Feed and food safety in times of global production and trade ... ... 4 BfR-Wissenschaft 7.2 Applications

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  • Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung

    Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung

    Feed and food safety in times of global production and trade

  • Impressum

    BfR Wissenschaft BfR-Autorinnen und Autoren: Elisabeth Achten, Sascha Al Dahouk, Bernd Appel, Arnold Bahlmann, Dori- na Bodi, Rita Boje-Haderer, Idesbald Boone, Maria Borowiak, Sascha Bulik, Tasja Buschhardt, Anja Buschulte, Miguel de Alba Aparicio, Susanne Ess- linger, Alexander Falenski, Carsten Fauhl-Hassek, Carolin Fechner, Matthias Filter, Hendrik Frentzel, Miriam Friedemann, Marcel Fuhrmann, Marion Gottschald, Matthias Greiner, Mirjam Grobbel, Taras Günther, Jens A. Hammerl, Petra Hiller, Bettina Horn, Husam Ibrahem Aroud, Alexandra Irrgang, Annette Johne, Katharina Juraschek, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Sabi- ne Kemmlein, Janine Kowalczyk, Renate Krätke, Monika Lahrssen- Wiederholt, Birgit Lewicki, Oliver Lindtner, Anneluise Mader, Inga Mädge, Burkhard Malorny, Ronald Maul, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Nicole Mazurek, Octavio Mesa Varona, Karsten Nöckler, Jorge Numata, Carolina Plaza Rodríguez, Martin Richter, Janet Riedl, Marco Rügen, Sara Schaarschmidt, Helmut A. Schafft, Silvia Schmoger, Thomas Selhorst, Dina Shamoun, Tanja Skladnikiewicz-Ziemer, Markus Spolders, Eckhard Strauch, Ahmad Swaid, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen, Christian Thöns, Dominic Tölle, Lars Valen- tin, Armin A. Weiser, Aline Wisniewski, Milena Zupaniec Weitere Autorinnen und Autoren: Virginie Desvignes (ANSES), Stylianos Georgiadis (DTU Food), Laurent Guillier (ANSES), Helmut Heseker (Paderborn University), Olaf Mosbach- Schulz (EFSA), Maarten Nauta (DTU Food), Leticia Ungaretti Haberbeck (DTU Food) Feed and food safety in times of global production and trade Herausgeber: Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR) Anstalt des öffentlichen Rechts Vertreten durch den Präsidenten Professor Dr. Dr. Andreas Hensel Max-Dohrn-Straße 8–10 10589 Berlin Telefon: 030 18412 – 0 Telefax: 030 18412 - 99099 E-Mail: pressestelle@bfr.bund.de Aufsichtsbehörde: Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft Ust.-IdNr. des BfR: DE 165893448 V.i.S.d.P: Suzan Fiack Koordination und Redaktion Dr. Sigrid Gödert (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, Berlin) Berlin 2019 (BfR-Wissenschaft 04/2019) 284 Seiten, 64 Abbildungen, 32 Tabellen € 15,- Druck: Inhalt und buchbinderische Verarbeitung BfR-Hausdruckerei Marienfelde ISBN 978-3-948484-03-3 ISSN 1614-3795 (Print) 1614-3841 (Online) DOI 10.17590/20190930-102623

    Download als kostenfreies PDF unter www.bfr.bund.de

    mailto:pressestelle@bfr.bund.de

  • 3 BfR-Wissenschaft

    Content

    1 Introduction 5

    2 Agricultural Resources, Trade, Transport 9

    2.1 Global feed supply chains − Plant resources for animal feed 10

    2.2 Importance of food trade for Germany 27

    2.3 Container transport - the backbone for smooth running international trade in goods 40

    2.4 Bioterrorism and the Food 51

    3 Authenticity of Feed and Food 59

    3.1 Food Fraud: definitions and requirements 61

    3.2 Verification of food and feed authenticity 71

    4 Chemical Risks and Toxins in Feed and Food 83

    4.1 Transfer of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) along the food chain 85

    4.2 Transfer of natural toxins in aquatic systems 93

    4.3 Natural toxins in feed and food processing chains of plant- and blue-green algae-based products 100

    4.4 Toxin detection and quantification – regulatory and analytical aspects 118

    5 Foodborne pathogens and antimicrobial resistance 139

    5.1 Foodborne pathogens in food confiscated from air passenger luggage 141

    5.2 Prevalence and Diversity of Pathogenic Bacteria in Seafood – Control of Enteropathogenic Vibrio spp. in Retail Food 149

