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    Nano SensorsNano Sensors

    EE 530EE 530 Dr. KhanDr. Khan

    Patrice Allen, Spoorthi Appireddy,Patrice Allen, Spoorthi Appireddy, NarmadhaNarmadha Mylsamy,Mylsamy,Ramakanth Tatipaka, Izhar Saeed, Vani YatharlaRamakanth Tatipaka, Izhar Saeed, Vani Yatharla

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    Significance of Nano SensorsSignificance of Nano Sensors Endless PossibilitiesEndless Possibilities

    Designing sensors at the atomicDesigning sensors at the atomic

    level produce new materials withlevel produce new materials withnew properties, like surface &new properties, like surface &quantum effects, that are beneficialquantum effects, that are beneficial

    to the operation of the sensorto the operation of the sensor

    www.sensornetworks.net.au/nano.html

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    Significance of Nano SensorsSignificance of Nano Sensors

    zz Nano Sensors will revolutionize theNano Sensors will revolutionize the

    measurements of extremely smallmeasurements of extremely smalldisplacements and extremely weak forcesdisplacements and extremely weak forcesat the molecular scale.at the molecular scale.

    http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/14/2/8

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    Significance of Nano SensorsSignificance of Nano Sensors

    zz Nano Sensors can now be built withNano Sensors can now be built with

    masses of a fewmasses of a few attogramsattograms (10^(10^ --18 g) and18 g) andwith cross sections of about 10 nm.with cross sections of about 10 nm.

    http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/14/2/8

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    Challenges of Nano SensorsChallenges of Nano Sensors

    zz These very small sensors are veryThese very small sensors are very

    sensitive and prone to degradationsensitive and prone to degradationfrom effects of foreign substances,from effects of foreign substances,

    and extreme temperaturesand extreme temperatures

    zz Integration software is not fullyIntegration software is not fullydevelopeddeveloped

    www.sensornetworks.net.au/nano.html

    http://nanoscale.ornl.gov/projects/sensors.html

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    ApplicationsApplications

    -- Department ofDepartment ofDefenseDefense

    -- Data StorageData Storage-- SafetySafety

    -- Space TechnologySpace Technology

    -- CommunicationCommunication-- TransportationTransportation

    -- SecuritySecurity-- Medical ResearchMedical Research

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    ApplicationsApplications

    zz Motion Sensors to Deploy AirbagsMotion Sensors to Deploy Airbags

    http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/14/2/8

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    Nano SensorsNano Sensors

    Nanotechnology sensor marketNanotechnology sensor market

    predicted global revenues :predicted global revenues :

    zz$2.8 billion in 2008$2.8 billion in 2008

    zz

    $17.2 billion in 2012$17.2 billion in 2012

    http://www.techweb.com/wire/networking/55300270

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    8/9/20058/9/2005 1313

    RF MEMSRF MEMS

    IzharIzhar

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    8/9/20058/9/2005 1414

    Topics of DiscussionTopics of Discussion

    zz IntroductionIntroduction

    zz FabricationFabricationzz Core Components of RF MEMSCore Components of RF MEMS

    TechnologyTechnologyzzApplicationsApplications

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    RF MEMS MarketRF MEMS Market

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    Bulk MicromachiningBulk Micromachining

    zz Bulk micromachining definesBulk micromachining defines

    structures by selectively etchingstructures by selectively etchinginside a substrate.inside a substrate.

    zz This type of etching is inexpensiveThis type of etching is inexpensive

    and is generally used in early andand is generally used in early andlowlow--budget research.budget research.

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    Bulk MicromachiningBulk Micromachining

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    SurfaceSurface

    MicromachiningMicromachiningzz Surface micromachining is based on theSurface micromachining is based on the

    deposition and etching of differentdeposition and etching of differentstructural layers.structural layers.

    zz The success is based on the ability toThe success is based on the ability torelease/dissolve the sacrificial layers whilerelease/dissolve the sacrificial layers whilepreserving the integrity of the structuralpreserving the integrity of the structuralLayers.Layers.

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    Surface MicromachiningSurface Micromachining

    zz Surface micromachining starts with aSurface micromachining starts with a

    silicon wafer or other substrate and growssilicon wafer or other substrate and growslayers on toplayers on top

    zz Layers are selectively etched byLayers are selectively etched byphotolithography and either a wet etchphotolithography and either a wet etchinvolving an acid or a dry etch involving ainvolving an acid or a dry etch involving aionized gas, or plasmaionized gas, or plasma

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    LIGALIGAzz LIGA is German AcronymLIGA is German Acronym

    zz Three words LI , G , AThree words LI , G , Azz LI means lithography (xLI means lithography (x--ray)ray)

    zz G means electrodepositionG means electrodepositionzzA means moldingA means molding

