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Sustainable Development Practice in China. Energy and Industry - 2. Energy and Industry. Energy principles: “Useful” energy, thermal dynamic laws; “Entropy” and 2 nd law of thermal dynamics Energy challenges: climate change, energy crisis, energy security - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Energy and Industry - 2

Energy and Industry - 2

Sustainable Development Practice in ChinaEnergy and IndustryEnergy principles: Useful energy, thermal dynamic laws; Entropy and 2nd law of thermal dynamicsEnergy challenges: climate change, energy crisis, energy securityRenewable energy: wind, water, solar

General situationThe energy flow chart;Energy crisisEnergy securityEnergy consumption reduction for climate change mitigation

Energy in the worldBP statistical review 2012IPCC report volume IIIEnergy Issues in China

World primary energy consumption by fuel in 2005~2010, in million toe

World primary energy consumption since 1965, according to BP-2011

World coal consumption since 1965, according to BP-2011

World oil consumption since 1965, according to BP-2011

World gas consumption since 1965, according to BP-2011

World hydro-power supply since 1999, according to BP-2011

World nuclear power consumption since 1965, according to BP-2011

World solar energy consumption since 1996, according to BP-2011

World wind power consumption since 2003, according to BP-2011--- Based on BP world energy statistics 2011Energy consumption structure in 2010

Million tonnes oil equivalentChina burns coal more than 3 times than that by US and more than 6 times than that by India.

Current energy situation of ChinaProved reserves:Fossil fuelCoal in 2006, proved reserve 1034.5 billion tonnes, 13% of the world, 3rd place.Proved reserves of oil and gas are relatively limited.Some unconventional fossil energies including oil shale and coal seam gasesRenewable energy resourcesHydro power: theoretical reserves were equal to 6,190 billion kwh, economically exploitable annual power output was 1,760 billion kwh, equivalent to 12% of the global, 1st place The per-capita averages of both coal and hydropower resources are 1/2 of the global average; The per-capita average of both oil and natural gas resources is only about 1/15 of the global average;The per-capita average of arable land is less than 30% of the global average, which has hindered the development of biomass energy. Low per-capita average of energy resourcesA number of Resource Exhausted citiesCriterion:Accumulated production has reached 70% or more of the proved reserve originally found, or to last 5 years or less with the current technologies;Two lists were announced in 2008 and 2009, including coal mines, oil fields, non-ferrous mines, and wood-industry regions;44 out of 114 Resource Cities are now on the exhausted list.Sectoral energy consumption of China

China energy consumption structure change:Oil consumption is increasing quickly, however, coal consumption increases no less

Changes in sectoral energy consumption of ChinaEnergy consumption in industrial sectors, excluding electricity production (2008)104 tonnes coal equivalent

TextileChem. Eng.Non-metal Prod.Ferrous metal manufacturingNon-ferrous metal manufacturingOil refineryElectricity consumption in industrial sectors (2008)108 kWh