    5.3 Microbiological safety in the spice and dried culinary herb chains 159

    5.4 Emergence, distribution and genetic diversity of mcr-1 harboring Escherichia coli from livestock and food in Germany 171

    5.5 New trends for the detection and characterization of foodborne pathogens 183

    6 Exposure to Humans 199

    6.1 Food Origin Information in Times of Global Food Supply – Basis for the Refinement of Dietary Exposure Assessment 201

    6.2 Ciguatera food poisoning in Germany caused by imported tropical fish from tropical areas 214

    6.3 Foodborne zoonotic infections in different populations in Berlin 227

    7 Data and Modelling 235

    7.1 Network analysis for food supply networks 237

  • 4 BfR-Wissenschaft

    7.2 Applications of supply chain network modeling for feed and food safety 245

    7.3 FoodChain-Lab: an innovative tool to increase food safety through supply chain analyses 259

    7.4 Epi-Lab - going the next step. Data collection, analysis and visualization within one platform 268

    7.5 Knowledge Plattform RAKIP 272

    8 Figures 279

    9 Tables 283

  • 5 BfR-Wissenschaft

    1 Introduction

    Appel, Bernd

    For centuries feed and food were mostly produced and consumed regionally. Since the last two to three decades these are increasingly produced and traded globally, like some brand labels on beverages, chocolate products or fruits. Still a lot of globally produced products are traded and consumed in regional markets. The worldwide demand for high-quality food, available almost anytime and at the same time affordable to most of the consumers of the northern hemisphere, has led to the fact that today both feed and food product chains pro- cess raw materials and products from all continents. This development covers all agricultural- ly used regions worldwide. We therefore are talking about global commodity flows or global feed and food chains. Why is it important for risk assessment in feed and food to obtain data and knowledge from the increasingly important global production regions, trade routes and structures, the result- ing markets and new methods and processes in feed and food production? The answer can be easily deduced, since it is in the interest of all consumers to receive high-quality and safe food from all production regions at all times and this should meet the high standards of feed and food safety in the EU. That this is not always self-evident has been shown by serious incidents of adulteration or contaminated food over the last 20 years. Melamine as an impermissible substitute for pro- tein in dairy products, toxic colourants as unauthorised additives in spices or food contami- nated with pathogens, which have led to life-threatening outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseas- es and often to deaths, are incidents that demand improved quality controls on the producer side and intervention of responsible risk assessors and management. For example, the seri- ous consequences of the EHEC outbreak in Germany and France in 2011 are still very pain- fully remembered with almost 4,000 patients and 53 deaths. However, global food production and trade are not a modern invention. Already in times of the Silk Road between East Asia and regions of today's Europe, the trade routes at that time were used to transport rare and sought-after spices. And in the times of the Roman Empire and later the crusaders of the Teutonic Order, a lively transport and sale of grain from the granaries of today's Eastern Europe to the south and west began. In recent decades, an improved economic base of consumers in almost all regions of the northern hemisphere, but also in i.e. East Asia, Southeast Asia and South America has led to greater demand for feed and food. Acquaintance with foreign regional food products and consumers customs, caused by increased worldwide travel, is also leading to an increasing demand in food consumption worldwide. In the wealthy countries of the so-called western world, interest in new products or the desire for year-round availability of seasonal food has also become a matter of course. In certain population groups, changes in lifestyle based on increasing economical participation, like i.e. the growing middle-class in China, lead to changes in diet and thus to changes in eating habits. Increased global demand for safe food requires that the desired products are available on the markets at all times and in sufficient quantities. This is not always the case and there will be increased production and delivery bottlenecks in the future, which will have a clear influ- ence on prices and product quality. Particularly, high-priced products with limited scope of supply, e.g. spices such as saffron, increase the worldwide risk of food deception at the ex- pense of the consumer. In addition, economically strong regions with a high population share, such as some populous states in Asia, will become a noticeable impact on interna- tional competition for food markets, i.e. availability and prices. As a consequence, there will be a tremendous increase in competition for raw materials and products available worldwide,

  • 6 BfR-Wissenschaft

    with direct effects for consumers and thus also risk assessment and quality assurance in the food industry. Structural changes in the international feed and food industry have been observed for years. For example, the majority of salmon production no longer comes from wild catches but from large fish farms in the coastal areas of Norway, Scotland and Canada. Meat, meat products, milk and dairy products as well as other food products are no longer only marketed regional- ly, but increasingly come from global production and trade activities. As long as a uniform risk assessment and approval system is backing