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    LIGALIGA

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    8/9/20058/9/2005 2727

    Main componentsMain components

    zz RF/IF band filtersRF/IF band filters

    zz RF voltage controlled oscillatorsRF voltage controlled oscillatorszz Quartz crystal oscillatorsQuartz crystal oscillators

    zz Solid state switchesSolid state switches

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    Radio ArchitectureRadio Architecture

    zz

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    8/9/20058/9/2005 2929

    Core Components Affecting RF MEMSCore Components Affecting RF MEMS

    FunctionalityFunctionality

    zz MEMS variable CapacitorsMEMS variable Capacitors

    zz Micromachined InductorsMicromachined Inductors

    zz MEMS SwitchesMEMS Switches

    zz MEMS ResonatorsMEMS Resonators

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    8/9/20058/9/2005 3030

    MEMS VariableMEMS Variable

    CapacitorsCapacitorszz

    Critical for Low noise VCOs, AntennaCritical for Low noise VCOs, Antennatunning, tunnable matching networkstunning, tunnable matching networks

    zz On chip silicon PN junction and MOSOn chip silicon PN junction and MOSbased variable capacitors had lowbased variable capacitors had low

    quality factor, limited tunning rangequality factor, limited tunning range

    zz MEMS technology demonstratedMEMS technology demonstrated

    monolithic variable capacitors,monolithic variable capacitors,achieving Stringent performanceachieving Stringent performance

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    8/9/20058/9/2005 3131

    Variable CapacitorVariable Capacitor

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    Micromachined InductorsMicromachined Inductors

    zz Key components for making low noiseKey components for making low noise

    oscillators and low loss matching networksoscillators and low loss matching networks

    zz Micromachining technology enabled lessMicromachining technology enabled lessloss of currentloss of current

    zz High Q factor and high selfHigh Q factor and high self--resonantresonantfrequencyfrequency

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    Inductor figureInductor figure

    zz Copper is selectedCopper is selected

    as the interconnectas the interconnectmetalmetal

    zz

    Consists of 4 turn 5Consists of 4 turn 5um Cu tracesum Cu traces650um/500um area650um/500um area

    zz 14nH inductance14nH inductancewith Q of 16 at 1with Q of 16 at 1GHzGHz

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    MEMS SwitchesMEMS Switches

    zz Key components for switching betweenKey components for switching between

    receiver and transmitter signal pathsreceiver and transmitter signal paths

    zz Critical for building phase shifters, tunableCritical for building phase shifters, tunableantennas, and filtersantennas, and filters

    zz MEMS switches have two categoriesMEMS switches have two categories

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    Categories of SwitchesCategories of Switcheszz CapacitiveCapacitive

    zz MetalMetal--toto--metalmetal

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    Capacitive switchCapacitive switch

    zz Consists ofConsists of

    conductiveconductivemembrane mademembrane made

    of aluminumof aluminumzz Suspended aboveSuspended above

    a coplanara coplanar

    electrode by airelectrode by airgap of few umgap of few um

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    Capacitive switchCapacitive switch

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    MetalMetal--toto--Metal SwitchMetal Switch

    zz For large bandwidthFor large bandwidth

    signals including DCsignals including DCzz Consists of cantileverConsists of cantilever

    beambeam

    zz Actuation voltage ofActuation voltage of30V30V

    zz Response time 20usResponse time 20uszz Mechanical strength toMechanical strength to

    withstand 10^9withstand 10^9

    actuationsactuations

    Summary of RF MEMSSummary of RF MEMS

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    Summary of RF MEMSSummary of RF MEMS

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    ApplicationsApplications

    zz Cell phonesCell phones

    zz Cordless phonesCordless phoneszz Wireless data networksWireless data networks

    zz Sensor networksSensor networkszz Two way pagingTwo way paging

    zz Global positioning systemsGlobal positioning systemszz SatellitesSatellites

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    ApplicationsApplications

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    Optical NanosensorsOptical Nanosensors

    zOptical nanosensors have been designedto utilize the sensitivity of fluorescencefor making quantitative measurements in

    the intracellular environment.zDevices used are small enough to be

    inserted into living cells with a minimumof physical perturbation.

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    Optical fiber based sensorsOptical fiber based sensors

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    Advantages Over Fluorescent dyesAdvantages Over Fluorescent dyes

    z protection of the sensing component frominterfering species within the intracellular

    environment andz protection of the intracellular environment

    from any toxic effects of the sensing

    component.

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    FabricationFabricationFabrication of Nanotips (600m 50 nm)

    Silver Coating(100-200 nm)

    Silanization of Fiber nanotips (GOPS)

    Activation of Fiber nanotips (CDI)

    Protein Binding (e.g., mouse IgG for BaP)

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    Optical NanosensorsOptical Nanosensors -- PEBBLEsPEBBLEs

    zz PEBBLE stands for Probe Encapsulated By

    Biologically Localized Embedding.z It is composed of a polymer matrix

    incorporated with fluorescent indicator dyes.

    z These have been developed for several

    analytes, including calcium, pH, potassium and

    oxygen.

    z These show good reversibility and are

    biocompatible.

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    Features of PEBBLEFeatures of PEBBLE

    zz Small nanometer sized sensors.Small nanometer sized sensors.

    zz

    Polymeric matrix containing combination ofPolymeric matrix containing combination ofindicator dyes, reference dyes and catalysts.indicator dyes, reference dyes and catalysts.

    zz Enable intraEnable intra--cellular biological measurements tocellular biological measurements to

    be made.be made.zz Can be inserted into cells without causingCan be inserted into cells without causing

    mortality.mortality.

    zz Allow use of dyes normally toxic to cells.Allow use of dyes normally toxic to cells.

    zz Fast response time.Fast response time.

