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Page 1: constructia instervalelor chitarii

   

Page 2: constructia instervalelor chitarii

http://www.fachords.com Free Guitar Lessons And Learning Tools

 

 

 

 

 

 

On http://www.fachords.com you can find online guitar lessons, learning resources, free software tools to learn and practice guitar. Check it out!  

Page 3: constructia instervalelor chitarii

INTRODUCTION

A lot of beginner guitar player are used to memorize as much as

possible chord shapes, and use them during their playing. In

case of movable shapes, such as barrè chords, they memorize

the shape of the chord and the root note, in order to be able to

play the chord in different key. This is a good approach to learn

playing guitar, but it's not the best. Indeed, if you consider a

chord shape like an immutable black-box, you can't have any

options to color your sound, adding variations, substitutions,

and the like. Chords are not just static shape to memorize and

repeat, but, knowing how they are built, you can create and

adapt them "at fly", expanding all the potentiality of your

playing. Knowing how chords are built means knowing how

intervals work on the fretboard. In this ebook I'd like to give

you an introduction about intervals, chords, and how intervals

create chords.

INTERVALS

In music, an interval is basically a distance between two notes.

In western music, the smallest interval is the semitone. The

chromatic scale is composed by 12 semitones, so to play the

scale you need to play all the semitones, one after the other.

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The chromatic scale of C is:

C-C#-D-D#-E-F-F#-G-G#-A-A#-B-C

Depending on the number of semitones between two notes, an

interval gets different names. Here's the intervals table name

from wikipedia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interval_(music)

So, for example, the interval between the note C and the note

G of our chromatic scale, is 7 semitones long. Looking at the

table, we find that it is a perfect fifth.

In the same way, if we start from the lower C of the chromatic

scale and we stop to the higher C, we cover a path of 12

semitones, named on the table perfect octave.

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A semitones distance can have different names, depending on

the context. For example, a distance of 6 semitones, can be

called augmented fourth or diminished fifth. We'll see this

later.

FRETBOARD OCTAVES

The first interval that you should memorize on the fretboard is

the octave. Knowing your octaves is a great shortcut for

fretboard navigation. As you probably already know, two notes

spanning a distance of one octave (12 semitones) have the

same name (C-C), what changes is the pitch: one note sounds

lower than the other. If you know how octaves are placed on

the guitar fretboard, you can easily navigate among the strings

and find your way. Have a look at the picture below:

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Black dots represent always the same note (suppose a C). The

first and the sixth strings have the same notes, thus you can

find your note at the same fret (yellow circle)

the sixth string. In the

second string, is placed also on the fourth string, two frets

upper, and on the fifth string, two frets below. The same is for

the yellow and the orange circles

you memorize how octaves

can be a very helpful visual aid for more advanced fretboard

geometry concepts.

Using octave concepts, you can identify the same notes on

different strings. Let's take as example the minor third interval:

The root note is the one marked with the black dot (fourth

string). We find a minor third on the upper string (fifth string),

but, using our octaves, we can

Black dots represent always the same note (suppose a C). The

first and the sixth strings have the same notes, thus you can

note at the same fret (yellow circle) on the first and

. In the red circle, we notice that

second string, is placed also on the fourth string, two frets

upper, and on the fifth string, two frets below. The same is for

the yellow and the orange circles, just look at the diagram

you memorize how octaves are placed on your fretboard, this

be a very helpful visual aid for more advanced fretboard

geometry concepts.

Using octave concepts, you can identify the same notes on

different strings. Let's take as example the minor third interval:

The root note is the one marked with the black dot (fourth

a minor third on the upper string (fifth string),

but, using our octaves, we can find it also on the second string

Black dots represent always the same note (suppose a C). The

first and the sixth strings have the same notes, thus you can

on the first and

red circle, we notice that a note on the

second string, is placed also on the fourth string, two frets

upper, and on the fifth string, two frets below. The same is for

, just look at the diagram. If

are placed on your fretboard, this

be a very helpful visual aid for more advanced fretboard

Using octave concepts, you can identify the same notes on

different strings. Let's take as example the minor third interval:

The root note is the one marked with the black dot (fourth

a minor third on the upper string (fifth string),

it also on the second string.

Page 7: constructia instervalelor chitarii

Another example: diminished fifth interval. We

different strings. This give us many options to vary and

our playing.

INTERVALS GEOMETRY

Chords are composed by a number of

time. The distances between the root note of the chord, which

gives the name to the chord, and each note of the chords, are

what we call intervals. Depending on the kind of these

intervals, we can have different chords type.

major and minor chords a

interval (major or minor), and a fifth interval.