TextileChem. Eng.Non-metal Prod.Ferrous metal manufacturingNon-ferrous metal manufacturingWhite Paper: Situation and Policy of Chinas Energy, Dec 2007Current situationEnergy production and consumptionEnergy structureEnergy consumption per unit GDPEnergy consumption per capitaComparison with other countriesEnergy production and consumption, and economic developmentEfforts of energy saving Energy supply capability has been remarkably enhanced. In 2006, the output of primary energy equaled 2.21 billion tons of standard coal, ranking second in the world. Raw coal accounted for 2.37 billion tons, ranking the first place in the world. Built a number of extra-large coalmines. Daqing, Shengli, Liaohe, Tarim and the large oilfields have been successively built, and the output of crude oil has increased steadily, ranking China the world's fifth-largest (?) oil producer in 2006, with 185 million tons in that year. The output of natural gas ballooned from 14.3 billion cu m in 1980 to 58.6 billion cu m in 2006. The proportion of commercial renewable energy in the structure of primary energy keeps rising. The electricity sector also reported speedy growth in 2006. The installed capacity reached 622 million kw, and the amount of power generated was 2,870 billion kwh, both ranking second in the world. A comprehensive energy transportation system has been developed quickly, with the transport capacity notably improved. Special railways transporting coal from the west to the east and relevant coal ports, and pipelines transporting oil from the north to the south and conveying natural gas from the west to the east have all been built.Now, the power generated in the west can be carried to the east, and the regional power grids have all been connected up.Uneven distribution of energyChina's energy resources are scattered widely across the country, but the distribution is uneven:Coal is found mainly in the north and the northwest, hydropower in the southwest, and oil and natural gas in the eastern, central and western regions and along the coast. But, the consumers of energy resources are mainly in the southeast coastal areas, where the economy is the most developed, such that fundamentally, China's energy flow: large-scale transportation over long distances of coal and oil from the north to the south, and transmission of natural gas and electricity from the west to the east.(Southern water to north), northen coal/oil to south, western gas/electricity to east Exploitation difficulties:Coal, poor mining conditions, minor portion can apply opencast workingOil and gas fields with complicated geological conditions, requiring advanced exploitation techniquesHydro resources are located southwest mountainous areas, far from economic centers.Low economy of non-conventional energy resourcesResource Exhausted citiesCriterion:Accumulated production has reached 70% or more of the proved reserve originally found, or to last 5 years or less with the current technologiesTwo lists were announced in 2008 and 2009, including coal mines, oil fields, non-ferrous mines, and wood-industry regions44 out of 114 Resource Cities are now on the exhausted listFirst list in 2008 (12)Central region (3): Jiaozuo, Pingxiang, Daye(county) (, , );Resource-type Economically Transit (trial) cities (5), Fuxin, Yicun, Liaoyuan, Baishan, Panjing () Western resource exhausted cities (3): Shizuishan, Baiyin, Gejiu(county) (, , )Resource exhausted area (1): DaXingAnLing ()Second list in 2009 (32)Prefecture level cities (9): ZhaoZhuang (Shandong), HuangShi (Hubei), HuaiBei (Anhui), TongLin(Anhui), QiTaiHe(Heilongjiang), WanSheng (Chongqing), FuSun, FuXin, and PanJin (Liaoning), County level cities (17)City districts (6)

Coal mines

Oil and gas fieldsYu MenChallenges for a stable, economic, clean and safe energy supply systemResource limitation, low energy efficiencyLack of major high quality energy resources, supply limitation, uneven distribution;Development mode, improper energy structure, backward equipment and management, so as high energy consumption and consumption strengthCoal as the main energy, environmental pressureCoal as the main fuel will last for a long period.Backward coal production and consumption, with environmental pressures: main source of air pollution and GHGsWith the rapid increment of vehicle numbers, car emission induced air pollution will become severe.Imperfect market system, emergency management capacityEnergy marketing system, pricing mechanism, should be consistent with resource limitation, supply shortage, and environmental cost.Energy exploitation, supervision systemSafety in mining, especially coal mining. Electric grid not reasonable, oil storage, and emergency response systemAchievements in energy savingAchievements19802005, energy consumption increased by 5.4% annual average, GDP increased 9.8% per year, so as the elasticity coefficient 0.55;Energy consumption strength decreased from 3.98 ton (coal) per 104 RMB in 1980 to 1.42 ton (coal) per 104 RMB in 2005, 64.3% lessAnnual energy saving rate over 4%Combined efficiency of energy processing, conversion, storage, and end-use raised from 25% in 1980 o 33% of 2006;The gap comparing with advanced countries is getting smaller of energy strength in energy-consuming products;

Energy strength per unit GDP has been reduced by 60% in the last 20 years, but still 3.1 times as the world average, 9 times as that of Japan and 4.3 times of OESDGDP7023200346.02%200446.2%200547.3%200260.9%200364.3%200467.6%200569.0%2006316200685 2007523 200761220071117GDPGDPGDP20071122200841Mid and Long Term Plan of Nuclear Electricity of China (2005~2020)Oct 2007 Development and Reform Commission of China Energy issues:Limited energy resource, especially in per capita;Fossil energy reservation;Rapid increase in energy consumptionDaily life energy consumption increasesLow energy use efficiencyAlternative / renewable energyNuclear power development in China?Development of nuclear power system

Current situationNuclear power in worlds electricity1st commercial nuclear power station in 1950s;According to IAEA, in Oct 2005, there were 442 in operation, pressured water 60%, boiled water 21%, CANDU 9%, others (graphite reactor etc) 10%Total capacity 369 million kWa, in 31 countries/regions;Nuclear electricity takes 17% of world total electricity;There are 16 countries/regions with over 20% nuclear power generation, including US, France, Germany, and Japan etc.Nuclear power development in ChinaIn 1983, PWR was taken as the main type. Capacity has been built up on the related technology: design, manufacturing, construction and operation management;The 1st station was put in use in 1991 (QinShan). Since then there are 6 stations with 11 sets of reactors and 9.068 million kWa put in commercial operation, and 8 reactors with 7.90 million kWa are under construction (Li