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    Further WorkFurther Work

    Nanosensor developmentNanosensor development

    Extend range of analytes that can be detected Extend range of analytes that can be detected Develop generic methods for applying Develop generic methods for applyingnanosensorsnanosensors to cell systemsto cell systems

    Improve delivery techniques Improve delivery techniques Targeted delivery of sensors using surface Targeted delivery of sensors using surface

    functionalityfunctionality

    Bi Bi--functional nanofunctional nano--devicesdevices Real Real--time, multitime, multi--analyte quantification andanalyte quantification and

    imaging in a single living cellimaging in a single living cell

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    Optical Nanosensor Applications

    z Diagnosis and monitoring of diseases.

    z Environmental detection of pollutants and biological agents.

    z Useful for quantitative measurements in intracellular

    environment.

    z Optical sensors provide useful tools for remote in situ

    monitoring.

    z Optical nanosensors increase the ability of investigators toprobe .

    z Image and quantify NO levels present in Parkinsons disease.

    z

    Measure Zinc production and localization in brain tissue.z Use nano-devices to induce and measure the chemical signals of

    apoptosis.

    z Study early-embryo development.

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    BIOMEDICAL SENSORSBIOMEDICAL SENSORS

    By:By:

    RAMAKANTH TATIPAKARAMAKANTH TATIPAKA

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    CONTENTSCONTENTS

    zz INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

    zz SENSOR TECHNOLOGIESSENSOR TECHNOLOGIESzz FABRICATION TECHNIQUESFABRICATION TECHNIQUES

    zzAPPLICATIONSAPPLICATIONSzz FUTURE TRENDSFUTURE TRENDS

    zz CHALLENGESCHALLENGES

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    INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

    zz A biosensor is a device that detects, records, andA biosensor is a device that detects, records, andtransmits information regarding a physiological changetransmits information regarding a physiological change

    or the presence of various chemical or biologicalor the presence of various chemical or biologicalmaterials in the environment.materials in the environment.zz More technically, a biosensor is a probe that integratesMore technically, a biosensor is a probe that integrates

    a biological component, such as a whole bacterium or aa biological component, such as a whole bacterium or a

    biological product (e.g., an enzyme or antibody) with anbiological product (e.g., an enzyme or antibody) with anelectronic component to yield a measurable signal.electronic component to yield a measurable signal.zz Biosensors, which come in a large variety of sizes andBiosensors, which come in a large variety of sizes and

    shapes, are used to monitor changes in environmentalshapes, are used to monitor changes in environmental

    conditions. They can detect and measure concentrationsconditions. They can detect and measure concentrationsof specific bacteria or hazardous chemicals; they canof specific bacteria or hazardous chemicals; they canmeasure acidity levels (pH). In short, biosensors can usemeasure acidity levels (pH). In short, biosensors can usebacteria and detect them, too.bacteria and detect them, too.

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    What is a biomedical sensor?What is a biomedical sensor?

    zz A biomedical sensor often engages a bioA biomedical sensor often engages a bio--recognition process, which involves the analyterecognition process, which involves the analyteor the substrate. The results of this bioor the substrate. The results of this bio--recognition will have to be transmitted to therecognition will have to be transmitted to theexternal world for the quantification of theexternal world for the quantification of the

    analyte or the substrate. The transductionanalyte or the substrate. The transductionmechanism often involves a chemical sensingmechanism often involves a chemical sensingelement, and the signal output can be a colorelement, and the signal output can be a color

    change, an optical or electrical signal, potential,change, an optical or electrical signal, potential,current or others.current or others.

    zz example: Enzymatic based sensorexample: Enzymatic based sensor

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    SENSOR TECHNOLOGIESSENSOR TECHNOLOGIES

    zz Electrochemical sensorsElectrochemical sensors

    zz MOS material based sensorsMOS material based sensorszz Schottky diode based sensorsSchottky diode based sensors

    zz Calorimetric sensorsCalorimetric sensorszz Quartz crystal microQuartz crystal micro--balance (QCM)balance (QCM)

    based sensorsbased sensorszz Optical fiber technologyOptical fiber technology

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    FABRICATION TECHNIQUESFABRICATION TECHNIQUES

    zz SiliconSilicon--based microfabrication andbased microfabrication andmicromachining processing have been usedmicromachining processing have been used

    extensively in the production of microelectronicextensively in the production of microelectronicand MEMS (microand MEMS (micro--electroelectro--mechanical system)mechanical system)devices.devices.

    zz

    These fabrication techniques can be used toThese fabrication techniques can be used toproduce geometrically wellproduce geometrically well--defined, highlydefined, highlyreproducible structures at modest cost.reproducible structures at modest cost.

    zz

    Furthermore, these processes can be applied toFurthermore, these processes can be applied tometals, semiconductive and insulation materialsmetals, semiconductive and insulation materialsproviding an excellent means to produce desiredproviding an excellent means to produce desiredsensing elements.sensing elements.

