LNA Noise < 7 K. More than 60 copies required.HIA Band-1 cartridge layout

  • Band 1 System RequirementsObservation frequency: 31.3-45 GHz (36%)Operation mode: single side band (USB), dual linear polarization feedImage suppression: > 20 dBAperture efficiency: > 78 %IF bandwidth: 4-12 GHzIF output power: -31 to -18 dBm. IF power variation: 6dB peak-to-peak in any 2GHz BW. 10 dB peak to peak across the complete IF band.Receiver noise temperature: 17 K (80 % bandwidth) and 28 K (full bandwidth) when operating at 15 K.LO tuning range: 27.3-33 GHz (18.9%). No mechanical tuningRMS LO phase noise in jitter: 53 fs (short-term), 17.7 fs (long-term)LO output power: 10 mWFront-end cartridge size: diameter 170mm, length ~ 500mm

  • ALMA Band 1 Front-end System15KOptics design + FeedhornOrthoMode Transducor (OMT)Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)Bandpass Filter + MixerIntermediate Frequency (IF) AmplifierLocal Oscillator (LO) + PLL

  • Reasons for MMIC ApproachEasy integrationHigh reliabilityMass production (> 200 pcs.)Low cost (?)But still high noise.Hybrid X-band LNA from JPL, Weinreb (2007)

  • MMICs for Front End

  • Q-band Cascode PHEMT MixerZ.-M. Tsai et. al, EuMIC, 2009The cascode mixer using WIN 0.15 um pHEMT shows Good conversion gain flatness over 4-12GHz IF frequency. Low LO power drive.

  • December 01-03, 2010Vd1=Vd2=Vd3=1V, Id1=Id2=Id3=10mABoth with 2 mm x 1 mm|S| (dB)2f50mm 3-stage mHEMT LNA|S| (dB)2f100mm 2-stage mHEMT LNAVd=2V, Id_dev=37mA, Id_mea=30, 33mA 31-45 GHz 0.15 um MHEMT LNA

  • Cryogenic MeasurementsWeng et al., EuMIC, 2011PackagingTest Dewar

  • December 01-03, 2010Balanced LNA as Second StageThe same design of the 3-stage version. Better input/output matching.

  • IF AmplifierChiong et al., EuMIC, 2009

  • Total DC power < 150mW 2nd-stage LNALO InputIF amplifiercascode HEMT mixerBandpass filter(Lin et al. 09)Integrated LNA-Mixer-Filter-IFA ChipHighly integrated design of the module.Saving space inside the cryogenic section of the front-end cartridge.Reducing the possibility of failure in assembling.LNA

  • LO System: YTO or VCO

  • YIG-Tuned Oscillator (YTO) in Current ALMA SystemCoarse/fine tune30 MHz ref.Excellent phase noise

  • YTO + Doubler: Phase NoiseJitter (1 kHz to 1MHz) ~ 45 fsALMA spec: 53 fs

  • VCO ApproachVCO has almost all advantages over YTO except phase noise.PLL board for YTO has to be modified for VCO operation, because single-tuned VCO has large gain and large gain variation.Frequency divider is added so that VCO-based PLL can be used in ALMA environment (using 30 MHz reference).

  • Differential VCO layoutRF outRF outTuning Voltage-2.5 V-0.6 VWIN 0.15 um HBTTotal dc power consumption: 85 mWChiong et al., EuMIC, 2008PN ~ -100 dBc/Hz @ 1MHz offset

  • Adaptive Loop Bandwidth TechniqueThe VCO gain variation is large. For osc. Freq. > 33GHz, Kvco ~ 200MHz/V, with Filter 1, PLL BW~ 200 kHz.By switching to Filter 2, the PLL BW can be increased from 200kHz to 1MHz. The phase noise can be improved more than 22dB at the offset frequency of 250kHz under such adaptive loop bandwidth.*

  • Phase Locked Spectra of VCO

  • Phase Noise Comparison between Phase-locked YTO and VCORMS Jitter/Degree of YTO (@1kHz to 1MHz) is 44.6fs/0.59o RMS Jitter/Degree of VCO (@1kHz to 1MHz) is 63.8fs/0.77o

  • YIG vs. VCOUsing adaptive loop bandwidth technique, the whole tuning range of VCO can be locked by single PLL board.Phase noise within the loop bandwidth (~ 100 kHz) is compatible.Worse VCO phase noise at larger offset frequency contribute a lot of noise.Need more advanced InP HBT to meet ALMA spec.

  • Possible Timeline for Band-12012: Proposal to ALMA2013: Preliminary Design Review. First prototype front-end2014: Critical Design Review. Production starts2018: Project finishes

  • Thank you.