Functional Classification of towns in Maharashtra, 1991
Jyoti Nagpal M.A.Geography (3rd semester) Course 306:Urban Settlement Systems Department of Geography Delhi School of Economics University of Delhi 2010 Contents
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Introduction Defining Town Defining Classification Need for Classification of Towns Basis of Classification of Towns Functional Classification of Urban Places Dominant Approach- C.D.Harris Multiple function Approach- Howard Nelson 7. Functional Classification of Indian Cities (Theory+Methodology+Interpretation) Introduction Amrit Lal Classification of Indian Towns Ashok Mitra Classification of Indian Towns- Discussion of the Study Area 8. Conclusion 9. References
Cities differ in their economic makeup, their social and demographic characteristics and the roles they play within the city system. These differences can be traced back to regional variations in the local resources on which growth was based during the early development of the urban pattern and in part the subsequent shifts in the competitive advantage of regions brought about by changing locational forces affecting regional specialization within the framework of the market economy. Recognition of different city types necessitates their classification, and it is to this important aspect of urban geography that we now turn. Emphasis is on functional town classification and the basic underlying dimensions of the city system. Functional classification of Towns is extensively done on the Western state of India, Maharashtra. 1991 census was taken as the basis of classifying 336 towns of Maharashtra into nine functional categories (I-IX). These can be broadly be divided into1. Primary Activity (I-III) 2. Secondary Activity(IV-V) 3. Tertiary Activity (VI-IX) Maharashtra encompasses an area of 308,000 km (119,000 mi) which is 9.36% of the countrys total area and is the third largest state in India. It extends from 15o35N to 22o02N latitude and 72o36E to 80o54E longitude. It is located in north centre of Peninsular India, with a command of the Arabian Sea through its port of Mumbai. Maharashtra has a remarkable homogeneity, enforced by its underlying geology. It is bordered by the states of Madhya Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Andhra Pradesh to the southeast, Karnataka to the south, and Goa to the southwest. The state of Gujarat lies to the northwest, with the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli sandwiched in between. The Arabian Sea makes up Maharashtra's west coast. Maharashtra has one of the highest levels of urbanization of all Indian states i.e. about 42.7% of urbanization. In 1991 census there were 30 districts in Maharashtra with a total of 336 towns. These districts were namelyGreater Mumbai, Thane, Raigarh, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Dhule, Jalgaon, Nashik, Parbhani, Nanded, Akola, Osmanabad, Latur, Ahmadnagar, Aurangabad, Bid, Satara, Sangli, Chandrapur, Solhapur, Kolhapur, Jalna, Nagpur, Wardha, Amravati, Pune, Bhuldana, Bhandara, Yavatmal and Gadchiroli. Mumbai is the state capital with a population of approximately 15.2 million people. The other large cities are Pune, Nagpur, Nasik, Navi Mumbai, Thane, Amravati, Aurangabad, Kolhapur, Sangli and Solapur. Maharashtra's is India's leading industrial state contributing 15% of national industrial output. 64.14% of the people are employed in agriculture and allied activities. Almost 46% of the GSDP is contributed by industry. Major industries in Maharashtra include chemical and allied products, electrical and nonelectrical machinery, textiles, petroleum and allied products. Other important industries include metal products, wine, jewellery, pharmaceuticals, engineering goods, machine tools, steel and iron castings and plastic wares. Food crops include mangoes, grapes, bananas, oranges, wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, and pulses.
Cash crops include groundnut, cotton, sugarcane, turmeric, and tobacco. The net irrigated area totals 33,500 square kilometres.
Western Maharashtra, which includes the districts of Nashik, Ahmadnagar, Pune, Satara, Solapur, Sangli and Kolhapur, is a prosperous belt famous for its sugar factories. Farmers in the region are economically well off due to fertile land and good irrigation.