    PROCESSES IN THEPROCESSES IN THE

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    MICROFABRICATION ANDMICROFABRICATION ANDMICROMACHININGMICROMACHINING

    TECHNIQUESTECHNIQUES

    zz Lithographic reduction and maskLithographic reduction and mask

    fabricationfabricationzz Formation of oxide layerFormation of oxide layer

    zz

    Thick and thin film metallizationThick and thin film metallizationzz PhotoPhoto--resist patterningresist patterning

    zz Wet chemical and dry reactive ion etchingWet chemical and dry reactive ion etching

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    1 This Medical telesensor can1 This Medical telesensor can

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    1.This Medical telesensor can1.This Medical telesensor can

    measure & transmit bodymeasure & transmit bodytemperature wirelesslytemperature wirelessly

    2 Mi til2 Microcantile er sensor can

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    2. Microcantilever sensor can2. Microcantilever sensor can

    detect physical, chemical, ordetect physical, chemical, orbiological activitybiological activity

    3. Optical biopsy sensor: New laser3. Optical biopsy sensor: New laser

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    3. Optical biopsy sensor: New laser3. Optical biopsy sensor: New laser

    technique for nonsurgicallytechnique for nonsurgicallydetermining whether tumors in thedetermining whether tumors in the

    esophagus are cancerous oresophagus are cancerous orbenignbenign

    4 Bioreporters: "critters on a chip"4 Bioreporters: "critters on a chip"

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    4. Bioreporters: "critters on a chip"4. Bioreporters: critters on a chip

    in which bioluminescent bacteriain which bioluminescent bacteriasignal the presence of pollutants.signal the presence of pollutants.

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    5. The infrared microspectrometer5. The infrared microspectrometer

    can be used for blood chemistrycan be used for blood chemistryanalysis, gasoline octane analysis,analysis, gasoline octane analysis,

    environmental monitoring, industrialenvironmental monitoring, industrialprocess control, aircraft corrosionprocess control, aircraft corrosion

    monitoring, and detection ofmonitoring, and detection ofchemical warfare agentschemical warfare agents

    6. surface6. surface--enhanced Raman geneenhanced Raman gene

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    gg(SERG) probes used in medicine,(SERG) probes used in medicine,

    forensics, agriculture, andforensics, agriculture, and

    environmental bioremediation.environmental bioremediation.

    7. Anthropometry: technique using7. Anthropometry: technique using

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    opo e y ec que us gp y q g

    laser beams and mirrors canlaser beams and mirrors candetermine the shapes of humandetermine the shapes of human

    body parts.body parts.

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    FUTURE TRENDSFUTURE TRENDS

    zz The whole health care chain, from doctorsThe whole health care chain, from doctors

    office, hospital to recreation servicesoffice, hospital to recreation servicese.g.home based care / monitoring ofe.g.home based care / monitoring ofpatients with chronic diseases. Emergencypatients with chronic diseases. Emergency

    medicine / monitoring of injured and acutemedicine / monitoring of injured and acuteill patient is also part of the chain.ill patient is also part of the chain.

    zz Biodefence / monitoring humans for theBiodefence / monitoring humans for thepresence of toxic agentspresence of toxic agents

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    Thermal SensorsThermal Sensors

    byby

    Manjula Vani YatharlaManjula Vani Yatharla

    J00296753J00296753

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    INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

    zz In many physical phenomena heat isIn many physical phenomena heat is

    exchanged. This goes together with heatexchanged. This goes together with heatfluxes and changes of temperature.fluxes and changes of temperature.

    zz Thermal sensors serve to measure those twoThermal sensors serve to measure those two

    quantities. When applied in the appropriate way,quantities. When applied in the appropriate way,not only heat flux and temperature but also anot only heat flux and temperature but also anumber of other quantities can be measured, fornumber of other quantities can be measured, for

    example radiation and the flow of liquids andexample radiation and the flow of liquids andgasses.gasses.

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    CharacteristicsCharacteristics

    zz

    Extreme stabilityExtreme stability

    zz No moving partsNo moving parts

    zz Large dynamic rangeLarge dynamic range

    zz Little or no energy consumptionLittle or no energy consumption

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    Thermal Sensor TechnologyThermal Sensor Technology

    zz In thermal sensors an input physical or chemicalIn thermal sensors an input physical or chemicalsignal creates or changes a temperaturesignal creates or changes a temperature

    gradient in a functional structure.gradient in a functional structure.

    zz This gradient or its change can be detected byThis gradient or its change can be detected byapplying an appropriate physical effect, e.g., theapplying an appropriate physical effect, e.g., the

    Seebeck effect, the thermoresistive effect or theSeebeck effect, the thermoresistive effect or the

    pyroelectric effect, converting the temperaturepyroelectric effect, converting the temperaturechange into an output electrical signal.change into an output electrical signal.

    E l f i hi d h lE l f i hi d th l

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    zz Examples for micromachined thermal sensorsExamples for micromachined thermal sensors

    are radiation sensors (thermopiles, bolometers,are radiation sensors (thermopiles, bolometers,and pyroelectric sensors), microcalorimeters,and pyroelectric sensors), microcalorimeters,humidity sensors, vacuum and flow sensors ashumidity sensors, vacuum and flow sensors aswell as thermal converters.well as thermal converters.

    zz As microsensors these devices are of small sizeAs microsensors these devices are of small sizeand their manufacture is based principally on theand their manufacture is based principally on theconcepts of microsystem technologies, e.g.,concepts of microsystem technologies, e.g.,

    silicon microstructuring technology, thin filmsilicon microstructuring technology, thin filmdeposition methods, packaging anddeposition methods, packaging andinterconnection technologies as well asinterconnection technologies as well asmonolithic or hybrid integration of electronicmonolithic or hybrid integration of electronic

    signal processing. Moreover the small size of asignal processing. Moreover the small size of amicromachined sensor encourages the creationmicromachined sensor encourages the creationof sensor arrays, i.e., oneof sensor arrays, i.e., one--dimensional (linear) ordimensional (linear) or

    twotwo--dimensional (matrix) arrangements of adimensional (matrix) arrangements of anumber of individual sensors.number of individual sensors.