C major: root C, major third

C minor: root C, minor third

More complex chords are created add

ninth intervals, and so on.

Another example: diminished fifth interval. We find

ent strings. This give us many options to vary and

INTERVALS GEOMETRY

Chords are composed by a number of notes played at the same

The distances between the root note of the chord, which

gives the name to the chord, and each note of the chords, are

intervals. Depending on the kind of these

can have different chords type.

ajor and minor chords are composed by the root note, a third

or minor), and a fifth interval.

, major third E, perfect fifth G

, minor third Eb, perfect fifth G

More complex chords are created adding seventh intervals,

ls, and so on.

find it on

ent strings. This give us many options to vary and to color

played at the same

The distances between the root note of the chord, which

gives the name to the chord, and each note of the chords, are

intervals. Depending on the kind of these

For example,

re composed by the root note, a third

ing seventh intervals,

Page 8: constructia instervalelor chitarii

The first intervals geometries you should memorize are then

minor and major thirds, perfect, augmented and diminished

fifth. An augmented fifth is a perfect fifth raised 1 semitone (7 -

> 8 semitones), a diminished fifth is a perfect fifth lowered 1

semitone (7 -> 6 semitones).

If you add one octave to an interval , you get an extended

interval; it is composed by the same note names but the

distance between the notes is one octave longer. For example,

a major second with one octave added becomes a ninth (have a

look at the following diagrams).

The following diagrams show the various options that one

guitar player has when he's composing chords on the fretboard:

it's useful to not consider chords like immutable shapes but to

learn single intervals and to assemble them in order to create

specific chords shapes as it needed.

Graphic convention: in the following diagrams, the root note

is marked with a black dot. Other notes are represented by an

empty circle.

Page 9: constructia instervalelor chitarii

3 semitones

Minor Third

adding 1 octave:

Minor Tenth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Second

3 semitones

Minor Third

1 octave:

Minor Tenth

enharmonic

Augmented Second

Page 10: constructia instervalelor chitarii

4 semitones

Major Third

adding 1 octave:

Major Tenth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Fourth

4 semitones

Major Third

1 octave:

Major Tenth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Fourth

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6 semitones

Diminished Fifth

adding 1 octave:

Diminished Twelfth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Fourth

6 semitones

Diminished Fifth

1 octave:

Diminished Twelfth

enharmonic

Augmented Fourth

Page 12: constructia instervalelor chitarii

7 semitones

Perfect Fifth

adding 1 octave:

Perfect Twelfth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Sixth

7 semitones

Perfect Fifth

1 octave:

Perfect Twelfth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Sixth

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8 semitones

Minor Sixth

adding 1 octave:

Minor Thirtee

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Fifth

8 semitones

Minor Sixth

1 octave:

Minor Thirteenth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Fifth

Page 14: constructia instervalelor chitarii

CHORDS CONSTRUCTION

Let's see some examples of chords constructions, using the

intervals we've just learnt (minor and major thirds, perfect fifth,

diminished and augmented fifth). Try to recognize visually the

intervals geometries you've seen on the previous diagrams.

Due the nature of the fretboard, in which the same note is

placed on different strings, for a given chord exist different

fingerings and positions. The following diagrams are just one

among all the possible fingerings you can use.

Cmaj chord

Name variations: C major, CM, C

This chord is a major triad: root, major third, perfect

fifth.

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Cm chord

Name variations: C minor, Cm, C-

This chord is a minor triad: root, minor third, perfect

fifth.

Caug chord

Name variations: C augmented

This chord is an augmented triad (root, major third,

augmented fifth)

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C-5 chord

Name variations: Cdiminished triad, Cb5

This chord is composed by the root, a minor third and a

flat fifth.

MORE INTERVALS

We can now move on and learn the other kinds of intervals:

minor second, major second, perfect fourth, minor and major

seventh, minor and major sixth, and so on.

