(Introduction to EcoDesign)
EcoDesign EcoDesign Tools
Law for the Promotion of the Effective Utilization of Resources (Promote 3Rs)
Basic Environment Law
Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law
Law on Promoting Green Purchasing
Basic Law for Establishing the Recycling-based Society
Containers and Packaging Recycling LawHome Appliances Recycling LawConstruction Materials Recycling LawFood Waste Recycling LawAutomobile Recycling LawFluorocarbons Recovery and Destruction Law
Recycling lawsfor individual
Japan legislation (all laws below are already enforced)
Source: Eco-management Institute (Japan)
NonNon--Tariff Barrier (NTB)Tariff Barrier (NTB)
Source: EGG 2004 + Materials
with Life Cycle
EU environmental directives for products EU environmental directives for products import/ export to EUimport/ export to EU2002 2005 2006 2007
ELV WEEE RoHS EuP REACH
All chemical-use-productsEE products
Environmental Labels by third-party Organizations
EcoEco--markmark International Energy StarInternational Energy StarSaveSave--energy labelenergy label
FSC Forest FSC Forest accreditationaccreditation
PET bottle recycling PET bottle recycling recommendation markrecommendation mark Certification of low Certification of low emission vehicleemission vehicle
Environmental Labeling by Self-Declaration of Businesses
Environmental Labeling by Self-Declaration of Businesses
NECNEC OkamuraOkamura ToshibaToshiba
Brazil Czech RepublicEU, UK
Republic of China
1 1 ....
: Clean Technologies In U.S. Industries, US-AEP
VOC VOC 6 6 Sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide 9 kg9 kg Nitrogen oxide Nitrogen oxide 13 kg13 kg carbon dioxide carbon dioxide 1.5 kg1.5 kg HAPs HAPs 1.41.4--6.3 kg6.3 kg 7 7,250 L,250 L 2 2.8 kg.8 kg 5 5.3 kg.3 kg
23.3 400 400
Goals of (Eco) Design
To design better products, in
shorter time frame at lower cost ,for better quality of life and environment.
Challenges : Trade-offHow Eco is it?Team-Oriented
Product Life Cycle Thinking
Expands the traditional focus on manufacturing processes to incorporate various aspects over its entire life cycle.
The life cycle of a product and closing the loop
Product Cost Commitment
Eco-design has synonyms
DfE: Design for Environment
ECD: Environmentally Conscious Design
LCA: Life Cycle Assessment
EcoDesign Paradigm Cradle-to-Grave
MakeManufacturing, production, distribution, use
TakeRaw material extraction and synthesis
Raw Material Manufacture Distribution Use End of Life
WeightVolumeMaterials usedProblematic material
Production TechnologyProduction wasteSupply partsEnvironmentalperformance
LifetimeFunctionalityUsabilityEnergy consumpWasteNoise, vibrationsEmissionsMaintenancereparability
Fasteners, jointsDisassembly timeReusabilityrecycling
Environmental parameters for product modeling
Guidelines for Ecodesign
Do not design products but life cycles Natural materials are not always better Energy consumption: often underestimated Increase product life time Do not design products but services Use a minimum of material Use recycled materials Make your product recyclable Ask stupid questions
1. Do not design products but life cycles
Do not design "green" products. Instead, you should design environmentally sound product life cycles. Think about all material inputs and energy use of a product during its whole life cycle. From cradle to grave, or even better from cradle to cradle!
A simple way to document your findings is the MET matrix (Materials, Energy, Toxicity). Just write down some of the most important facts in a matrix.
2. Natural materials are not always better
It is common believe that "natural" materials are more environmentally friendly than "artificial" or man made materials. Is this always true?
Of course, the production of 1 kg of wood causes less emissions than the production of 1 kg of plastic. But have you thought about the paint to preserve the wood, the energy needed to dry, the sawing losses?
In some products, you would need about ten times as much wood than plastic. Plastics can often be recycled, wood cannot. Can you really compare on a kilogram basis?
Environmentally sound materials do not exist, but environmentally friendly products and services do. Life cycle thinking helps a designer to develop these.
3. Energy consumption: often underestimated
Many designers focus their attention on material selection. This is not always justified. If a product consumes energy in the use phase, there is a ten to one chance that energy consumption is dominant.
Perhaps this simple example helps you understand: 10 kWh electricity needs 2 kg of oil. Making 1 kg of plastic needs 1.5 to 2.5 kg of oil. A coffee machine uses 300 kWh electricity during its
lifetime, equal to 60 kg of oil. For the production of the machine less than 1 kg of plastic is used....
4. Increase product life time
Make it more durable from a technical point of view
Make it upgradeable (allowing to place the latest chip in a computer or washing machine).
More importantly, try to design the product in such a way people will feel attached to it.
5. Do not design products but services
People do not always want a product. They want a solution for a certain problem. A
service rather than a product can be the right solution.
For example, a car sharing system is a solution for people that need a car occasionally. Greenwheelsis getting very popular in the crowded inner cites of the Netherlands, where parking space is at a premium. You can use one of the cars in your neighborhood when you need it. Reservations are made with a phone call or online. You don't need to care about maintenance, insurance, parking licenses or road taxes. Payment is done on a monthly basis according to your use.
6. Use a minimum of material
Using less materials may seem obvious, but it is more complex than you think.
Often you can reduce the amount of material by critically looking at dimensions, required strength and production techniques. It can even be beneficial to use materials that have a high environmental load per kilogram, if you can save weight. This is particularly true in transport, where less weight means less fuel consumption.
The Eco-indicator is one of the methods to make such assessments
7. Use recycled materials
Do not only make your product recyclable, but use recycled materials as much as possible.
If you and other designers only make a product recyclable, there will never be a demand for recycled materials in the future.
If there is a demand for recycled materials the supply will follow certainly. BackBack
8. Make your product recyclable
Most products can be recycled, but only few are. Only products that are disassembled easily and have a high enough yield will be chosen for recycling. You can increase the chance that the product is recycled, by optimizing its design.
There are a few simple rules to keep in mind:If you want to recycle thermoplastics:
-Do not use a lacquer.-Do not use paper stickers on plastic.-Do not combine different plastics.
If you want to recycle thermo-sets or textiles, think twice. It has no use. It is better to burn them and reclaim the energy.
9. Ask stupid questions! Very often decisions are based on common practice: "We have
always done it this way and it has always worked well". You can make huge improvements in the environmental performance of products, with consequential cost savings, by simply asking the very obvious "Why?".
Use the stupid question as a tool:
A company used 3 kg of raw material to make 1 kg polyester. After asking the same stupid question ("why") again and again, it was discovered it could be done w