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    FabricationFabrication

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    FabricationFabrication

    zz The principle of a thermal infrared sensor isThe principle of a thermal infrared sensor isshown below. A tiny thin plate (i.e., platelet) isshown below. A tiny thin plate (i.e., platelet) is

    made on a silicon wafer in a silicon foundry by amade on a silicon wafer in a silicon foundry by amicromicro--machining process. The platelet ismachining process. The platelet is

    typically 50 m (microns) square by 0.5 m thick.typically 50 m (microns) square by 0.5 m thick.

    Even smaller sizes are under development.Even smaller sizes are under development.Long thin support legs and a vacuumLong thin support legs and a vacuumenvironment thermally isolates it from theenvironment thermally isolates it from the

    substrate. Small thermal radiation from thesubstrate. Small thermal radiation from thetarget focused onto the platelet heats it. Thetarget focused onto the platelet heats it. Thehigher the target temperature, the greater thehigher the target temperature, the greater the

    focused radiation is and therefore the higher thefocused radiation is and therefore the higher theplatelet temperature.platelet temperature.

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    ApplicationsApplications

    zz Heat fluxHeat flux

    ** Heat flux through walls, roofs and floors ofHeat flux through walls, roofs and floors ofbuildings for efficient use of energy.buildings for efficient use of energy.

    ** Heat flux through soil for applications inHeat flux through soil for applications inagriculture and analysis of crop growthagriculture and analysis of crop growth

    conditions.conditions.

    ** Heat flux from living beings to their surroundingsHeat flux from living beings to their surroundingsfor medical studies.for medical studies.

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    zz RadiationRadiation

    ** Solar radiation for optimal control of solarSolar radiation for optimal control of solarcollectors.collectors.

    ** Heat radiation of ovens for optimization ofHeat radiation of ovens for optimization of

    process conditions.process conditions.** Laser power measurement.Laser power measurement.

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    Applications of Thermal Sensors in different fieldsApplications of Thermal Sensors in different fields

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    Applications of Thermal Sensors in different fieldsApplications of Thermal Sensors in different fields

    Steel and Metals ApplicationsSteel and Metals Applications

    zz The Steel Industry was one of the first to useThe Steel Industry was one of the first to usetemperature sensors for automatic processtemperature sensors for automatic processcontrol and QA measurements.control and QA measurements.

    zz The extent of temperature sensor use in steelThe extent of temperature sensor use in steelmills and process plants is quite large.mills and process plants is quite large.

    zz Virtually all kinds are used, ranging from liquidVirtually all kinds are used, ranging from liquid--inin--glass thermometers in the testing and QA labsglass thermometers in the testing and QA labsto networked infrared lineto networked infrared line--measuring sensorsmeasuring sensors

    called "line scanners" and computercalled "line scanners" and computer--linkedlinkedthermal imaging versions of areathermal imaging versions of area--measuringmeasuringinfrared thermometers for detecting slag on theinfrared thermometers for detecting slag on thestream of liquid steel poured from a meltingstream of liquid steel poured from a melting

    vessel into a transfer ladle.vessel into a transfer ladle.

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    Environmental Temperatures around theEnvironmental Temperatures around thePlanetPlanet

    zz

    The world and the various environmental factorsThe world and the various environmental factorsthat exist are regularly probed, prodded,that exist are regularly probed, prodded,surveyed and reported on in terms of weathersurveyed and reported on in terms of weather

    reports, global warming (or cooling) phenomenareports, global warming (or cooling) phenomenaand more.and more.

    zz The sea surface temperature (SST) is monitoredThe sea surface temperature (SST) is monitored

    from satellites and ships at sea. Land andfrom satellites and ships at sea. Land andatmosphere temperatures are similarly reportedatmosphere temperatures are similarly reportedand recorded. It seems to be an extensive use ofand recorded. It seems to be an extensive use oftemperature sensors of all types (satellites, usetemperature sensors of all types (satellites, usenonnon--contact sensor to read the earth surface).contact sensor to read the earth surface).

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    Medical Temperature Sensors and TheirMedical Temperature Sensors and TheirUsesUses

    zz The fever thermometer is still in abundant supplyThe fever thermometer is still in abundant supply

    and still the second most frequent test usedand still the second most frequent test used(after a hand on the forehead) to indicate the(after a hand on the forehead) to indicate thepresence of an infection in the human body bypresence of an infection in the human body by

    noting an elevation in body temperature.noting an elevation in body temperature.zz Human and animal body temperatures are soHuman and animal body temperatures are so

    important to the well being of warm bloodedimportant to the well being of warm blooded

    animals, that the nominal body temperatureanimals, that the nominal body temperatureindicated by a fever thermometer or similarindicated by a fever thermometer or similardevice, is used as one of the vital signs routinelydevice, is used as one of the vital signs routinely

    monitored as an indicator of a state of a person'smonitored as an indicator of a state of a person'sor animal's health.or animal's health.

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    Infrared Radiation Thermometer ApplicationsInfrared Radiation Thermometer ApplicationsRepositoryRepository

    zz

    Infrared radiation thermometers measureInfrared radiation thermometers measure

    temperature without contact. The object beingtemperature without contact. The object being

    measured essentially broadcasts informationmeasured essentially broadcasts information

    about its temperature all the time. The physicsabout its temperature all the time. The physicsbehind that broadcasting is called Planck's Lawbehind that broadcasting is called Planck's Lawof Thermal Radiation. Some thermal imagersof Thermal Radiation. Some thermal imagers

    also measure temperature and, despite the factalso measure temperature and, despite the factthat they measure temperature in the same waythat they measure temperature in the same way

    as spot radiation thermometers.as spot radiation thermometers.