Page 17: constructia instervalelor chitarii

1 semitone

Minor Second

adding 1 octave:

Minor Ninth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Unison

1 semitone

Minor Second

1 octave:

Minor Ninth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Unison

Page 18: constructia instervalelor chitarii

2 semitones

Major Second

adding 1 octave:

Major Ninth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Third

2 semitones

Major Second

1 octave:

Major Ninth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Third

Page 19: constructia instervalelor chitarii

5 semitones

Perfect Fourth

adding 1 octave

Perfect Eleventh

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Third

5 semitones

Fourth

1 octave

Perfect Eleventh

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Third

Page 20: constructia instervalelor chitarii

9 semitones

Major Sixth

adding 1 octave:

Major Thirteenth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Seventh

9 semitones

Major Sixth

1 octave:

Major Thirteenth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Seventh

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10 semitones

Minor Seventh

adding 1 octave:

Minor Fourteen

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Sixth

10 semitones

Minor Seventh

1 octave:

Minor Fourteenth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Augmented Sixth

Page 22: constructia instervalelor chitarii

11 semitones

Major Seventh

adding 1 octave:

Major Fourteenth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Octave

11 semitones

Major Seventh

1 octave:

Major Fourteenth

consonant

enharmonic

equivalent:

Diminished Octave

Page 23: constructia instervalelor chitarii

CHORDS CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES

PART 2

Csus4 chord

Name variations: C suspended fourth, C4, C#3

This chord is composed by the root, a perfect fourth and

has no third (suspended), then is neither major nor

minor.

C7 chord

Name variations: C dominant seventh, Cdom7

This chord is a major triad with a minor seventh.

Page 24: constructia instervalelor chitarii

Cmin7 chord

Name variations: C minor seventh, Cm7, C-7

This chord is a minor triad (root, minor third, perfect

fifth) with a minor seventh.

Page 25: constructia instervalelor chitarii

Cmaj7 chord

Name variations: C major seventh, CM7, CΔ7

This chord is a major triad (root, major third, perfect

fifth) with a major seventh.

Page 26: constructia instervalelor chitarii

MORE CHORDS TO CREATE

Now you should have understood the mechanism, your job is to

create other kinds of chords, exploiting the intervals diagrams

on this ebook. You can check your answers on the Fachords

Chords Library

http://www.fachords.com/guitar-chords-library/

C7-5 chord

Name variations: C dominant seventh flat five chord,

C7b5, C7(-5), C7(b5), C7/b5

This chord is composed by the root, a major third, a

diminished fifth and a minor seventh.

C7+5 chord

Name variations: C dominant seventh sharp five, C7(#5),

C7#5

This chord is composed by the root, a major third, an

augmented fifth and a minor seventh.

C6 chord

Name variations: Csixth, Cmajor sixth

Page 27: constructia instervalelor chitarii

This chord is composed by a major triad and a major sixth

Cm6 chord

Name variations: Cminor sixth, Cm6, C-6

This chord is a minor triad with a minor sixth

Cm9 chord

Name variations: Cminor ninth, C-9, Cmin9

This chord is a minor triad with a minor seventh and a

major ninth

C6/9 chord

Name variations: Cmaj6/9, CM6/9, CMAJ6/9, C6add9

This chord is composed by the root, a major third, a

perfect fifth, a major sixth and a major ninth

C7sus4 chord

Name variations: C seventh suspended fourth, C7-4,

C7sus

This chord is composed by the root, a perfect fourth and

a minor seventh. It has no third (suspended), then is

neither major nor minor.

Page 28: constructia instervalelor chitarii

C7-9 chord

Name variations: C dominant seventh flat ninth, C7(b9),

C7(-9)

This chord is a major triad with a minor seventh and a

minor ninth

C7+9 chord

Name variations: C dominant seventh sharp ninth,

C7(#9), C7(+9)

This chord is a major triad with a minor seventh and an

augmented ninth

C9-5 chord

Name variations: C ninth flat five, C9b5, C9(-5), C9(b5),

C7/9(b5)

This chord is a 7/b5 chord (root, major third, flat five,

minor seventh) with added a major 9th.

C9 chord

Name variations: Cdominant ninth, Cdom9

This chord is a major triad with a minor seventh and a

major ninth

Page 29: constructia instervalelor chitarii

Cmaj9 chord

Name variations: C major ninth, CM9, CΔ9

This chord is a major triad (root, major third, perfect

fifth) with a major seventh and a major ninth.

C11 chord

Name variations: Cdominant eleventh, Cdom11

This chord is a major triad with a minor seventh, a major

ninth and a major eleventh

C13 chord

Name variations: Cdominant thirteenth, Cdom 13

This chord is a major triad with a minor seventh, a major

ninth and a major thirteenth

Page 30: constructia instervalelor chitarii

What's next?

To apply these concepts, you should take a well know

chords progression, and play it on different parts of the

fretboard, without counting on the shapes you already

memorize, but building chords dynamically assembling

the intervals geometries you've just learnt in this ebook.

For example, try to play the C, G, Am, F progression

starting with the C root note on the 8th fret of the higher

E string.