Defining TownsCensus definition has a dual criterion. Census of India of 2001, recognized 2 types of towns1. Statutory Towns (Legal)- It is defined as all places having a Municipal Corporation, Cantonment Board or a Notified Town Area Committee and declared by a state law as a town 2. Census Towns- Places which satisfy the following criteria A minimum Population of 5000 Persons Atleast 75% of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits. A density of Population of atleast 400 persons/ km sq.
Defining ClassificationClassification is a means of organizing diverse information so that it is more easily understood. It is a manner of grouping of single item into one category. Urban characteristics vary from place to place. Based on dominant urban characteristics, settlements are grouped into homogenous categories. The Urban classification can be Qualitative where no empirical data is collected by characteristics of town. On the other hand, Quantitative classification is based upon empirical data.
Need for Classification of TownsThe purpose of classifying cities is twofold. On the one hand, it is undertaken in order to search reality for hypotheses. In this context, the recognition of different types of cities on the basis of, for example, their functional specialization may enable the identification of spatial regularities in the distribution and structure of urban functions and the formulation of hypotheses about the resulting patterns. On the other hand, classification is undertaken to structure reality in order to test specific hypotheses that have already been formulated. For example, to test the hypotheses that cities with a diversified economy grow at a faster rate than those with a more specialized economic base, cities must first be classified so that diversified and specialized cities can be differentiated.
The simplest way to classify cities is to identify the distinctive role they play in the city system. There are three distinct roles. 1. Central places functioning primarily as service centers for local hinterlands. 2. Transportation cities performing break-of-bulk and allied functions for larger regions. 3. Specialized-function cities are dominated by one activity such as mining, manufacturing or recreation and serving national and international markets. The composition of a cities labour force has traditionally been regarded as the best indicator of functional specialization, and different city types have been most frequently identified from the analysis of employment profiles. Specialization in a given activity is said to exist when employment in it exceeds some critical level.
Basis of Classification of TownsThere are many basis of urban classification or we can identify different types of urban classification. The 5 types are1. Genetic Classification- Deals with the origin of cities in context of time. 2. Location/ Size Classification-Geographical setting of the town 3. Morphological Classification- Form and the internal structure of the cities. 4. Hierarchical Classification- cities classified on the bases of order of functions performed an their
intensity. 5. Functional Classification- Cities may be classified on the basis of type of economic activities carried on in the city. Certain economic activities may have acquired greater significance than others. For example: - presence of Iron and Steel industry lends a certain name and character to the city. Some cities are known for their administrative status as State / District capitals, others for their educational Institutions and yet others for Trade and Transport. In terms of India, generally tertiary activities are most important followed by Secondary (including household and organized Modern industry). Primary activity forms third important activity and it is a dominant activity in the small towns.
Functional Classification of Urban PlacesThere are two approaches to study of Functional classification of towns:1. Dominant Function Approach- In which largest number of workers are employed in one activity in the city. This approach is far too simple and ignores the presence of other activities in town. Moreover, the number and percentage of workers is not always the best measure because manufacturing, by its very nature can employ more people than in trade. Hence, the number of workers in these two activities is not directly comparable.
2. Multiple Function approach- This approach measures the degree of specialization in a particular activity. The degree of specialization is determined by number of workers in city in relation to some norms which is set for a city.
The dominant function approach can be exemplified by that of Harris and Multiple Function approach by that of Nelson. Dominant Function Approach: Chauncy D. Harris classified the US cities in 1930. He was able to identify qualitatively dominant function outof Multifunctional character of cities. He used employment and occupational data reduced to percentages to indicate cut off points for urban activities ranging in importance. His classification is based on the fact that some activity groups employ many more persons than other do. Functional Classification of Cities of USA by Harris 1. Manufacturing Cities Manufacturing Sub types a. Employment in manufacturing equal to 74% of total employment in manufacturing combined with retailing and wholesaling. b. Manufacturing and mechanical industry contain atleast 45 % of gainful workers (Occupation) example: - Detroit, New York, North California. 2. Manufacturing Cities Manufacturing Sub types a. Atleast 60% of the tota