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    Special Sensors for Cryogenic TemperaturesSpecial Sensors for Cryogenic Temperatures

    zz Many of the more commonly used temperatureMany of the more commonly used temperaturesensors are also used for work at cryogenicsensors are also used for work at cryogenictemperatures, e.g. most thermocouples,temperatures, e.g. most thermocouples,

    platinumplatinum RTDsRTDs, silicon diodes and special, silicon diodes and specialthermistorsthermistors. However, in the very low reaches of. However, in the very low reaches ofthe temperature scales, there are some uniquethe temperature scales, there are some unique

    measurements made.measurements made.zz Not only are they all very cold, but there areNot only are they all very cold, but there are

    situations when the temperature sensor issituations when the temperature sensor isimmersed in a strong magnetic field and/or aimmersed in a strong magnetic field and/or aradioradio--frequency field. This gives rise to a needfrequency field. This gives rise to a neednot only for sensors that can measure at very,not only for sensors that can measure at very,very low temperatures, but also sensors that arevery low temperatures, but also sensors that are

    not affected by the presence of a magnetic fieldnot affected by the presence of a magnetic fieldor a radioor a radio--frequency electromagnetic fieldfrequency electromagnetic field

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    Food Temperature Sensors and Their UsesFood Temperature Sensors and Their Uses

    zz

    The temperature of food plays a big role inThe temperature of food plays a big role inassuring that certain products are well enoughassuring that certain products are well enough

    cooked to kill harmful organisms like bacteria.cooked to kill harmful organisms like bacteria.

    Similarly, many foods, including cooked food,Similarly, many foods, including cooked food,become breeding grounds for other harmfulbecome breeding grounds for other harmfulorganisms iforganisms ifunrefrigeratedunrefrigerated too long or even iftoo long or even if

    left in a refrigerated environment for too long aleft in a refrigerated environment for too long atime.time.

    DevelopmentsDevelopments

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    DevelopmentsDevelopments

    zz Silicon micromachined infrared (IR) thermopileSilicon micromachined infrared (IR) thermopilesensors have expanding opportunities in a wide range ofsensors have expanding opportunities in a wide range of

    applications, such as consumer (e.g., ear thermometers,applications, such as consumer (e.g., ear thermometers,hair dryers, microwave ovens, air conditioners),hair dryers, microwave ovens, air conditioners),automotive (e.g., climate control, windshield deautomotive (e.g., climate control, windshield de--icing andicing andantianti--condensation systems, presence and positioncondensation systems, presence and position

    detection, air quality control/CO2 monitoring), anddetection, air quality control/CO2 monitoring), andinfraredinfrared--based gas detection.based gas detection.

    zz Silicon micromachined thermopiles are comprised ofSilicon micromachined thermopiles are comprised of

    numerous thermocouples, and generate a voltagenumerous thermocouples, and generate a voltageproportional to the object's incident infrared radiationproportional to the object's incident infrared radiationpower. Since every object emits IR radiation, which is apower. Since every object emits IR radiation, which is astrict function of its temperature, one can deduce thestrict function of its temperature, one can deduce the

    object's temperature from the thermopile's signal.object's temperature from the thermopile's signal.

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    zz

    The penetration of silicon micromachinedThe penetration of silicon micromachinedthermopiles and other IR thermal sensors (e.g.,thermopiles and other IR thermal sensors (e.g.,pyroelectric detectors) into highpyroelectric detectors) into high--volume, lowvolume, low--

    cost applications (e.g., consumer or automotive)cost applications (e.g., consumer or automotive)has been spearheaded by the availability of lesshas been spearheaded by the availability of lessexpensive optics, made of plastic molded mirrorsexpensive optics, made of plastic molded mirrorsor micromachined lenses.or micromachined lenses.

    zz Moreover, silicon micromachined thermopileMoreover, silicon micromachined thermopiletechnology is welltechnology is well--suited for highsuited for high--volume, lowvolume, low--

    cost applications. Siliconcost applications. Silicon--based thermopiles arebased thermopiles arefabricated via CMOS processes, which canfabricated via CMOS processes, which canachieve low cost by using microelectronics batchachieve low cost by using microelectronics batchfabrication techniques.fabrication techniques.

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    zz Thermopile sensors can sense static IR radiationThermopile sensors can sense static IR radiationand, therefore, can make static temperatureand, therefore, can make static temperature

    measurements without requiring a mechanicalmeasurements without requiring a mechanicalchopper.chopper.

    zz Compared to photonic detectors (which useCompared to photonic detectors (which use

    semiconductors, and are based on a change insemiconductors, and are based on a change inelectrical conductivity induced by incident IRelectrical conductivity induced by incident IRradiation), thermopiles purportedly offer nearlyradiation), thermopiles purportedly offer nearly

    constant sensitivity and specific detectivity overconstant sensitivity and specific detectivity overIR spectrum, which makes the thermopile aIR spectrum, which makes the thermopile a

    highly suitable detector for IR gas absorptionhighly suitable detector for IR gas absorptioninstruments.instruments.

    ConclusionConclusion

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    ConclusionConclusion

    zz Thermal sensors are very much useful inThermal sensors are very much useful in

    many industries because of the necessitymany industries because of the necessityof the temperature measurement.of the temperature measurement.

    zz This is still a developing field and we haveThis is still a developing field and we haveto explore a lot of things in thermalto explore a lot of things in thermalnanosensorsnanosensors..

    Nano Motion SensorsNano Motion Sensors

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    Nano Motion SensorsNano Motion Sensors

    zz IntroductionIntroduction

    zz

    Devices used to detectDevices used to detect nanoscalenanoscale motion andmotion andposition displacementposition displacement

    zz Typical DevicesTypical Devices

    zzAccelerometersAccelerometers detects change in acceleration indetects change in acceleration inx, y, and z planesx, y, and z planes

    zz GyrosGyros detects changes in pitch and yawdetects changes in pitch and yaw

    Interferometric AccelerometerInterferometric Accelerometer

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    Interferometric AccelerometerInterferometric Accelerometer

    Optical interferenceOptical interferencetransducertransducer

    Interdigital fingers attachedInterdigital fingers attachedto mass and supportto mass and support

    substrate are illuminatedsubstrate are illuminated

    MeasuresMeasures nanoscalenanoscale

    displacement by measuringdisplacement by measuringintensity of diffracted lightintensity of diffracted light

    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors FabricationFabrication

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    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors -- FabricationFabrication

    zz Thermal oxide grown andThermal oxide grown and

    patterned with 1patterned with 1 m of resistm of resistand plasma etched on deviceand plasma etched on devicelayer sidelayer side

    zz Device layer silicon is deepDevice layer silicon is deepreactive ion etched (DRIE) toreactive ion etched (DRIE) toBuried oxide layerBuried oxide layer

    This defines the fingers, springsThis defines the fingers, springsand massand mass

    http://www.media.mit.edu/nanoscale/pubs/JMEMS%20accel.pdf

    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors FabricationFabrication

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    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors -- FabricationFabrication

    zz Resist is stripped and waferResist is stripped and wafer

    is spun with 20is spun with 20 m of polyimidem of polyimide

    on device layer side then curedon device layer side then curedat 350at 350 C for 30 minutesC for 30 minutes

    zz Backside of wafer patternedBackside of wafer patternedwith 10with 10 m of resist, then exposedm of resist, then exposed

    oxide is removed in buffered oxideoxide is removed in buffered oxide

    etchant (BOE), then exposedetchant (BOE), then exposedhandle layer is etched down tohandle layer is etched down to

    the oxide layer to define the massthe oxide layer to define the mass

    http://www.media.mit.edu/nanoscale/pubs/JMEMS%20accel.pdf

    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors - FabricationFabrication

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    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors -- FabricationFabrication

    zz Backside thermal oxideBackside thermal oxide

    and exposed buried oxideand exposed buried oxideremovedremoved

    zz Polyimide etched away inPolyimide etched away in

    oxygen plasmaoxygen plasma

    http://www.media.mit.edu/nanoscale/pubs/JMEMS%20accel.pdf

    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors - ApplicationsApplications

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    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors --ApplicationsApplications

    zz Naval Research LaboratoryNaval Research Laboratory

    zz Fiber Optic Interferometric AccelerometersFiber Optic Interferometric Accelerometers

    zz Detection Limit: 5Detection Limit: 5--300300 nanonano--ggzz Low sensitivity to electromagnetic interferenceLow sensitivity to electromagnetic interference

    zz Used for navigation, exploration, and monitoringUsed for navigation, exploration, and monitoring

    http://www.nrl.navy.mil/techtransfer/fs.php?fs_id=S1

    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors -- ApplicationsApplications

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    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors --ApplicationsApplications

    zz ColibrysColibrys

    zz SiSi -- FlexFlexAccelerometerAccelerometerzz UsesUses

    zz Detecting seismic reflectionsDetecting seismic reflections

    in oil and gas explorationsin oil and gas explorations

    zz Military surveillanceMilitary surveillance

    zz

    Mapping and recordingMapping and recordingearthquakesearthquakes

    http://www.appliedmems.cc/htmlmems/p_si_flex.html

    The Future of Motion Nano SensorsThe Future of Motion Nano Sensors

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    The Future of Motion Nano SensorsThe Future of Motion Nano Sensors

    zz Future efforts are being focused onFuture efforts are being focused onpackaging thepackaging the interferometricinterferometricaccelerometer within a volume of less thanaccelerometer within a volume of less than10 cm10 cm..

    http://www.media.mit.edu/nanoscale/research/accelerometer.html

    The Future of Motion Nano SensorsThe Future of Motion Nano Sensors

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    The Future of Motion Nano SensorsThe Future of Motion Nano Sensorszz CRADA with Lockheed MartinCRADA with Lockheed Martin

    zz Micro accelerometer with 3 translation, 3Micro accelerometer with 3 translation, 3

    rotational measurement axesrotational measurement axeszz Uses high aspect ratio electroplated copperUses high aspect ratio electroplated copper

    coils to levitate permanent magnets attachedcoils to levitate permanent magnets attached

    to a cubical proof massto a cubical proof mass

    http://www.inst.bnl.gov/MicroFabricationLab/Overview.html

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    ConclusionsConclusions

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    ConclusionsConclusions

    zz Due to technological constraints,Due to technological constraints,

    microscale sensors can no longer bemicroscale sensors can no longer beminiaturized in their same form.miniaturized in their same form.

    zz New technologies are being developed toNew technologies are being developed toexploit the quantum effects present inexploit the quantum effects present innanotechnology.nanotechnology.

    zz Nanosensors will continued to be exploredNanosensors will continued to be exploredfor these reasons.for these reasons.

    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors -- ReferencesReferences

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    Motion SensorsMotion Sensors ReferencesReferences

    zz [1][1] Loh, Nin C., Manalis, Scott R., Schmidt, Martin A. SubLoh, Nin C., Manalis, Scott R., Schmidt, Martin A. Sub--10 cm10 cmInterferometric Accelerometer with NanoInterferometric Accelerometer with Nano--g Resolution.g Resolution. Journal ofJournal ofMicroelectromechanical SystemsMicroelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 11, No. 3. June 2002, Vol. 11, No. 3. June 2002

    zz 2]2] http://www.appliedmems.cc/htmlmems/p_si_flex.htmlhttp://www.appliedmems.cc/htmlmems/p_si_flex.html , Applied, AppliedMEMS, Inc.MEMS, Inc.zz [3][3] http://www.chenyanghttp://www.chenyang--ism.com/CapaSensorPosi.htmism.com/CapaSensorPosi.htm,,

    Capacitive Sensors for Noncontact Position and DisplacementCapacitive Sensors for Noncontact Position and DisplacementMeasurements and NanoMeasurements and Nano--Positioning. ChenYangPositioning. ChenYang -- Sensors,Sensors,Magnetics, and Measurements ISM.Magnetics, and Measurements ISM.

    zz [4][4] http://www.inst.bnl.gov/MicroFabricationLab/Overview.htmlhttp://www.inst.bnl.gov/MicroFabricationLab/Overview.html ,,Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division.Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division.

    zz [5][5]

    http://www.media.mit.edu/nanoscale/research/accelerometer.htmlhttp://www.media.mit.edu/nanoscale/research/accelerometer.html ,,MIT Media Laboratory, Nanoscale Sensing.MIT Media Laboratory, Nanoscale Sensing.zz [6][6] http://http://www.nrl.navy.mil/techtransfer/fs.php?fs_idwww.nrl.navy.mil/techtransfer/fs.php?fs_id=S13=S13 , Naval, Naval

    Research Laboratory, Selected TechnologiesResearch Laboratory, Selected Technologies

    RF MEMS ReferencesRF MEMS References

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    RF MEMS ReferencesRF MEMS References

    zz Randy J. R, Hector J. D MEMS for RF/MicrowaveRandy J. R, Hector J. D MEMS for RF/MicrowaveWireless Applications: The next Wave, MicrowaveWireless Applications: The next Wave, Microwave

    Journal, 2001.Journal, 2001.zz RF MEMS Markets,RF MEMS Markets, www.threewww.three--fives.comfives.com

    zz Siebe B, Mark D S, Gerold S, MecroSiebe B, Mark D S, Gerold S, MecroElectromechanical Systems Move towardsElectromechanical Systems Move towardsStandardization, Coventor Inc.Standardization, Coventor Inc.

    zz Randy J.R, Hector J S, MEMS FOR RF/MICROWAVERandy J.R, Hector J S, MEMS FOR RF/MICROWAVEWIRELESS APPLICATIONS: THE NEXT WAVE,WIRELESS APPLICATIONS: THE NEXT WAVE,

    Coventor Inc.Coventor Inc.zz http://www.allaboutmems.com/memsapplicationshttp://www.allaboutmems.com/memsapplications--

    wireless.htmlwireless.html

    Optical SensorsOptical Sensors -- ReferencesReferences

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    Optical SensorsOptical Sensors ReferencesReferences

    zz 1.Optical Nanosensors: Tools for Intra1.Optical Nanosensors: Tools for Intra--cellularcellularAnalysisAnalysis

    zz By Dr. Jonathan AylottBy Dr. Jonathan Aylott

    zz 2. Advanced Biophotonics Biophotonics Sensors2. Advanced Biophotonics Biophotonics Sensors

    Sensors for Environmental and BiomedicalSensors for Environmental and BiomedicalApplications for Environmental andApplications for Environmental and

    Biomedical ApplicationsBiomedical Applications

    zz http://asia.stanford.edu/events/Spring04/slides/yhttp://asia.stanford.edu/events/Spring04/slides/yanSlides.pdfanSlides.pdf

    Biomedical SensorsBiomedical Sensors -- ReferencesReferences

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    Biomedical SensorsBiomedical Sensors ReferencesReferences

    zz 1. http://www.ginerinc.com/biological_sensors.htm1. http://www.ginerinc.com/biological_sensors.htm

    zz 2.http://www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/pres/2.http://www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/pres/11977.pdf11977.pdf

    zz 3. http://www.chipsbooks.com/sensbiom.htm3. http://www.chipsbooks.com/sensbiom.htm

    zz

    4.4. http://newslab.cs.wayne.edu/mobicomhttp://newslab.cs.wayne.edu/mobicom--cameracamera--ready.pdfready.pdf

    zz 5.http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev29_3/text/5.http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev29_3/text/

    biosens.htmbiosens.htmzz 6.http://www.transducers05.org/Short_Courses/6.http://www.transducers05.org/Short_Courses/

    course1 htmlcourse1 html